What is a dissertation abstract
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Dissertation proposals & writing dissertations: Abstract
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Dissertation proposals & writing dissertations: Abstract
business plan audio It is ar.com's goal to what is a dissertation abstract, enhance the development of electronic music by being the premier, comprehensive resource on the Internet for electronic music aficionados and producers. ar.com will democratize music, creation, distribution and consumption by: assisting artists in the production of their music by providing samples and legit writing sound fonts at no cost giving talented artists with few connections or resources the chance to distribute their music giving small record labels the chance to distribute their music online, increasing their viability allowing a fan of the dissertation abstract, music anywhere in the world instant access to a huge selection of releases from across the argumentative, globe at very reasonable prices. A formidable opportunity has arisen from the combination of the advent of the is a, Internet as a medium for music distribution, and the rise in popularity of a genre of music that is entirely composed with computer software - electronic music. Analysts predict that as much as 10% of music retailed in the U.S. in year 2002 will be purchased over the Internet 1 . Cyber Bullying Argumentative Essay. While sales (of this genre of music) account for less than 10 percent of overall music sales, the genre is growing. 2 This genre has been largely ignored by is a dissertation most mainstream retailers and labels because of its non-traditional song formats that make it non-conducive for radio play. It is audiorush.com inc.'s (ar.com's) plan to essay and reality, market the electronic genre of music via a web site (please see Appendix 6 on is a abstract page 35) whereby consumers will download the music to their PCs. As a convenience, ar.com will write the in schools, purchased songs to CD and is a abstract ship them directly to consumers who are not yet equipped to download music. The web site is legit essay, designed for maximum user-friendliness, unlike any other music site today. What Is A Dissertation Abstract. ar.com's unique web design allows users to browse the selection effortlessly, while being able to essay in mla, automatically hear excerpts from each virtual CD. Is A Abstract. The electronic genre of music is essay - imagination, ideal for online distribution for is a dissertation, the following reasons: There is a proliferation of artists worldwide within this genre because of the low price and legit essay writing company for students accessibility of the necessary equipment and software The music is dissertation, created on PC; artists simply send ar.com music files via the Internet from anywhere in the world Even very popular artists within this genre are accessible to negotiate contracts with since they tend to be self-distributed, or own small record labels Because of the genre's rapid evolution and its individualistic nature, aficionados constantly demand new material.
Ar.com is distinguished from its competitors in that: The site uses flash software, the latest generation in web site technology that allows users to view complex graphics and animations, and hear high-quality audio It uses a push marketing approach in writing for students that there is no need to download individual music files It combines the advantages of what is a CD-quality, piracy-protected downloadable music, custom-mixed shipped CDs, an electronica focus, event information, and musician resources. Essay Word Count. Music sales over the Internet are made possible by: Rapid penetration of high-bandwidth connections Compression software that renders music files 1/20 their original size with CD-quality sound The resulting combination allows the is a abstract, user to download a 45-min. CD in 11 minutes versus 36 hours Secured online credit card transaction processing. The market for electronic music is largely composed of University students. By Barbara Ascher Thesis. According to Jupiter Communications: College students, typically have free broadband access that makes digital distribution much more feasible, not to mention the highest penetration rate of what is a any online demographic. This audience is the first that will be compelled to purchase writable drive peripherals specifically for the digital delivery of commercial music. 3. Aficionados of electronic music are raised in the age of the World Wide Web, making Internet distribution in tune with their lifestyle. ar.com's management has the proven entrepreneurial and management skills to succeed in running this innovative, market-driven company.
They have the no uniforms, rare combination of top business school training and a strong connection with the what, electronic music market. Offer and Use of Proceeds. The estimated net proceeds to be received by ar.com from the sale of common shares, is $330,000 (including $30,000 of expected expenses associated with the offering). ar.com intends to allocate $50,000 of the net proceeds towards the purchase its web site design, and the balance, in the amount of $250,000, towards funding salaries and working capital. The investor will receive 10% of the on compassion ascher thesis, common shares in exchange. The following table sets forth the capitalization of dissertation ar.com as at the dates indicated, before and after giving effect to the issue of common shares contemplated hereby. after giving effects to the Common shares. Ownership of Common Shares. As at April 30, 1999, on a pro forma basis, before the issue of common shares being offered, the ownership of ar.com's common shares will be as follows: Three exit strategies are possible through which investors should be able to realize on their investment: with the accumulation of substantial cash flow, dividend payments could repatriate the investment in view of the rapid growth anticipated for the downloadable segment of the music industry, it is entirely possible that a company wanting to capture ar.com's market penetration would acquire ar.com should future public equity markets react as current markets, an essay word include, initial public offering of ar.com's common shares, coupled with the offering of the investors shares, could provide an extremely lucrative exit route for investors. Summary Financial Information. Dissertation Abstract. 1 Jupiter Communications, Music Industry and the Internet, p.5.
2 Techno Tackles the Net, Niall McKay and Christopher Jones, 3 Jupiter Communications, Music Industry and the Internet, September 1998, p.9.
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Opposing Viewpoints Essays and Research Papers. practiced and combined their actor training methods, specifically Suzuki training and Anne Bogart’s area of expertise and system of creating theatre: the . Viewpoints training. She has also co-written a book which identifies and what, outlines the primary Viewpoints , which acts as a practical training guide about theatre-making based on format 2010 the adaptation of the Viewpoints training system by herself and co-author Tina Landau. Characteristics of her work: Anne Bogart was highly interested in creating bold new productions. Actor , Anne Bogart , Outline of theatre 1474 Words | 5 Pages. Old Earth vs Young Earth DB 1 Completed.
line with the majority? It is my belief that only when an what is a dissertation abstract, individual obtains all relevant facts available to them pertaining to a situation can they form a . On Compassion By Barbara Thesis. viewpoint that is not only reliable and accurate, but will also weather scrutiny and opposition. I believe that God is the Divine Creator of is a abstract all things. That being said, I also held the - imagination and reality viewpoint that while the Bible is always true and that modern science oftentimes will contradict Scripture, there must be a loophole or common ground in what dissertation, which both. Creationism , Empirical , Evidence 1067 Words | 4 Pages.
BSHS 311 Week 5 Paper on Personal Model of Helping. Personal Model of Helping Write a 1,100- to cyber bullying essay, 1,800-page paper on dissertation your personal model of in mla format 2010 helping. Is A Abstract. Incorporate learning from this course and discuss . how and on compassion by barbara thesis, why you have, at is a dissertation abstract, this point in your development, formed your viewpoints . Include: How and why you formed this viewpoint Your view of helping The relationship between the clinician and the participant Techniques or approaches to essay include, change A coherent model that is consistent, shows adequate understanding of the. Anne Bogart , Das Model , Multiculturalism 445 Words | 3 Pages. obtain there own opinions, usually do not realize that other people might not have the same stance as them, and that their opinions might have actually been . formed very logically. More often than not, there are two or maybe even three generalized viewpoints about any given topic.
An author who is abstract trying to use comparison as effectively as possible will usually broadcast his or her own opinion to as large of an audience as possible by presenting the two general, but explicitly different ideas of the. Cesare Borgia , Florence , Literature 1175 Words | 4 Pages. to write a sample essay, as everyone is studying different texts. But here is the bread and butter of it all. Essay In Mla Format. In essence, you will be asked to write . along the what dissertation following essay titles (modes of comparison): - cultural context - vision and viewpoint - theme or issue as explored in no uniforms, 3 texts. Is A Dissertation. Usually 2 of 3 come up every year. This is an artificial division in terms of essay titles. You will end up writing about similar things in each of these essay, just taking a different angle each time. Comparison , Comparison of text editors , Linguistics 705 Words | 3 Pages. APPENDIX 2 CBRN Threat Conditions To 501st SBDE CBRN TACSOP FSOP Sample. (5) conditions reflecting indicators and probability of in schools enemy CBRNE munitions employment.
The MEB directed minimum protective actions are included for each . threat level. THREATCON White 1. Probability of attack: Negligible. 2. Definition: The opposing force does not possess CB defense equipment, is not trained in CB defense or employment and does not possess the capability to employ CB agents or systems nor will they most probably gain access to is a dissertation abstract, CB agents. Writing For Students. 3. Enemy indicators: None. 4. Recommended. Force , Opposing force , Personal protective equipment 988 Words | 5 Pages. The House on what Mango Street and I Felt a Funeral in My Brain. felt a Funeral in my Brain” by Emily Dickinson provides concepts of insanity in different perspectives. Clearly different forms of reality, the author’s . irony are similar.
Two distinctive settings appear as visuals of the event taken at - imagination and reality, different viewpoints . There are many opinions of the what is a exact theme for these particular stories. Bullying Argumentative Essay. One may say that “The House on what dissertation Mango Street” shows sympathy and hope. Word Count Include Title. Others may argue that “I felt a Funeral in my Brain” indicates insanity and grievance. Literally. Audience , Audience theory , Emily Dickinson 735 Words | 2 Pages. Phi-105 Week Five Checkpoint - Moral Character View Points.
CheckPoint: Moral Character View Points PHI/105: Intro. To Philosophy Due Date: 10/05/2011 Instructor: Geth Allison Moral Character . View Points Referencing week four discussion concerning moral character, one viewpoint my discussion group overall agreed upon including me is that habits develop from repeatedly doing something and can reflect on a person of good or bad moral character. For example, if a child was taught to what is a abstract, say yes sir while growing up by the time. English-language films , Ethics , Habit 428 Words | 2 Pages. Opposing Viewpoints- Vegetarianism. ? Opposing Viewpoints When it comes to viewpoints there will always be an opposing side.
You must . develop your strongly focused opinion with examples and/or reasons. - Imagination. In order for a reader to accept your side you must use clear, powerful, and direct language to is a dissertation abstract, really capture them. Express your opinion clearly, and essay and reality, then base it on is a dissertation factual, researched or first-hand information. Hard facts and first-hand experience are so convincing to readers. The way to essay - imagination, convince your audience to accept your opinion. Diets , Health , Health care 1012 Words | 4 Pages. ?Chris Lucas Opposing Viewpoints 11/20/2014 Erika Nicholas When you hear the words low prices it is is a dissertation hard not to think of . Wal-Mart. The company that revolutionized discount shopping. But what happens behind the scenes? How is it that the world’s largest retail chain can offer so many deals?
In the by barbara ascher last 20 years the anti-Walmart campaign seems to continuously be on the minds of many. Sebastian Mallaby and Karen Olsson share radically different views on the ethics of the Wal-Mart Corporation. In “Up. Discount store , Supermarket , Union busting 1238 Words | 4 Pages. ?Madison Martin CORE 101-19 10/14/14 Opposing Viewpoints Essay Everyone has their own opinion. What Is A Dissertation Abstract. The person sitting next to you . can have an entirely different outlook on something you do.
Having different opinions is include what makes for interesting arguments. Especially an author and a critic… like Steven Johnson and Dana Stevens. In the article “Watching TV Makes You Smarter”, Steven Johnson believes that TV does make you smarter, while in her article “Thinking Outside the is a dissertation Idiot Box” Dana Stevens. Audience , Audience theory , Critical thinking 1550 Words | 5 Pages. Mandatory Drug Sentences Opposing Viewpoints. although prohibition with alcohol was overturned. References Merlo, Alida and Benekos, Peter. (1999) “Prison over crowding creates a Need for Prison . Essay Word Include Title. Alternatives”.
Article 15. Opposing viewpoints on Prisons. What Abstract. Risley, David. (2000) “Mandatory Sentences are an in schools, Effective Strategy in the War on Drugs”. Is A. Article 2. Opposing viewpoints on Mandatory Drug Sentencing. Mandatory sentencing , Prison 854 Words | 3 Pages. Global Warming Opposing Viewpoints Paper. health. One thing that is essay - imagination and reality certain the debate over global warming will continue.
Works Cited Moore, Thomas. “ Global Warming Caused by what is a dissertation, Air Pollution . Essay Writing For Students. Will Not Harm Human Health.” Is Air Pollution a Serious Threat to Health? 2005. Gale Opposing Viewpoints in Context. Web. 17 June 2011 Patz, Jonathan and dissertation abstract, R. Sari Kovat’s “ Global Warming Caused by thesis, Air Pollution Will Harm Human Health.” Is Air Pollution a Serious Threat to Health? 2005 Web. 17 June 2011.
Climate change , Global warming , Heat wave 1196 Words | 4 Pages. Mentor: English Department Introduction to literary theory Viewpoints in literature . What Is A Abstract. (Essay) Sarajevo, February 2010 A viewpoint in on compassion by barbara ascher, literature is the point of view from which the what is a dissertation narrator tells us the story. The basic division of viewpoints is external and internal viewpoints . External viewpoint is used if the narrator is not a part of the story himself, but is rather telling us about other people who are participants. Fiction , First person , Grammatical person 850 Words | 3 Pages. Opposing Viewpoints: Same-Sex Marriage Equality. Opposing Viewpoints Paper: Same-Sex Marriage Equality Introduction If you had a child that grew up to love someone of the same . sex, and wanted you to essay - imagination and reality, acknowledge their love for abstract each other by essay count include title, being at their wedding, would you? Unfortunately, many Americans would sadly answer no to what dissertation, this question even when it involves their own child and his or her biological makeup. Marriage has been traditionally viewed as a religious and legal commitment between a man and a woman, as well as the ultimate expression. Civil union , Homosexuality , Marriage 1521 Words | 4 Pages.
Gardasil: A Controversial Vaccine for Cancer? When you ask people to think of causes of cancer, there are a few things that most will say. The most . common thoughts to essay, hear include genetics and heredity sources, lifestyle choices like tanning or smoking, and just plain random chance. One cause that most people won’t think of, however, is dissertation STDs. Cyber Bullying Essay. Sexually transmitted diseases come with a host of problems, but usually cancer isn’t one that is attributed. Certain types of cervical and other.
Cervical cancer , Gardasil , HPV vaccine 1873 Words | 5 Pages. joking. They were kids who were saying things that they have over heard about in their household or have been taught growing up. Stereotyping is dissertation still an on compassion ascher thesis, . issue in society today and I feel as though everyone stereotypes. There are many different viewpoints from every individual in the world from their race, background, gender, as well as their age groups.
According to Joi Downing, stereotyping is formed many different ways and for many different reasons. Joi states that “stereotyping is formed to. African American , Stereotype , Stereotypes 677 Words | 4 Pages. Opposing viewpoints in Context: Renewable ENergy. ? Opposing Viewpoints in Context – Renewable Energy Opposing Viewpoints in Context – . Renewable Energy There has been debating among people in the United States on what how the best energy supply. Essay Count Include. Some people suggests that the United States should in fact decrease its dependency on what oil and begin to legit, invest in an alternative energy source like renewable energy, such as wind and solar power – Go green. Others have contended saying that converting over to what is a abstract, a new power source would not only be expensive. Alternative energy , Energy development , Film 578 Words | 2 Pages. Writing Workshop #7: Using Opposing Documents in DBQs The goal (though not absolute requirement) is always to try to use all of the . documents in argumentative essay, a DBQ. But students are often unsure of is a dissertation abstract how to essay, use documents that do not support – and may actually contradict – their argument.
The following techniques will help you figure out what dissertation how to do that. Count Include Title. Sample Question (DBQ #7 in back of text): Historians have often portrayed the capitalists who shaped post-Civil War industrial America as either admirable. Andrew Carnegie , Carnegie Hall , Carnegie Mellon University 1346 Words | 5 Pages. General vision and is a, viewpoint Subject matter that reveals a bright or dark outlook In the texts on my comparative course we find subject . matter that is either largely depressing or optimistic, and essay - imagination and reality, thus suggests to us authors and texts whose outlook on life is what dissertation largely pessimistic or optimistic. Lies Of Silence: The subject matter of LS reveals a dark outlook. Format. The central point of the text is on the dominance of the dissertation IRA in - imagination, Northern Ireland, as they attempt to use the what dissertation influence of a hotel manager.
Ballet , Billy Elliot , Billy Elliot the Musical 1805 Words | 5 Pages. The Federalist Viewpoint One of the major aspects of politics is on compassion thesis decision making. Politicians play a direct role in our lives by . deciding what is what is a dissertation abstract best for the majority of the people. The common goal between all politicians is to make as many people happy while still thinking about word, what is best in the long run. It is is a impossible to essay for students, please every single person in what abstract, this country because we are all very different people. By Barbara Ascher Thesis. The United States of American is made up of different socioeconomic backgrounds. Constitution , Democracy , Executive 1431 Words | 4 Pages. Opposing View Euthanasia and Physician Assisted Suicide (PAS) both involve the abstract practice . of deliberately ending another’s life to put an end to pain and essay count, suffering. More often than not these practices are performed by a doctor on a consenting terminal patient. But is what is a dissertation abstract this the right thing to do? It wasn’t too long ago when having diabetes or smallpox were considered to be potentially fatal, with no cure or a way to manage either disease.
However. Death , Euthanasia , Medical ethics 1036 Words | 3 Pages. The Opposing Viewpoints of essay word count include Slavery in the United States around the 1400s. a positive good. What side did each side marshall in support of the case?
The opposing viewpoints of slavery in the nation by what dissertation, . the 1400’s were very defined and profound. Morals, intentions, and motivational factors all came into play with the controversy. Furthering the development of the nation was quite difficult with the northern abolitionists and southern proslavery advocates voicing their different viewpoints . Abolitionists Stand: The abolitionists were mostly northern citizens. They. Abolitionism , Abraham Lincoln , Agriculture 674 Words | 2 Pages. 1928 and Choices Narrative Viewpoint.
narrative viewpoint Jan 12 Explore how Martin creates a sense of the drama and chaos of the attack on the house in pages 119-127. In your . answer you should consider: • Martin's language choices • narrative viewpoint May 11 Explore how Martin uses the first person narrative perspective to suggest Manon's attitudes. Choose two or three sections from the novel to no uniforms in schools, analyse in dissertation abstract, detail. In your answer you should consider: • Martin's language choices • narrative viewpoint Jan 11 Explore. 1918 , 1922 , 1928 565 Words | 3 Pages. Snow Child: The Feminist Viewpoint. important person to legit for students, the Count at the time was the child which is is a dissertation abstract why she was covered and the Countess was bare. This is a symbol of male patriarchy that . women are homogenous and include, ‘toys’. In conclusion, the Snow Child is is a dissertation a story that supports feminist’s viewpoints of women being conformed to essay format, the actions of men. They are made to accept that men have more power over is a dissertation them and there is not much they can do about it. . Comes , Count , Count von Count 920 Words | 3 Pages. ? Manigault Conflicting Viewpoints Essay M. Lakeisha Manigault Professor Sharon Thomas Strayer University October 19, 2014 Conflicting . ViewPoints Peter Elbow’s introduction to “The Believing Game” and “The Doubting Game” is undeniably the easiest way for anyone to acclimate themselves into the art and the concept of critical thinking.
Some of us are already predisposed to unconsciously operate in some of the principles explained by Mr. Elbow and use it daily. While others of us had no idea. Cannabis , Critical thinking , Law 1043 Words | 5 Pages. ? Ethical and Legal Viewpoints Geneva Moore Grand Canyon University Abstract Professional counselors are always . confronted with “ethical dilemma” that arises from conflicts in essay in mla format 2010, maintaining standards of right or wrong in specific counseling practice. What. Therefore, counselors must be alerted to the professional ethical standard and use it as a guidance in rendering services to the clients. This paper will discuss volunteerism; the 2010 legal issues that can surface from volunteering. Business ethics , Ethical code , Ethics 748 Words | 5 Pages. Critical Issue Analysis of Opposing Viewpoints on Aborting a Handicapped Fetus. Critical Issue Analysis of Opposing Viewpoints On Aborting a Handicapped Fetus The continued debate between anti-abortion . What. lobbyists and pro-choice activists regarding the ethics of abortion has ensured a steady stream of written opinions. In Mla Format 2010. With fairly recent advances in prenatal screening, doctors can detect whether a fetus is what abstract healthy or not and format 2010, more abortions are being performed due to this awareness.
In turn, the issue of whether aborting a handicapped fetus is ethical or not is being much. Abortion , Abortion debate , Fertility 804 Words | 2 Pages. Classical Management Viewpoint of the Worker. Q11 a The classical management writers had a particular viewpoint of the worker. Discuss what this was. . [12 marks] a The evolution of management has been in existence since the what is a construction of massive structures such as the pyramids in Egypt in the ancient days and the Great Wall of China during the no uniforms in schools Qing Dynasty period.
It is is a abstract thus evident how important the role of essay management and its application is globally and through the passage of time. The emergence. 21st century , Formal organization , Management 1901 Words | 6 Pages. indicates that his success is inspiring black youth and states quotes from black young voters: “It’s our time to shine.” and “It's a great time for Blacks in . America.” The overall style of the cover story is informal, positive and informative. Its viewpoint reflects the what dissertation abstract pride that the - imagination and reality JET magazine’s black audience of the magazine is what dissertation feeling at seeing Sen. Obama’s success. The Network Journal’s May 2008 cover has the title of the magazine printed in large, bold and essay include, red text block with white formal. African American , Barack Obama , Black people 967 Words | 3 Pages.
Opposing Gun Control Laws Eng. / 102 May 30, 2012 Opposing Gun Control Laws Watch out! Murder and mayhem is surely on the . horizon as gun control laws are being dropped, and what, penalties could be imposed on in mla format those who do not comply. The debate over the use of guns in the United States can be traced back as far as 1791. The United States has the greatest percentage of private firearm ownership in the world. Most people do not just own one gun they own two or more guns.
The average citizen comes to. Cannon , Firearm , Gun 1904 Words | 5 Pages. ?In the light of the above statement, compare the general vision and what abstract, viewpoint in at least two texts you have studied in your comparative . course. Throughout my study of Wuthering Heights by Emily Bronte, Sive by John B.Keane and Casablanca directed by Michael Curtiz, there was no doubt that each text presented me with an outlook on life which shaped my general vision and include title, view point to either one of positivity or in many cases, negativity. In all three texts which I have studied, the author’s use. Catherine Earnshaw , Emily Bronte , Heathcliff 1674 Words | 4 Pages. Miller 1 Into The Wild Two Viewpoints Into The Wild is the story of a young man Christopher McCandless (Emile Hirsch) who is trying to dissertation abstract, break . away from the norm’s of society and the overbearing influence that his parents try to have in his life.
Christopher graduates from Emory University and has the grades to go to cyber bullying essay, adventure of a lifetime, tramping his was across the western United States with the final goal of his adventure, living alone in the wild of Alaska. Critics Roger Ebert of the is a dissertation Chicago. Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor , Chicago Sun-Times , Christopher McCandless 1063 Words | 3 Pages. Opposing Arguments: Abortion Introduction: Why abortion is immoral by Don Marquis is the start of two discussions pertaining to whether . abortion should be acceptable in our modern society. Cyber Bullying Argumentative Essay. The argument, Marquis makes, is that abortion actually deprives the what is a fetus’s “future-like-ours.” Many philosophers support Marquis’ belief by arguing that fetuses have their own possibilities; thus, killing fetuses is absolutely wrong (Marquis, 105). Nevertheless, there are also other philosophers who criticize. Abortion , Abortion debate , Developmental biology 2214 Words | 6 Pages. Name: Course: Professor: Date: Personal ethical viewpoint My seven years of working in HMO as a marketing manager has made me gain a lot of . skills and experience.
Since my arrival, I have interacted with the company’s employees at a personal level and inspiration has worked both ways. The employees have been a source of inspiration to me in as much as I have been to them. On Compassion By Barbara Ascher. My top notch in dissertation, the marketing area has given me the ability to be able to format, plan and put business strategies into execution. I. Librarian , Literacy , Marketing 843 Words | 3 Pages. Opposing Gay Marriage Nearly seventy percent of people in is a dissertation abstract, the United States oppose gay marriage. There are a lot of reasons why gay marriage . should be opposed. Include Title. Marriage is an what dissertation abstract, institution between one man and one woman.
Marriage is for procreation (The Divine Institution of Marriage). Gay and lesbian couples would represent a profound change in the meaning of in mla format marriage. I strongly disagree with same sex marriage because it is against the laws of nature, society and religion. What Is A. First let’s look at. AIDS , Bible , Gay 1329 Words | 4 Pages. Opposing Perspectives and Solutions of Distracted Driving.
naturalistic argument by taking statistics found from researchers and trusts their results as facts. Word Include. He is able to conclude that built-in technological . devices allow drivers to keep their attention in what dissertation abstract, front of them, similar to tuning a radio. An opposite ascher viewpoint is taken by Reynolds, who argues against the data that is is a dissertation obtained by traffic accident studies. He offers three separate forms of evidence as to why these results cannot be trusted. And Reality. First, the people that are used for these studies are aware of. Automotive industry , Cellular network , Cigarette 934 Words | 3 Pages. the perspectives of reporters at what is a, CBS and Senator Joseph McCarthy in essay count, viewing McCarthy's actions as he, takes charge… of Communist infiltration. Just as . Hughes' relationship with Plath raised questions from is a dissertation public opinion, but he dismisses their viewpoints through his emotional poetry.
Clooney uses Edward R. Murrow to expose Senator McCarthy as a fear monger of communism in his television segment, See it Now, as he presents his story from by barbara ascher thesis a low angle shot. This presents Murrow in what, a powerful position. 1908 births , Edward R. Murrow , George Clooney 997 Words | 3 Pages. Opposing The Death Penalty Taking this course has made me ponder on many issues which I never deemed worthy of no uniforms essay my thoughts. I always . considered the death penalty one of dissertation those things which I never had to concern myself with. First of all I'm not planning to commit any vial crimes, and I don't think anyone I care about has those plans either.
Secondly, I've never been conscious or concerned with the likes of criminals. Essay Word Include. When we began speaking on the subject, I thought we were only going to. Capital punishment , Capital punishment in the United States , Crime 1103 Words | 3 Pages. Opposing Forces Civil Rights Movement. Opposing forces When looking back on the Sixties, one of the most dominating themes of that period was the Civil Rights Movement. The quest . for civil rights had been started long ago, when the black man was freed from the bonds of slavery.
Over a hundred years later, the is a problem of blacks being treated as second-class citizens still persisted. What could be done to correct the present situation? Some, both blacks and whites, believed that non-violence was the only means to legit, achieve civil rights. Black people , Black Power , Black pride 2317 Words | 7 Pages. There are many distinct differences between the northern and southern settlers that came from Europe to inhabit the new world. Ranging form religious to . economic backgrounds, these differences eventually lead to opposing viewpoints on slavery. The Protestants, mainly the Puritans, settled the north.
Their strong religious convictions stemming from dissertation religious persecution in essay in mla 2010, England and lack of a long growing season lead to an independence from slavery. The southern parts of the colonies were settled. Anglicanism , Bishop , Catholic Church 594 Words | 2 Pages. An Inspector Calls: Issues and Priestly's Viewpoint. An Inspector Calls: Issues and Priestly's Viewpoint 22nd March 1997 Martin Howitt 11W Discuss some of the issues raised in An . Inspector Calls and show how Priestly expresses his own viewpoint in abstract, the play. The play is set in the 1912 on an English street scene in the evening. Legit Writing. The plot of An Inspector Calls is about a police inspector who interrupts an elegant engagement dinner party to question the what abstract family and ascher, their guests about an unsuspected suicide of a young working-class girl. An Inspector Calls , Family , J. B. Priestley 1157 Words | 4 Pages.
? Interview with the Opposition: Gay Marriage I chose to use this assignment as an opportunity to discuss my viewpoints on gay marriage . with my wife. Abstract. We tend to agree on most other subjects and really feed off of essay - imagination and reality each other’s opinions and beliefs, so I thought maybe this assignment would help shine some light on why exactly we disagree. What Dissertation. And maybe more importantly, which one of us is right (ha-ha-ha). I think it’s important to mention that we both come from very similar backgrounds. Having. Bible , Biblical studies , Criticism of the format Bible 638 Words | 2 Pages. Same-sex marriages: Viewpoints and Theories.
question this article poses is, should same-sex couples have the what dissertation abstract same rights to cyber essay, marriage as opposite-sex couples? There are many different . Dissertation. viewpoints and theories related to this ethical dilemma, which include egoists, social contract theory (Thomas Hobbes), consequentialist and utilitarian beliefs, Immanuel Kant and deontological ethics, and virtue ethics. Each viewpoint and system of belief differs from another, yet they all make very strong, convincing points. Egoists only essay, do what would be in their. Deontological ethics , Ethics , Gay 1730 Words | 5 Pages. VIEWPOINT NEUTRALITY AND GOVERNMENT SPEECH. VIEWPOINT NEUTRALITY AND GOVERNMENT SPEECH Joseph Blocher* Abstract: Government speech creates a paradox at the heart of the is a dissertation abstract First . Amendment. - Imagination. To satisfy traditional First Amendment tests, the government must show that it is not discriminating against a viewpoint . And yet if the what abstract government shows that it is condemning or supporting a viewpoint , it may be able to invoke the government speech defense and thereby avoid constitutional scrutiny altogether. Government speech doctrine therefore rewards. First Amendment to the U.S. Constitution , First Amendment to the United States Constitution , Fourteenth Amendment to essay company for students, the United States Constitution 31617 Words | 108 Pages.
should deviate from the goal of maximizing profit to take others responsibilities that help to dissertation, promote the include title total welfare of the whole society. I will first . discuss these two viewpoints and give my opinions on such reasons then, finally, draw up my conclusion on CSR. What Is A. Discussion of the Friedman point of view: From the Friedman viewpoint , businessmen who seriously take the CRS such as fighting poverty, avoiding pollution… are “unwitting puppets of the intellectual forces that have been undermining the legit writing company basis. Corporate social responsibility , Government , Milton Friedman 3078 Words | 8 Pages. Difference between Classical Approach to Management and Behavioral Viewpoint. DIFFERENCE BETWEEN CLASSICAL APPROACH TO MANAGEMENT BEHAVIOURAL VIEWPOINT : The classical view point is all about the . different-different methods and what is a abstract, different ways for manage work and organizations more effectively. The classical view point includes the essay three types of approaches such as : 1. Is A Dissertation Abstract. SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT 2. BUREAUCRATIC MANAGEMENT 3. ADMINISTRATIVE MANAGEMENT These approaches are related to mostly at essay count, the top level of management which include systematic and scientific analysis. Abraham Maslow , Fundamental human needs , Management 1302 Words | 5 Pages.
The contrast in viewpoints between Huffington Post and Fox News in general could not be more pronounced, as each endeavor to cater to specific . viewpoints ; in the case of Huffington Post more Liberal, and Fox News more Conservative leaning. Is A Abstract. However because this story relates to a proposal that is being put together by both Lindsey Graham from the Republican Party, and Chuck Schumer of the Democratic Party the content on Fox News is somewhat more centrist than the usual fare, to emphasize the no uniforms in schools essay working. Democratic Party , Human migration , Illegal immigration 551 Words | 2 Pages. Opposing Embryonic Stem Cell Research. Opposing Embryonic Stem Cell Research Stem cell research has a lot to offer in is a dissertation abstract, the way of treatments, or even cures to essay, some devastating . What Dissertation. diseases that humans face. However, research using human embryonic stem cells that can only be obtained by on compassion ascher thesis, killing a human embryo can not be condoned or paid for by the United States Government. Federal funding needs to focus on the adult stem cell research that has already been proven successful and what is a abstract, can be obtained without destroying a human life. Essay Format. Ethics. Adult stem cell , Biotechnology , Cell 1763 Words | 5 Pages. Review Two Articles in the Opposing Viewpoints in Context Database in the University Library.
Read One for Promoting Renewable Energy and One Opposed to Renewable Energy. Write a 350- to 700-Word Essay in dissertation abstract, Which You Do the Following: Review two articles in the Opposing Viewpoints in Context database in the University Library. Read one for promoting renewable . energy and one opposed to renewable energy. Write a 350- to 700-word essay in which you do the essay following: Summarize the issue. Is A Abstract. State your position on the issue. Explain the perceptual blocks and habits that hinder your thinking when looking at the opposing view and defending your own view. Describe what you can do to overcome those perceptual blocks and habits. Barack Obama , Coal , Fossil fuel 445 Words | 2 Pages.
2010. Gale Opposing Viewpoints In Context. Web. - Imagination And Reality. 25 Apr. 2012. What Dissertation. Wilson, Lee. Video Games Are Useful Educational Tools. Essay. Media . Violence. Ed. Louise I. Gerdes. San Diego: Greenhaven Press, 2004.
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Jefferson Goes Against His Own Philosophy: Louisiana Purchase The Louisiana Purchase was the cyber argumentative acquisition by is a dissertation, the United States of America in 1803 of bullying . Is A Dissertation Abstract. 828,000 square miles of France's claim to the territory of Louisiana. The Louisiana territory encompassed all or part of 15 current U.S. states and two Canadian provinces. At the time, the purchase faced domestic opposition because it was thought to be unconstitutional. Although Thomas Jefferson agreed that the count title U.S. Constitution did not contain. Federal government of the United States , Louisiana , Louisiana Purchase 716 Words | 2 Pages. Finding Out Personal Viewpoint by Means of Grammatical Features. Finding out personal viewpoint by means of is a dissertation grammatical features Cinthia E. Scholles Universidad Nacional del Litoral – UNaM Abstract . When expressing ideas a speaker or writer has to make the very personal decision to thesis, state his/her point of view subjectively or objectively, denying responsibility for what is being expressed.
The purpose of this paper is to identify and analyze the grammatical features used in a written text to express writer’s personal point of view about what is said. It. Functional grammar , Grammar , Human 2003 Words | 6 Pages. GMFs have been on the market for dissertation a decade, and cyber argumentative, they were also twice as aware (33%) than opponents (17%) that approximately two-thirds of foods in what is a abstract, U.S. . markets contain some sort of GM crop. This information did not have a noticeable impact on the opposing group, although it did reinforce the views of the supportive group. Conclusion The profiles of those who support GMFs and essay, those who oppose GMFsshow opposite beliefs on all issues. Profile Comparison When those who oppose GMFs were informed about.
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Homosexuality: a Comparison of Western and Eastern Viewpoints. HOMOSEXUALITY: A COMPARISON OF WESTERN AND EASTERN VIEWPOINTS The purpose of this paper is to shed a positive light on homosexuality. . The paper will also look at how religion has shaped the views that people have regarding homosexuality. Essay Writing For Students. It will be seen that, for what is a the most part, Christianity in the West has encouraged people to on compassion by barbara ascher thesis, take a negative attitude on the subject. By contrast, the Eastern religion of Buddhism has taught people to have a more tolerant attitude toward homosexuality. . Bisexuality , Buddhism , Heterosexuality 2848 Words | 9 Pages.
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resume par Note liminaire : La présente traduction de Virgile fait partie de la Bibliotheca Classica Selecta (BCS) mais elle s'intègre aussi dans le vaste projet Du texte à l'hypertexte mis au point à la Faculté de Philosophie et Lettres de Louvain à l'initiative de Jean Schumacher. What Dissertation Abstract? Les possibilités de cette dernière réalisation sont multiples ; non seulement elle permet une lecture de l'oeuvre avec le texte latin et la traduction française en regard, mais elle donne également accès à un riche ensemble d'outils lexicographiques et statistiques très performants. 1. By Barbara Thesis? Junon écarte les Troyens d'Italie (1,12-80) 2. What Abstract? La tempête : les Troyens en péril (1, 81-123) 3. Ascher? Les Troyens accostent en Libye (1, 124-179) 4. What Is A Abstract? Énée se conduit en chef responsable (1, 180-222) 1. On Compassion Thesis? Vénus implore Jupiter (1, 223-253) 2. What Is A Dissertation Abstract? Jupiter prophétise la grandeur de Rome (1, 254-304) 3. For Students? Une inconnue informe Énée sur Didon (1, 305-368) 4. Abstract? L'inconnue écoute Énée et le rassure (1, 369-417) 1. In Mla? Carthage ville naissante (1, 418-449) 2. Dissertation Abstract? Le temple de Junon et les souvenirs de Troie (1, 450-493) 3. Essay - Imagination And Reality? Didon accueille les compagnons d'Énée (1, 494-578) 1. Is A Abstract? Didon accueille Énée (1, 579-642) 2. No Uniforms Essay? Vénus substitue Cupidon à Ascagne (1, 643-694) 3. What Is A? Didon prise au piège de Cupidon (1, 695-756).
Sujet de l'nide et invocation la muse. Les premiers vers, suivis d'une invocation à la Muse, présentent d'emblée le sujet de l'oeuvre : l'arrivée du Troyen Énée en Italie et les combats qu'il dut mener avant son installation dans le Latium ; bien que protégé par le destin, il fut longtemps la victime des dieux et de Junon en particulier (1, 1-11). Junon écarte les Troyens d'Italie (1, 12-80) Junon rêvait de la suprématie pour Carthage. On Compassion Thesis? Mais, connaissant les arrêts du destin, elle pressentait la victoire future de Rome, nouvelle Troie, sur Carthage (1, 12-22). Depuis longtemps hostile aux Troyens, pleine de rancoeur et de jalousie à l'égard de Pâris, de Dardanus et de Ganymède, elle malmenait sur la mer les exilés Troyens (1, 23-33). Irritée de les voir s'approcher de l'Italie et ressassant ses vieilles rancoeurs, évoquant la tempête soulevée par Pallas Athéna contre les Argiens et Ajax, se sentant humiliée et limitée dans son pouvoir, elle songe à déchaîner elle aussi une tempête contre les Troyens (1, 34-49). Aussitôt, Junon se rend auprès du dieu Éole, préposé par Jupiter à tenir les vents enchaînés dans de sombres cavernes et, flattant habilement le docile Éole, lui promettant une nymphe pour épouse en guise de récompense, elle le convainc de déchaîner une tempête (1, 50-80).
La tempête - Les Troyens en péril (1, 81-123) Un seul geste d'Éole libère les vents, déchaînant la tempête et les ouragans. What Dissertation? Les Troyens se sentent en péril et Énée est désespéré, regrettant de n'être pas mort à Troie, comme nombre de ses compagnons d'armes (1, 81-101). Le navire d'Énée est mis à mal; trois bateaux sont projetés sur des récifs, trois autres échouent dans des bas-fonds; Oronte et ses Lyciens sont engloutis avec leur navire; des naufragés surnagent; d'autres vaisseaux sont gravement endommagés (1, 102-123). Les Troyens accostent en Libye (1, 124-179) Neptune constatant la tempête provoquée par Junon reproche aux vents et à Éole d'avoir outrepassé leurs pouvoirs (1, 124-141). No Uniforms In Schools Essay? Puis, tel un héros pieux apaisant les passions d'un peuple révolté, il ramène le calme sur la mer, avant de reprendre sa course (1, 142-156). Les Troyens épuisés découvrent sur le rivage de Libye un endroit protégé où amarrer leurs bateaux (1, 157-169). What Is A Abstract? Énée et les rescapés de sept navires débarquent, s'installent sur la plage, vont récupérer dans les bateaux armes et vivres et s'activent à préparer un repas (1, 170-179). Énée se conduit en chef responsable (1, 180-222) Énée, s'inquiétant des autres bateaux de sa flottille, scrute en vain la mer mais est mis sur la trace d'une harde de cerfs. Essay? En chasseur expérimenté, il abat sept bêtes qu'il distribue aux sept équipages des navires rescapés (1, 180-194).
Il cherche ensuite à rendre courage à tous ses compagnons : il leur distribue le vin reçu en Sicile et, évoquant leurs épreuves passées, sans laisser paraître son angoisse, il leur parle de jours meilleurs, où Troie renaîtra (1, 195-209). Après un repas copieux sur la plage, partagés entre la crainte et l'espoir, tous évoquent les disparus. Abstract? Énée en particulier gémit sur le sort de ceux qu'il sait ou croit morts (1, 210-222). Vénus implore Jupiter (1, 223-253) Dans le ciel, Vénus implore son père en faveur des Troyens. No Uniforms In Schools Essay? Fine diplomate, elle flatte Jupiter, insiste sur la piété de ses protégés, lui rappelle ses promesses de faire naître des Troyens le peuple destiné à régner sur l'univers (1, 223-237). Elle compare les épreuves que leur inflige Junon au sort d'Anténor, un autre rescapé de Troie, établi en Illyrie (1, 238-253). Jupiter prophétise la grandeur de Rome (1, 254-304) Jupiter rassure Vénus sur le sort des Troyens et l'avenir d'Énée, puis entreprend de brosser un tableau de l'histoire de Rome avant sa fondation : guerre entre Troyens et Rutules ; fondation de Lavinium ; mort et divinisation d'Énée après trois ans ; règne d'Ascagne-Iule pendant trente ans ; fondation d'Albe la Longue ; dynastie albaine de race troyenne pendant trois cents ans ; naissance des jumeaux (1, 254-274). Il annonce ensuite la fondation de Rome ; l'empire universel de la nouvelle Troie, après la conquête romaine de la Grèce, présentée comme l'ultime vengeance des Troyens ; le revirement de Junon elle-même et enfin l'avènement d'Auguste-César, descendant des Troyens et instaurateur de la paix (1, 275-296). Il dépêche enfin à Carthage son messager Mercure, qui inspire à Didon et aux Carthaginois des sentiments bienveillants à l'égard des Troyens (1, 297-304). Une inconnue informe Énée sur Didon (1, 305-368)
Entre-temps, Énée explore les lieux, quand sa mère Vénus se présente à lui sous les traits d'une jeune chasseresse. Is A Dissertation? Sans la reconnaître, bien que pressentant sa qualité de déesse, il l'interroge sur le pays où il a échoué (1, 305-334). La chasseresse, sans révéler son identité, le renseigne sur l'histoire de Carthage et de sa fondatrice : Didon avait épousé en Phénicie le riche Sychée, assassiné secrètement par le roi de Tyr, son beau-frère Pygmalion, jaloux de ses richesses. On Compassion By Barbara Thesis? Un jour le fantôme de Sychée révéla à Didon le crime de Pygmalion et lui conseilla de fuir, en lui disant où se trouvaient des trésors cachés. What Is A Dissertation Abstract? Didon s'embarqua et arriva en Libye avec ses partisans et ses richesses ; elle se procura le territoire où s'élève maintenant sa ville (1, 335-368). À son tour, Énée renseigne l'inconnue sur son passé et sur le but que lui dicte le destin : il veut gagner l'Italie pour y installer les Pénates de Troie arrachés à l'ennemi ; mais, victime d'une tempête, il a échoué, avec sept navires, sur les côtes de Libye (1, 369-384). L'assurant de la protection des dieux, l'inconnue engage Énée à se présenter à la reine des lieux et lui annonce, sur la foi d'un présage, le sauvetage de la flotte qu'il croyait perdue (1, 385-401). Énée reconnaît alors Vénus qui disparaît aussitôt, le laissant quelque peu frustré. Legit Writing For Students? Mais elle le soustrait auparavant à la curiosité des Libyens, en l'enveloppant d'un nuage, avant de rejoindre sa demeure de Chypre (1, 402-417). Carthage ville naissante (1, 418-449) Énée et Achate, parvenus sur une colline proche de la ville, à l'abri de leur nuage, voient s'édifier une ville moderne et imposante, en proie à une activité fébrile, comparable à celle que déploient des abeilles (1, 418-436).
Ne pouvant s'empêcher de comparer sa situation à celle de ces heureux Tyriens, Énée se mêle à la foule, sans être vu (1, 437-449). Le temple de Junon et les souvenirs de Troie (1, 450-493) Tout en attendant la reine au pied du temple, Énée en examine diverses représentations figurant des scènes de la guerre de Troie. What Dissertation Abstract? Ce spectacle, témoignant de l'admiration et de la compassion à l'égard des héros troyens, ranime son courage (1, 450-463). Sont évoqués les combats devant Troie, mais surtout les déboires troyens : massacre au camp de Rhésus et mort du fils de Priam Troïlus, vaine démarche des suppliantes troyennes auprès de Pallas, et enfin démarche de Priam auprès d'Achille, obtenant que lui soit rendu le cadavre d'Hector (1, 464-487). Quelques scènes évoquent ensuite l'action d'Énée à Troie, les armées venues de l'Orient et les Amazones (préfiguration de Didon ?), servant en quelque sorte de transition à la suite du récit (1, 488-493). Didon accueille les compagnons d'Énée (1, 494-578) Énée, toujours invisible, aperçoit Didon venant s'installer sur un trône devant le temple, et découvre une reine puissante, respectée, résolue, équitable et efficace.
Soudain, heureux autant qu'effrayés, Énée et Achate reconnaissent quelques-uns de leurs compagnons rescapés en train de s'avancer en suppliants vers la reine, au milieu des protestations de la foule (1, 494-519). Le vieil Ilionée, leur porte-parole, implore la bienveillance d'une reine protégée de Jupiter et éprise de justice. Cyber Essay? Lui demandant sa protection, il l'informe sur leur aventure et la rassure sur leurs intentions. What Is A? Surpris de l'hostilité rencontrée, il finit par évoquer la possibilité d'un châtiment divin, et surtout le retour possible de leur chef, le juste, le pieux, le vaillant Énée. - Imagination? Il demande comme seule faveur de pouvoir réparer les navires, afin de gagner l'Italie avec Énée, ou sinon, la Sicile, où ils sont assurés d'un bon accueil (1, 520-560).
Didon alors les rassure, justifiant l'accueil hostile des Libyens par la jeunesse de son royaume. Is A Dissertation Abstract? Elle promet aux Troyens de faciliter leur départ pour l'Italie ou la Sicile, mais leur propose plutôt de partager le pouvoir avec elle, souhaitant comme eux le retour d'Énée vivant (1, 561-578). Réconfortés par cette vue, Énée et Achate sont tentés de révéler leur présence ; soudain, le nuage disparaît et Énée apparaît miraculeusement transfiguré. Essay Word Count? Il se présente alors à Didon, la remercie pour sa compassion et sa bonté, et lui souhaite la bénédiction des dieux, avant de serrer les mains de ses compagnons retrouvés (1, 579-612). Revenue de sa stupeur, Didon se montre avertie des malheurs des Troyens et disposée à les secourir. What Is A Dissertation? Décrétant des actions de grâces aux dieux et faisant livrer des animaux aux Troyens restés sur le rivage, elle introduit ses hôtes dans le palais où se prépare un somptueux festin (1, 613-642). Vénus substitue Cupidon à Ascagne (1, 643-694)
Énée charge alors Achate de retourner aux navires et d'en ramener Ascagne et des présents, parures princières sauvées du sac de Troie, qu'il destine à Didon (1, 643-656). Entre-temps Vénus imagine un stratagème pour protéger Énée contre Junon et demande le concours de son fils Cupidon, le puissant dieu de l'Amour. Word Title? Elle lui suggère de se substituer momentanément à Ascagne afin d'inspirer à Didon une passion brûlante pour Énée, tandis qu'elle emportera Ascagne endormi à Chypre. Dissertation? Cette suggestion est immédiatement adoptée (1, 657-694). Didon prise au piège de Cupidon (1, 695-756) Didon accueille les Troyens dans un cadre luxueux où se déroule un banquet fastueux tant par les mets que le nombre des serviteurs. On Compassion By Barbara Ascher? Les présents des Troyens et le jeune Iule/Cupidon émerveillent les nombreux Tyriens présents mais surtout la reine, qui tombe sous le charme de Cupidon déguisé, jouant son rôle à la perfection (695-722). Didon procède ensuite aux libations à l'aide de la coupe ancestrale des Tyriens et invoque solennellement Jupiter, Bacchus et Junon, saluant ce jour comme une fête pour Tyriens et Troyens ; la coupe se transmet aux convives, tandis qu'un poète savant chante les phénomènes astronomiques et les origines des vivants (723-747).
Passionnément amoureuse, Didon cherche à prolonger la fête, posant à son hôte mille questions sur Troie, et l'invitant enfin à raconter la chute de la ville et ses propres aventures (748-756).
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constrast essay An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers. Despite vanquishing his opponents in the long series of is a dissertation abstract, civil wars 49-45 BC, Caesar did little to on compassion by barbara address the underlying ills of the Republic. His concerns were first and foremost the defeat in the field of his political opponents. During these years, and is a dissertation, following his final victory, he was content to maintain control by a combination of the consulship and the revived, albeit reviled, dictatorship. Extensive and excessive honors of all sorts were also voted to Caesar by a sycophantic senate: he refused none, save attempts to crown him king. Nevertheless, his broad disregard for on compassion by barbara thesis, tradition and precedent, and the general air of arrogance and high-handedness that marked Caesar's dealings with his peers, made him appear Rome's king in all but name. To be sure, he passed various items of legislation dealing with immediate problems (for instance, debt relief or the calendar), but he made no serious effort to systematize his position or tackle the issues that had generated the Roman Revolution in the first place. In fact, in the last months of his life he was planning to leave Rome for several years to campaign against the Parthians in the East.
That the what is a dissertation cabal of nobles who conspired to kill Caesar included disaffected members of his own party constitutes stark testimony as to legit the effects of is a, Caesar's tactlessness. On 15 March, 44 BC C. Julius Caesar, dictator for life, was surrounded by the conspirators at a meeting of the essay title senate and cut down with twenty-three stab wounds. He died at the foot of a statue of his great rival, Pompey. The senatorial Liberators, covered in blood and brandishing their daggers, rushed out to accept the gratitude of the what dissertation abstract liberated. They met with a somewhat different reception. The people had loved Caesar, even if his recent behavior had been disappointing [] . The Liberators, who were led by L. Cassius Longinus and M. Junius Brutus, held public meetings in the Forum, but the reaction of the people was equivocal at best. The senate, meeting on legit essay writing company for students March 17, vacillated and declared an amnesty for what abstract, the Liberators (inferring legitimacy for their act of tyrannicide) while ratifying all of Caesar's acts and decreeing him a public funeral in the Forum (inferring legitimacy for Caesar's power). Word Count? It may have seemed a workable compromise, but when Caesar's mutilated body was displayed to the crowd and the contents of his will were made public--in which some gardens were bequeathed to the public and an individual stipend given to each member of the Roman people--the dam of emotion burst and rioting ensued.
The Liberators fled the city. Power seemed firmly in what is a dissertation abstract the hands of the pro-Caesar camp and, in particular, in no uniforms those of M. Antonius (Mark Antony), Caesar's right-hand man. The dictator's will, however, had contained something of what, a political bombshell that was to shake this situation to its foundations. For Caesar named as his chief heir and adopted son one of by barbara ascher, his three great-nephews, C. Octavius. The nature of the relationship between Caesar and the young Octavius is not clear. Dio claims (45.1.2) that after Octavius reached maturity (in 48 BC), Caesar took him in and began training him to be his successor. What Dissertation? This assertion is clearly more informed by essay - imagination and reality later imperial behavior than by Late Republican practice, and is unlikely in any case, since Caesar was much occupied with the civil wars at this time (49-45 BC). There is no evidence that the two actually met before Octavius was in his mid-teens, but that the dictator noticed Octavius is what hardly to be doubted.
Suetonius ( Aug . Company? 8.1) presents a more likely series of events. What Is A Abstract? In 48 BC the young Octavius was elected to the pontifical college. On Compassion By Barbara Ascher? When Caesar celebrated his multiple triumphs in September 46 BC, Octavius took part in the procession and was accorded military honors. Dissertation? At some time in this period, Octavius was also adlected into the patrician order. He then followed Caesar to Spain when the latter went to fight the Pompeians at Munda (45 BC). He earned the admiration of the dictator for the daring of his journey, which included a shipwreck; he was to show this same daring repeatedly in future months and years. In 44 BC Caesar nominated the magistrates several years in advance (another shunning of tradition on Caesar's part), and the young man was included as his Master of Horse for 43 or 42 BC. Despite these indications of favor, it is fair to essay title say that in the broad scheme of things Octavius was a non-player and a political nobody in March 44 BC, when his great-uncle was killed.
When he heard of is a dissertation, Caesar's murder, Octavius was in Apollonia in Illyricum, preparing to on compassion join Caesar on his Parthian campaign. His friends and some senior army officers urged him to take refuge with the army in Macedonia; his family advised that he lie low and come to Rome unthreateningly as a private citizen. He opted for the latter course of action and arrived in southern Italy, south of Brundisium. Here, he heard more details about Caesar's death and of his own adoption. His family, now fearful for is a abstract, his life, urged him to renounce the adoption and inheritance in order to secure his personal safety. In a tremendous act of no uniforms in schools, daring, he instead made directly for Brundisium and the large concentration of troops there. [] Entrance into Politics: April 44-November 43 BC [] Antony paid no attention, at least officially.
He sent no deputations to meet Octavian and inquire as to his intentions. Perhaps he dismissed the youth's actions as a sideshow bearing little relevance to the main thrust of politics. [] At that time Antony was deeply occupied with several important matters, not the least being to secure powerful provinces for himself while downgrading those of Cassius and Brutus, the leaders of the Liberators. Thus, when Octavian finally entered Rome toward the end of dissertation, April, Antony continued to ignore him. Octavian kept his cool and arranged a meeting. When he showed up--ironically, in the gardens of Pompey on the Oppian Hill--he was pointedly kept waiting. The ensuing exchange did not go well. [] In subsequent weeks, Antony blocked Octavian's moves to have his adoption officially recognized and also prevented him from standing for public office.
But Octavian curried favor with the essay 2010 crowd, and tensions with Antony rose. Dissertation? [] Events around Mutina in northern Italy brought matters to a head, both between the Caesarian camp and in mla 2010, the Liberators and between Antony and Octavian. Decimus Junius Brutus Albinus had been a supporter of Caesar's -- and one of his assassins. The dictator had appointed him to the governorship of Cisalpine Gaul (roughly the Po Valley region of modern Italy), an appointment confirmed by the senate. The senate had also assigned Antony, consul in 44 BC, the province of Macedonia. Through tribunician legislation in June 44 BC, Antony had his command in Macedonia exchanged for that in proximate and powerful Cisalpine Gaul. Decimus Brutus's term was up at the end of 44 BC, but Antony decided to assume command of Cisalpine Gaul in November. Decimus Brutus resisted and was supported by a senate largely well disposed toward the Liberators, whom it regarded as tyrannicides. What Is A Dissertation Abstract? []
Against this backdrop of looming crisis between the Caesarians and the Liberators, the relationship between Antony and Octavian continued to deteriorate, despite occasional public reconciliations. Antony accused Octavian of plotting against him, while Octavian attempted, through agents, to undermine the loyalty of the army that Antony was bringing to Italy from Macedonia. Antony went to Brundisium to secure his army (things did not go well there for him), at which juncture Octavian showed his daring once more. Despite the risk of being branded a public enemy, he toured the Caesarian colonies of Campania and, relying on old loyalties, raised a private army from among Caesar's veterans, perhaps 10,000 strong. It was a vivid demonstration of the power of the name Caesar. Antony, meanwhile, returned to Rome and intended to denounce Octavian to the senate when he heard that two of his five legions from Macedonia had defected to Octavian.
Fearing the worst, he took the remainder of his force and hastened to attack Decimus Brutus in Cisalpine Gaul. [] The situation was now highly volatile. Decimus Brutus, backed by the senate, was resisting Antony under arms, and retired to the fortified town of legit writing for students, Mutina in Cisalpine Gaul. Is A? Antony had four legions, Octavian had five. All the armed parties were mutually antagonistic. The senate, led by Cicero in his last great political action, identified Antony as the greater threat. [] Cicero and legit writing company, Antony were now on opposing sides, following an acrimonious oratorical exchange in is a abstract the senate that started in September 44 BC. At this crucial juncture, then, Cicero deployed his considerable rhetorical skill to Octavian's benefit and began to champion his cause as a foil to no uniforms in schools Antony's power. As a result, on 1 January, 43 BC Octavian's essentially illegal command of men under arms was legitimized with a grant of propraetorian power. What Is A Abstract? As such, Octavian continued his preparations to attack Antony, now declared a public enemy, who had begun besieging Decimus Brutus at Mutina. Octavian, now an official representative of the republic, led his force into the region and moved against Antony. []
In two engagements in - imagination April, Antony was bested and fled over the Alps to his political allies in Transalpine Gaul. Both consuls for 43 BC, however, perished in the fighting around Mutina, and Octavian, as the senior commander on the spot, refused to cooperate any further with Decimus Brutus, a murderer of his father. The senators, it appears, hoped that Octavian would now go away. They appointed Decimus Brutus to the overall command against Antony, issued decrees of public thanks to him, and palmed Octavian off with an ovation. When a commission to distribute land to what is a dissertation abstract veterans was set up, Octavian was pointedly omitted. Smarting at such insulting treatment, Octavian bided his time and put in in schools requests for a consulship (with Cicero as his colleague) and a triumph.
Meanwhile, Antony was preparing to return to Cisalpine Gaul with enormous forces gained from Caesarian commanders in Transalpine Gaul. The situation remained unstable. [] In the face of all these developments, Octavian once more acted with courage and determination, even if with shocking directness. Having secured his army's loyalty, he marched on Rome and seized the city with eight legions. Three legions brought from outside Italy to what dissertation counter him defected. Unsurprisingly, Octavian was elected consul to replace the deceased consuls of 43 BC. He now carried the long-delayed ratification of his adoption, paid out the remainder of Caesar's legacy, revoked the amnesty for the Liberators, and tried and convicted them en masse and in essay and reality absentia on a single day.
Despite his control of Rome, Octavian's position was perilous. Antony was massing huge forces in what abstract Cisalpine Gaul and, across the in schools Adriatic, Cassius and Brutus had taken the opportunity offered by the enmity between the Caesarian leaders to gain control of most of the eastern empire, it might be noted, with no great regard for either legality or scruple. [] These complicated events have been treated here in detail due to what is a their immense importance in establishing Octavian in cyber bullying the mainstream of Roman politics. Is A Dissertation? Dismissed by Antony and then by the senate as a bit player, he proved repeatedly capable of deft and resolute action in defence of his interests. Argumentative Essay? On account of dissertation, his tender years, he lacked the nexus of influential support that most leading Roman politicians, including Antony, found essential to their success and by barbara ascher, therefore he had to rely more on direct appeals to the mob, his troops, and supporters of is a, Caesar. His actions might not have been always scrupulous or admirable, but Late-Republican politics was a vicious and cutthroat business and few involved adhered solely to principle (the Liberators, for instance, went about the and reality eastern empire seizing provinces and only had their acts ratified post factum by a compliant senate). Dissertation? Octavian had only two reliable tools available to him at this early stage in his career: his name, Caesar, and writing, promises of bounty to dissertation the soldiers, and he deployed both with daring and decisiveness when he had to. In the autumn of 43 BC, he was to make his most ambitious move yet. The Triumvirate I: Early Challenges, 43-36 BC.
The rule of the three got off to an inauspicious start. Their first act was the implementation of proscriptions, unused since the horrible days of Sulla's dictatorship. Since the property of the proscribed was forfeited, the main motive of the cyber bullying essay triumvirs in instigating the what abstract terror appears to have been financial, as many of their most implacable enemies were not in Rome or Italy at all but with Brutus and Cassius in the East. A recent interpretation has questioned this view and argues that the proscriptions were a purely political act, designed to by barbara ascher root out all opposition to what is a the triumvirs in essay in mla format 2010 Italy. Our sources preserve, in excruciating detail, dozens of tragic anecdotes about the proscribed as well as the text of the what is a abstract chilling proclamation announcing the proscriptions. Cicero, Antony's bitter enemy, was one of the first victims, with Octavian's compliance. The apparent financial reason for the triumvirs' need for money was soon to be made clear, when mass veteran settlements took place. Thousands perished in the chaos and mayhem that inevitably followed hard on the heels of the proscriptions. On Compassion By Barbara? []
Next, the dissertation Liberators had to be dealt with. After a prelude in Africa early in 42 BC, in on compassion by barbara thesis which a pro-senate governor was ousted by Octavian's appointee, Antony and Octavian moved on Cassius and Brutus in the summer and what is a, autumn of that same year. Count Include Title? The campaign took place in the Balkans and culminated in what is a abstract a double battle some weeks apart in October at cyber argumentative essay Philippi in Macedonia. The Liberators were decisively defeated, Cassius and Brutus committed suicide, and the Caesarians established their control over dissertation abstract the whole Roman world. Bullying? Octavian, who had not played a glorious part in the battles, showed complete implacability in executing any and all of those implicated in the murder of Caesar who fell into his hands. A reshuffling of the provinces was required in light of the new situation: Antony got the East but retained Transalpine and what dissertation, Narbonese Gaul; Octavian got most of the West; Lepidus, fast being overshadowed by his more ambitious and ruthless partners, was effectively sidelined in Africa. Following Philippi, Antony moved east, Octavian returned to Italy, and a new polarization of the Roman world began to no uniforms in schools essay manifest itself. [] In the West, Octavian faced an immediate problem: the settlement of what abstract, some 40,000 veterans in Italian communities. Veteran settlement was of paramount concern, since it spoke to essay - imagination Octavian's trustworthiness as a patron and so could influence the future loyalty of his armies. The procedure entailed the forcible eviction of inhabitants from their land followed by its redistribution as individual plots among the ex-soldiers. Prior to Philippi, eighteen rich towns in what dissertation abstract Italy had been promised to the soldiers--now it was time to pay up.
Beginning in 41 BC and continuing for perhaps a year or more afterward, life in the towns and regions selected for settlement underwent massive disruption. Essay - Imagination? It seems that the is a dissertation dispossessed were not compensated for their loss, so that the whole process made Octavian enormously unpopular in Italy. [] This unpopularity generated an opportunity for the opponents of the triumvirate and led to the so-called Perusine War. One of the consuls of 41 BC was L. Antonius, brother of Mark Antony. Cyber Bullying Argumentative Essay? Playing on Octavian's poor reputation among the Italians, he stirred up as much trouble for the triumvir as he could. Abstract? He began spreading rumors that Antony's veterans were being shabbily treated compared to Octavian's and, along with Antony's wife Fulvia, started lobbying for the dispossessed Italians. His actions carried grave political dangers for Octavian, who could not allow army loyalties to be divided in Italy. The big question in all this remains how cognizant, even complicit, Mark Antony was in in schools his brother's agitation. By late in 41 BC the situation had so deteriorated that war between Octavian and L. Antonius in what dissertation Italy was inevitable. When hostilities broke out, operations focused on Perusia, where Octavian holed Lucius and Fulvia up in early 40 BC up. After several months of siege, Lucius surrendered and was magnanimously spared by Octavian, though the councilors and people of Perusia were not so fortunate: Octavian executed the local council and no uniforms in schools, gave the town over to his soldiers to plunder.
He then adjourned to Gaul, there to is a dissertation abstract supervise the transfer of the region to his own command, since the Antonian governor had died. [] Mark Antony reacted to this situation by moving west in the spring of 40 BC and besieging Brundisium. Octavian gathered his forces and marched south to no uniforms essay confront him. Dissertation? The triumvirate appeared to essay for students be over, its two chief members at war. However, neither army was keen for war and what abstract, negotiations produced an agreement instead, termed the Pact of Brundisium. By means of this agreement, Antony ceded Gaul to Octavian, relinquishing his last foothold in the West, but was confirmed in the East. Lepidus continued to languish in Africa.
Further, Antony was married to Octavian's sister, Octavia. (Fulvia had unexpectedly, and conveniently, died in Greece in the interim.) The triumvirs then travelled to Rome amidst scenes of cyber argumentative, great public rejoicing. [] The attention of the triumvirs was then directed toward Sextus Pompeius in Sicily, who was posing a challenge to their authority in the West. Sextus, the youngest son of Pompey, is one of the more colorful characters of the Roman Revolution. Surviving the Pompeian defeat at Munda in 45 BC, he fought guerilla warfare in Spain and is a dissertation abstract, then took to the sea as a pirate leader. When he was recalled to Rome following Caesar's murder, he cautiously sailed to Massilia and awaited developments. During the essay word count title war at Mutina, when the fortunes of the senate and the Liberators appeared to be in the ascendant, he found himself appointed prefect of Rome's fleets and what is a abstract, Italy's coastal zones (on 20 March, 43 BC). With the establishment of the on compassion triumvirate six months later, he seized Sicily and, as a beacon of resistance against the triumvirs, was greatly reinforced by refugees from the proscriptions, survivors of Philippi, those dispossessed by the veteran settlements in Italy, and any remaining forces of republican sentiment. He beat off attempts by is a dissertation abstract Octavian to oust him from Sicily.
Antony formed a pact with him, in order to make his move against Octavian in 40 BC but, if Sextus had hoped for some concrete reward for this service, he got none: he benefited in no way from the Pact of no uniforms, Brundisium and abstract, was not officially recognized by the triumvirs. Now he exacted revenge by blockading Italy and placing a stranglehold on essay and reality Rome's grain supply. What? Antony and Octavian were forced to essay word count include title act. Incapable of assailing Sextus militarily, they were forced to negotiate. At a meeting off the what is a coast at Misenum or Puteoli, an agreement was reached (the Treaty of legit writing company, Misenum [or Puteoli]) in the summer of dissertation, 39 BC. This agreement saw Sextus's control over Corsica, Sardinia, and Sicily made official with a promise that he'd be given the Peloponnese and a consulship in due course. Sextus appeared well entrenched in thesis triumviral politics, a fourth important player in what dissertation the complex game. Bullying Essay? []
The Treaty of Misenum was to have a short shelf life. Antony returned to the East, to Cleopatra and indecisive campaigns against the Parthians. Octavian remained in what is a dissertation Italy and worked at extending his circle of thesis, followers and his influence in general. Toward that end, the presence of Sextus Pompeius was an obstacle. When the Peloponnese did not come his way as had been promised, Sextus blockaded Italy again in 38 BC. Octavian moved against is a abstract him, but lost a naval engagement at Cumae and much of his fleet in 2010 a subsequent storm. Dissertation Abstract? He now appealed to Antony for help. Essay Include Title? The two met at Tarentum in dissertation abstract the summer of 37 BC. Aside from Octavian's acquisition of essay, some 120 ships from Antony for the effort against Sextus (in return for abstract, a promise of 20,000 Italian troops for Antony's planned Parthian campaign), the meeting saw the triumvirate renewed for format 2010, a further five years. The office had expired on 31 December, 38 BC, but none of the incumbents had paid any attention to that inconvenient detail and what is a dissertation abstract, continued to exercise its prerogatives (illegally) for argumentative, the first months of 37 BC.
Now their power was renewed. [] Since equilibrium had been restored with Antony, Octavian now turned his full attention to defeating Sextus. Is A? Elaborate preparations, mostly under the direction M. Vipsanius Agrippa, finally readied Octavian's fleet for essay, action in 36 BC. While Agrippa held Sextus's fleet at bay, Lepidus was marshalled from Africa, to assault Sicily from the south. Another of Octavian's generals was to converge on Italy from the northeast, while Octavian himself would move from Campania. But ship-destroying storms and another naval defeat for Octavian at the hands of Sextus seemed to signal the failure of the entire operation. Is A Dissertation? Agrippa, however, saved the day and took several of Sextus's ports before engaging and no uniforms essay, destroying the rebel's fleet at the battle of Naulochus on 3 September, 36 BC. Sextus fled east but was murdered not long afterward. Despite reverses, then, Octavian had ultimately emerged victorious and, in Sextus, had eliminated one the rivals to his position of dominance in the West.
Fate allowed him to neutralize the other. Lepidus, so long in the shadows, now decided to make a play for power. Finding himself in control of twenty-two legions in Sicily, he defied Octavian and made demands that he quit the island for dissertation abstract, good. No Uniforms? Octavian marched in his direction, at which point Lepidus's men deserted him. At an embarrassing scene in Lepidus's camp, Octavian spared his former triumviral colleague but stripped him of his powers and what dissertation, confined him to house arrest at the pleasant seaside town of Circeii. There he lived out his life unmolested until he died, of natural causes, in 12 BC. [] Octavian was now the essay count include title unchallenged master of the Roman West. What? In one campaigning season he had rid himself of the open challenge of Sextus Pompeius and the sleeping challenge of Lepidus. He set about essay, consolidating his position for the inevitable clash with Antony. The Triumvirate II: Showdown with Antony, 36-30 BC. In the is a dissertation East, Antony was not faring terribly well.
He had, since 36 BC, been involved in sporadic and difficult contests with the Parthians and Armenians. There had been no decisive outcome and, in fact, there was a rather hasty retreat back to essay include title Syria. This was all the more regrettable (in Antony's eyes), since Octavian had been successful against Sextus and then, in 35-33 BC, against the tribes of Illyricum. But Antony's behavior in the East raised problems for him in the political arena, fully exploited by Octavian. His continuing link with Cleopatra, despite his marriage to Octavia, was among the most troublesome, and it had produced two children.
Antony also appeared to have gone native, wearing eastern dress, with an eastern despot as a consort, and is a abstract, practising eastern customs. Even more appalling, having seized Armenia in - imagination and reality 34 BC, Antony staged a spectacle in Alexandria's gymnasium known since as the Donations of Alexandria. In this spectacle, Antony declared Cleopatra Queen of Kings and her son by Caesar, Caesarion, King of Kings; he then divided up the eastern Roman Empire among Cleopatra, Caesarion, and his own children. It seemed, from an what dissertation, Italian perspective, that Antony was under the spell of legit for students, Cleopatra, whose ultimate goal, it was rumored, was to become Queen of Rome. Furthermore, Antony's recognition of Caesarion as Caesar's son undercut Octavian's most fundamental claim to political leadership. In an atmosphere such as this, tensions rose between Antony and what abstract, Octavian. At Rome, meanwhile, Octavian further heralded his new image by having his righthand-man Agrippa appointed aedile in 33 BC to see to the restoration of many long-neglected services in the city, especially the sewer system and water supply.
The city was also beautified with new buildings and the restoration of dilapidated ones, often by Octavian's supporters acting at his instigation. The popular image of and reality, Octavian's caring, popular administration must have been greatly bolstered by these actions. [] The year 32 BC was a difficult one and saw Octavian and Antony finally embark openly on the road to what is a dissertation war. In the first place, Octavian's second term of triumviral powers ran out on 31 December, 33 BC. This made his legal position somewhat delicate, but the niceties of legality were far less important than his demonstrable exercise of power and influence, especially among his troops.
Who was going to challenge him? It is interesting to observe that Octavian immediately ceased using the in schools essay title triumvir; Antony did not. In dropping the title, Octavian once more ostentatiously respected Roman tradition. As matters turned out, events at Rome were to offer Octavian a new basis for claiming legitimate leadership of the is a Roman people, albeit a non-legal one. On 1 January, 32 BC, the Antonian consul, C. Sosius issued a speech denouncing Octavian and proposing something that required a tribunician veto to quash (the precise content of the proposal is unknown). Octavian, not in the city at the time, soon entered with an format 2010, armed escort, convened the is a abstract senate, and denounced Antony.
This action so effectively cowed the Antonians that Sosius and his fellow consul Ahenobarbus fled eastward followed by essay the other pro-Antony senators. News then reached Rome that Antony was forming his own senate in Alexandria from among the exiled senators and that he had officially renounced Octavia as his wife. Octavian, enraged, seized Antony's will from the Vestal Virgins (a completely illegal and unscrupulous act) and dissertation abstract, read it aloud in the senate. Its contents shocked Roman sentiment: Antony wished to be buried in Alexandria, next to Cleopatra. It seemed to many that, after all, he was indeed planning to establish a renegade eastern empire with a foreign queen at its helm. War was declared on Cleopatra, and traditional rituals revived to emphasize that the essay word count include official enemy was a foreigner, not a fellow Roman. As preparations for war geared up in what is a abstract the summer of 32 BC, a remarkable thing happened. First Italy and then the western provinces swore an oath of allegiance to Octavian personally. Whether the oath was voluntary, as Augustus later claimed in his Res Gestae , or a more carefully orchestrated piece of political theater, Octavian could now claim to be the people's choice for the war against Cleopatra. It was not a legal position, but it was an legit essay writing company, unassailable one. []
In prospect, the dissertation abstract war between Antony and Octavian promised to be the largest civil conflict ever conducted by the Romans. Arrayed against on compassion by barbara thesis each other were the resources of the entire empire, East against West. The not inconsiderable resources of Ptolemaic Egypt, the is a abstract last surviving major Hellenistic kingdom, were also in the mix. In the end, however, the war ended not with a bang but with a fizzle. The massive forces moved against each other and converged in Greece, as had Caesar and essay 2010, Pompey at the outset of an earlier great conflict. The two sides encamped on the north side of the Ambracian gulf, near the what is a dissertation abstract promontory of Actium . Cleopatra's presence proved problematic for Antony, and word count include title, there were defections to Octavian. Meanwhile, Antony and Cleopatra managed to get their ships blockaded in is a dissertation abstract the gulf by 2010 Octavian's fleet, under Agrippa's able command. What Dissertation Abstract? In an attempt to break out on 2 September, 31 BC (almost five years to the day since Sextus' defeat at Naulochus) Antony was decisively defeated. Word Count Title? In ancient accounts, Cleopatra and then Antony fled the battle prematurely. The land forces never engaged, but Antony's men defected to Octavian en masse. Everything had been decided in a few hours of dissertation abstract, naval warfare. No Uniforms? []
The victory of Octavian was complete. Antony and Cleopatra fled to Egypt. Octavian made his way there via Syria, securing the loyalty of what dissertation, all as he went. Argumentative? Antony's forces and former supporters defected in droves. On reaching Egypt and Alexandria in the summer of what abstract, 30 BC, Octavian faced Antony's forces on land and sea. A great battle seemed imminent -- until Antony's navy and cavalry defected en masse before the ascher thesis very eyes of their general and his infantry were defeated (1 August, 30 BC). Antony and Cleopatra committed suicide, and passed from historical reality into the realm of is a, romantic legend. Octavian had Caesarion and Antony's eldest son (Antyllus) executed, and format, he annexed Egypt as a province of Rome, ending the Ptolemaic period of abstract, that country's history. He was now sole master of the entire Roman world.
If, indeed, it had been his intention from the essay word count title start to reach this position, it must have been a particularly rewarding day. For fourteen years he had played a careful, dangerous, and patient game. Is A Abstract? Now it was time to secure the future, for himself and for Rome. [] From Octavian to Augustus: A New Order Established. In the wake of Actium , however, there was work to be done. After taking Egypt and settling affairs there, Octavian stayed away from Rome as he saw to the organization of the East.
For the most part, Antony's arrangements were left in place, as long as old loyalties were suitably redirected. Legit Essay For Students? Octavian returned to Rome and Italy, amid tumultuous celebrations, in August of 29 BC. Large numbers of veterans were settled (perhaps 25 legions totalling 40,000 men or more) both in Italy and the provinces, this time without complaint, since the vast wealth of what is a dissertation, Egypt allowed for ample compensation. When he entered Rome, he celebrated three triumphs over cyber argumentative essay three days (over Dalmatia, Actium, and Egypt). Legally, his difficult position of 32 BC had been bypassed and Octavian held the what consulship every year from 31 BC onwards (until 23 BC).
Just as important, however, was the non-legal basis for his dominance, later expressed by Augustus as universal consent. The roots of this consent must lie in the oath of 32 BC, now extended in principle, if not in practice, to embrace the entire empire and all its armies. Octavian was, as he later put it, in on compassion by barbara ascher thesis complete control of affairs precisely because everyone wanted him to be and, just as significantly, because he was the what dissertation last man standing. There is political posturing in his claim to universal consent, to be sure, but possibly also some kernel of truth. He had ended the civil wars, and all hopes for a peaceful future now rested with him and him alone. In light of this, the senate and people voted him numerous honors in word count 29 BC, some of which Octavian judiciously refused, consonant with his image as respecter of tradition. [] Octavian's holding continuous consulships would be insufficient as a mode of is a dissertation abstract, administration in no uniforms the long term, especially if, as he intended, the old order was to be seen to be restored.
He needed, somehow, to find a firm place simultaneously within and above established norms. His position at the head of affairs therefore needed careful consideration, and this no doubt explains the eighteen-month gap between his return to Rome in August 29 BC and the so-called First Constitutional Settlement of 13 January, 27 BC which, with the what dissertation abstract broadest of 2010, brush strokes, began painting the portrait of the what is a new order. Memories of word count include, Caesar's fate must have loomed large. Despite that dictator's huge popularity among the masses, his complete victory over his enemies in civil war, and the devotion of his troops, he had been laid low by a few dozen disillusioned aristrocrats. Among the what is a abstract uppermost considerations pressing on Octavian, therefore, must have been the need to appease the sensibilities of the elite. In addition, the divided loyalties of highly politicized armies had been a plague on the Late Republic. This situation too would require remedying. These two issues, in fact, were at the heart of the First Settlement, staged in the senate on 13 January, 27 BC. Word? []
On that day, Octavian entered the what is a dissertation abstract senate and, to the shock of essay count title, those not in what dissertation abstract the know, surrendered his position and retired to private life. The senators, possibly confused, reacted with indignance and insisted that Octavian remain at the helm of the state. After a show of reluctance, Octavian graciously accepted a share in the running of the state, gaining command of Spain (except Baetica), Gaul, Syria, Cyprus, and Egypt while the senate and people kept the rest. No Uniforms? Within his extended provincia , granted for ten years, Octavian could appoint legates to what is a administer regions on no uniforms his behalf. Modern scholars have failed to reach agreement on the exact legal status of Octavian's command over his provinces (was it by virtue of imperium consulare or proconsulare , imperium maius or aequum ?), but the case for imperium proconsulare is the stronger; it also had precedents, in the form of the abstract extraordinary commands of Pompey or Caesar in the Late Republic.
This situation would have appealed to Octavian's desire to appear to be maintaining traditions while also doing nothing alarmingly new or innovative. Other honors and privileges were also forthcoming, at a second meeting on 16 January. Here Octavian was named Augustus, a word ringing with religious (augur) and legit writing for students, social ( auctoritas ) meaning but not suggestive of overt political dominance. Dissertation Abstract? C. Julius Caesar Octavianus now became Imperator Caesar Augustus. Other honors carried more symbolic meaning (laurels placed on the door of his house; award of the corona civica for saving the lives of no uniforms, citizens; the Shield of Virtues erected in what dissertation abstract his honor) but they were no less significant for that: they helped establish Augustus's pre-eminent place in the state and craft the bullying argumentative beginnings of an Augustan ideology.
By means of this settlement, Augustus was simultaneously commander, leader, savior. Is A? [] In the summer following the settlement, Augustus left Rome to tour Gaul and Spain. The journey kept him away from Rome until 24 BC--probably a wise choice on his part, to be out of the public eye while the new arrangements took root. While he was away his aides Agrippa and Maecenas supervised matters in Rome. The summer after his return, probably in June or July, the Second Constitutional Settlement was staged. At around this time a conspiracy was unearthed and two principals, Fannius Caepio and Varro Murena, were executed.
In the in mla format 2010 absence of evidence, scholarly debate has raged about the timing, aims, methods, and members of the conspiracy: was the Second Settlement a reaction to the conspiracy, or vice versa? Or were the events unrelated? In the end, the what is a conclusion has to be left open, but the case for essay in mla format 2010, the conspiracy's occurring after the settlement seems the stronger, though any causative links between events remains little more than putative. The outline of the is a abstract Second Settlement itself is clear enough, even if several details remain debatable. Augustus relinquished the consulship (which he had been monopolizing since 31 BC) and was only to take it up on two further occasions in the rest of his life, for dynastic reasons. In return, he received an empire-wide grant of word count, proconsular power ( imperium proconsulare ) for five years. What Is A Dissertation? It is debated whether this imperium was greater ( maius ) than that of any other governor or equal ( aequum ) to it. Five decrees found in Cyrenaica, dated to the period 6-4 BC, show Augustus intervening in the internal affairs of this province.
The implication is that his imperium overrode that of the governor on the spot (and so was maius ), though the possibility that it was co-extensive with it must also be allowed (making the imperium aequum ). Whatever the legal details, by virtue of this grant of imperium in 23 BC, he could intervene in the affairs of any province in the empire. Unlike other governors, he was also given dispensation to retain his power within the city limits of Rome (the pomerium ), probably for essay and reality, purely practical reasons: otherwise, every time he left the is a dissertation city, his proconsular power would need to be renewed. In relinquishing the consulship, Augustus lost certain powers and privileges within the city of essay, Rome and its polity (his proconsular power notwithstanding). These were now compensated for by a grant of tribunician power ( tribunicia potestas ), also for five years, that allowed him all the rights and what is a, privileges of a tribune of the people, without actually holding that office: he could summon the people, propose legislation, veto meetings and proposals, and so on. With both his tribunician power and proconsular power, Augustus now had the ability to direct affairs in every wing of domestic and foreign administration. These two powers were long to essay company remain the twin pillars of the Roman emperors' legal position. [] While the abstract major settlements of in mla format, 27 and 23 BC established the what is a bases of Augustus's position, further refinements were necessary.
As with the in schools settlement of 27 BC, Augustus soon left Rome for the East (22-19 BC). Before he left, he was forced to refuse offers of the dictatorship or perpetual consulship pressed on him by the people, who appear to have completely missed the subtleties of the Second Settlement the is a year before. Over the coming years, he received, piecemeal, some significant privileges and honors. Count? In 23 BC, for instance, he was given the right to convene the senate whenever he saw fit ( ius primae relationis ). In 22 BC, he was appointed to oversee Rome's grain supply (for how long is unclear). In 19 , when he had returned from the East, he was given censorial powers for five years. When Lepidus finally died in 13 or 12 BC, Augustus became chief priest ( pontifex maximus ). Finally, in 2 BC, he was granted the title Father of his Country ( pater patriae ), a title of which he was immensely proud. It is not hard to see why, since the title placed Augustus in a relationship with the Roman state analogous to what abstract that of a paterfamilias over his charges: he was to be in complete control of everything. In addition, there was his membership of in schools essay, all the colleges of priests, numerous symbolic privileges (e.g., immunity from taxes), and the matter of auctoritas . What Is A Dissertation? This personal quality, impossible to translate into English with a single word, was a combination of by barbara ascher thesis, authority and influence derived from one's social and political position, family, abilities, and achievements.
It was, most importantly, an informal virtue: it could not be voted to anyone by the senate or the people. In this way, the extent of is a dissertation abstract, Augustus's auctoritas reflected the extent and success of his life's work, and it helped him get a lot of business done without constantly invoking his legally-conferred powers. Augustus simply had to make known his preferences for matters to transpire accordingly, so that, for instance, candidates for office whom he favored invariably got elected. No wonder he was proud to boast that he surpassed all in auctoritas . [] The complex edifice of the count include Augustan Principate was, at heart, a sham. But, like any successful sham, it was one that people could believe in. Is A? Above all, there was political genius in Augustus's slow and careful acquisition of overarching authority in every area of public life. At every step of the way--from the oath of 32 BC through the constitutional settlements and the honors and privileges conferred upon him piecemeal--he could present himself as the in mla format 2010 passive partner. What Is A? On all occasions, the senate and people of Rome voluntarily conferred powers, privileges, and honors on him. He sought nothing for himself; he was no Caesar.
Indeed, he often expressed reluctance to bullying accept offices and honors that struck him as excessive, and occasionally he refused them outright. In sharp contrast to is a dissertation abstract Caesar, Augustus constantly had one eye on aristocratic sensitivities. Furthermore, none of his cardinal powers were conferred for life but, rather, for fixed periods of five or (later) ten years. That these powers were never rescinded when they came up for format, renewal is what entirely beside the point: there was the illusion of choice. That is what mattered.
The vocabulary Augustus chose to express his power, too, was a model of tact: leading citizen ( princeps ) not dictator, authoritative influence ( auctoritas ) not command ( imperium ). Throw into the equation his modest lifestyle, affable approachability, routine consultation of the senate, and genuinely impressive work ethic, and count, we have in Augustus one of the greatest and most skillfully manipulative politicians of any nation in any age. The Nature of the Principate and The Problem of the Succession. After Actium, Augustus moved on the succession problem quickly. Dissertation Abstract? He began to show signs of favor to his nephew, Marcellus. He himself only had one natural child, Julia, his daughter by his second wife, Scribonia. The first sure sign of favor to Marcellus was his participation in Augustus's triple triumph of 29 BC. In 25 BC, Marcellus was married to essay in mla format Julia, forming a closer family link with Augustus. The following year, Marcellus became aedile and, on Augustus's request, was granted the is a dissertation privilege of sitting as an ex-praetor in the senate and of standing for the consulship ten years in advance of the legal age. By 23 BC he was widely considered, in Velleius's words, Augustus's successor in power ( successor potentiae ). Then, a surprise. Augustus fell seriously ill in 23 BC. As he lay on essay - imagination and reality what he thought was his deathbed, he handed an account of the state's resources to the consul Cn.
Calpurnius Piso, and his signet ring to Agrippa. The symbolic message was clear: Marcellus was too young; experience was yet preferred at the top. Augustus recovered from his illness, but later that same year Marcellus fell ill and was not so fortunate. Abstract? He was nineteen when he died and was entombed with all due pomp and ceremony in Augustus's family mausoleum. [] The career of Marcellus, short though it was, already revealed the elements of essay writing company, Augustus's methods: he was to use family links (marriage or adoption) in conjunction with constitutional privileges (office-holding and the privilege of standing for office early) to indicate his successor. His inspiration appears to have been his personal experience: as Caesar had presented Octavius to abstract the public at his triumphs of September 46 BC, so now did Augustus display Marcellus at his own triumphs in in mla 2010 August 29 BC; as the senate had Octavius granted the right to what stand for the consulship ten years in advance of the legal age in - imagination 43 BC, so Augustus had the same right granted to what abstract Marcellus in 24 BC; and just as Caesar had bound Octavius to him by a familial link, so now did Augustus with Marcellus's marriage to Julia (although such political alliances through family ties had long been a staple of the in schools Roman nobility).
Each event had its precedent; it was their combination that was significant. [] Marcellus was soon replaced by Agrippa. Shortly before Marcellus's death, Agrippa had left for the East. In the face of Marcellus's earlier preferment, the sources abound with rumors of Agrippa's voluntary departure in high dudgeon or of is a, his forcible exile, but such speculations are demonstrably without merit. Agrippa had been favored when Augustus was ill in 23 BC and subsequently went East with a grant of imperium proconsulare , a share in on compassion by barbara Augustus's own powers.
This is not what Augustus would have done with a man of whom he was suspicious or who had fallen in any way from favor. Augustus had business in the East, to which he was shortly to attend personally, and Agrippa was doubtless sent ahead to pave the way. Maecenas, Augustus's other chief advisor and no friend of Agrippa, is reported to have commented in what is a dissertation abstract 21 BC that Agrippa had now been raised so high that either Augustus must marry him to Julia or kill him. Essay? Augustus chose the is a dissertation former route. Essay Format? Julia was married to Agrippa in that year. Until his death in 12 BC, Agrippa was clearly intended to be Augustus's successor. Aside from his marriage to Julia, in what is a abstract 18 BC Agrippa's proconsular power was renewed and, more significantly, he received a share of tribunician power (renewed in 13 BC). []
By virtue of bullying, these powers and privileges, had anything happened to Augustus in what is a dissertation abstract the years 21-13 BC, Agrippa would have been ideally placed to take over word count include title the reins of government. Coins of the is a dissertation abstract period 13-12 BC depict Agrippa as virtual co-emperor with Augustus, although the essay latter was always the senior partner. This straightforward interpretation of the situation in these years has been complicated by Augustus's treatment of Agrippa and Julia's sons, Gaius (born in 20 BC) and Lucius (born in 17 BC). When Lucius was born, Augustus adopted them both as his own sons and they became Gaius and Lucius Caesar. A further complication is added when the ongoing careers of Augustus's stepsons, Tiberius and Drusus, who were also advanced over these years, are taken into consideration. Is A Abstract? The intent behind these labyrinthine machinations appears to have been to create a pool of eligible candidates, headed by a frontrunner. Any other princes as were advanced in the background are best considered as insurance against by barbara ascher fate or as indicators of Augustus's preferences for the third generation of the Principate.
In this way, Agrippa was to what abstract succeed Augustus, but the adoption of Gaius and Lucius signalled Augustus's desire that one of them succeed Agrippa (which one was to be preferred remains unclear, given subsequent events). Tiberius and Drusus, as imperial princes, can be expected to have enjoyed high public profiles and earned various privileges, but they were very much on the backburner in these years. Essay Count? Notions of Regency (Agrippa over Gaius and what dissertation, Lucius) or paired succession (Gaius and Lucius, Tiberius and Drusus) proposed by modern scholars seem remoter possibilities. [] Augustus's vision for the succession can be seen in action again in 12 BC, when Agrippa died. Julia, now widowed a second time, was married to Tiberius the by barbara ascher thesis following year. Tiberius was Augustus's stepson and the most senior and experienced of the secondary princes in the imperial house. As such, he was a natural choice. Not long afterward, Tiberius left for campaigns in Germany and Pannonia, possibly with a grant of proconsular imperium . Dissertation Abstract? In 7 BC he entered his second consulship and the following year his position was made plain when he received a large commission in the East and essay writing company for students, a grant of tribunician power.
In short, between 12 and 6 BC Tiberius was upgraded to take Agrippa's place in dissertation Augustus's scheme and was installed to be Augustus's successor. But it was to essay word include be a rocky road indeed that led to dissertation his eventual succession in AD 14. In 6 BC Tiberius unexpectedly retired to Rhodes, despite his prominent public position. Augustus, apparently angered by Tiberius's action, had little choice (Drusus, Tiberius's brother had died in Germany in 9 BC). He appears to have relied on for students his increasingly robust health to see his adopted sons Gaius and Lucius Caesar to their maturity. But fate intervened once more and both young men died, Lucius in what is a AD 2 and Gaius two years after that. In a burst of - imagination and reality, dynastic activity in June of AD 4, Tiberius was rehabilitated and adopted by Augustus, as was Agrippa Postumus (the youngest child of Julia and what is a dissertation, Agrippa); Tiberius was constrained to adopt his nephew Germanicus . Again, debate has swirled around these arrangements but, following the suggestions made above, it is probably best to avoid notions of regency or paired succcession and essay format 2010, see here an what is a abstract, attempt by essay company for students Augustus to re-establish a pool of princes from which to draw candidates, with Tiberius as the favored successor and Germanicus to come behind him.
The adoption of Agrippa Postumus remains puzzling, but he was still only a teenager at the time and the move may have been intended only to secure his prominence in what dissertation future succession plans. Germanicus , twenty years old at the time of his adoption by Tiberius , was clearly the frontrunner for the third generation of the writing company for students Principate. Through him, also, Augustus could hope for a Julian heir to what is a dissertation abstract the throne, but it is far from clear whether this remote consideration played any decisive role in Augustus's thinking. [] The succession issue was not a happy one for the imperial house and carried in its train some domestic tragedies. No Uniforms In Schools? Aside from the deaths of the various princes, Augustus banished his own daughter Julia in is a dissertation 2 BC and her daughter, also named Julia, in AD 8. On Compassion Thesis? In AD 6-7 Agrippa Postumus was disinherited and banished to the small island of Planasia, only to be murdered shortly after Augustus's death. Abstract? The banishment of Julia the Elder is emblematic of this group of events. Julia's marriage to Tiberius had not been successful and she appears to have sought solace in the arms of various noblemen and in mla format 2010, equestrians. Dissertation Abstract? In 2 BC her indiscretions were brought to Augustus's attention and, enraged, he banished her to - imagination the island of Pandateria. Is A Dissertation Abstract? She never returned to legit writing company Rome. The sources unanimously ascribe Julia's fate to dissertation abstract her licentiousness and immorality, but modern scholars have rightly questioned this presentation and seen instead dynastic scheming behind Julia's actions and subsequent banishment.
Whatever the actual degree of format, Julia's political acumen, the informal and allusive nature of the succession system itself was the root cause of her demise. For, in the Augustan system, an what is a dissertation abstract, imperial princess who had been married to no less than three indicated favorites (Marcellus, Agrippa, and Tiberius ) and who then brought outsiders into her bed was also bringing them into the heart of the essay and reality dynasty. That could not be tolerated. Is A? That Augustus interpreted his daughter's misdeeds in political terms, at least in part, is suggested by the trial for treason of one of Julia's lovers, Iullus Antonius, and his subsequent execution or suicide; others of her lovers were banished. The same can be said for the fall of Agrippa Postumus and then of Julia the Younger. However murky the details in each case, they can all be seen as victims of the legit writing for students Augustan succession system. [] In all, then, the succession problem was a difficult one for what dissertation abstract, Augustus, and his solutions only perpetuated it for no uniforms, all future emperors. Despite the internal difficulties engendered by the issue, Augustus was keen to what is a dissertation abstract present a united image of the imperial house to the populace.
This is best illustrated by the Altar of the essay word title Augustan Peace ( Ara Pacis Augustae ), dedicated in what is a dissertation January, 9 BC, and on compassion by barbara ascher thesis, laden with symbolic significance largely outside the purview of this biography. For our current purposes, most important is the presentation to the people, on the south frieze, of the imperial family--women and children included--as a corporate entity. Abstract? The message of dynastic harmony and the promise of future stability emanating from the imperial house is palpable. The reality, as we have just seen, was rather different. Augustus and and reality, the Empire I: the Army. Augustus completed the ongoing professionalization of the Roman military by establishing a force of is a abstract, 28 standing legions (three were to essay count include title be lost in Germany in AD 9), made up of dissertation, volunteer recruits.
For the citizen soldiers of the legions, service was for a prescribed period (first 16, then 20 years), on a regular wage, and with fixed rewards upon discharge. Essay In Mla Format 2010? After 14 BC, land grants were discontinued in favor of cash pension payments; such payments were funded, after AD 6, by a new public treasury (the aerarium militare ). For the first time, military service became a career choice in dissertation and of itself. Augustus also created a non-citizen wing of the army (corresponding to the Republican era's allies and extraordinarii ). These auxiliary troops were formed into cohorts of essay in mla 2010, infantry and is a dissertation, wings ( alae ) of cavalry, usually 500 or 1000 strong, sometimes under their own commanders, sometimes under a Roman officer (an ex-centurion or tribune). Under Augustus, auxiliary units were mostly raised as needed and disbanded when the campaign(s) ended; some units were incorporated into the new permanent force, on terms of service similar to those for - imagination, the legionaries. Augustus also regularized the organization and terms of service in the Roman navy and created the abstract praetorian guard, a personal force which he discreetly and tactfully billeted in cyber argumentative essay townships around Rome. What Is A Abstract? [] Augustus was careful to channel the loyalties of this new professional army solely in his direction. The troops' loyalty to Augustus was assured by by barbara their taking a personal oath of loyalty to is a dissertation abstract him and by in schools his role as their sole paymaster and guarantor of their rewards on discharge.
In short, he was their patron. The army's commanders on-the-ground were handpicked legates of Augustus; its campaign commanders were often the likes of Agrippa, Tiberius , or Gaius Caesar, that is, members of Augustus's own family or immediate circle. He also kept the army busy in major campaigns in Spain, the Alpine regions, along the Danube and Rhine rivers, across the Rhine in Germany, and in numerous small-scale actions all along the empire's frontiers. Where active campaigns were not prosecuted, as in Gaul or in the East, the army was used as a means of aiding political settlements (as in the return of the Parthian eagles in abstract 20 BC or the meeting of C. Caesar and the Parthians on essay title an island in the Euphrates in AD 2) or as a garrison over local populations (as in Gaul). While Augustus did not go so far as to station the legions along the frontier as a defensive garrison force (as was to happen in later ages), he at least removed them from the center of power and what is a abstract, began the process of keeping them in the vicinity of the frontiers. Although Augustus appears to some scholars to essay and reality have been aiming at establishing scientific frontiers along the Rhine/Elbe and Danube lines, the whole issue of his foreign policy--indeed, whether even such a policy existed--remains most unclear. For the scientific frontiers view to be true, certain problematic assumptions are requisite, not the least concerning the Romans' cartographic capabilities and what dissertation, their appreciation of geographic realities well beyond their immediate purview; it is also questionable to what degree the administration of the empire in general adhered to clearly conceived policy on anything, rather than reacting ad hoc as circumstances and essay writing, local conditions dictated.
On the whole, then, we should probably avoid notions of Roman imperial policy on the model of modern national policies. One of the chief political values of Augustus's campaigns was that it kept his new professional army busy--idle trained killers can be a somewhat destabilizing element in society--and afforded him considerable personal military glory, which further reinforced his claim to the loyalty of the troops. Dissertation Abstract? [] The importance to Augustus, as well as to the state, of format 2010, his monopolization of army loyalties is revealed in two suggestive incidents in 27 BC, when the Augustan order was still in its infancy. At this delicate time, M. Licinius Crassus, grandson of the great Late Republican magnate, raised a serious problem for Augustus. As governor of Macedonia he had undertaken successful campaigns south of the Danube in 29-28 BC and had personally killed the enemy leader in battle. In 27 BC, then, he was awarded a triumph but he went further: he claimed the ancient honor of spolia opima (the most honorable spoils), awarded to a Roman commander who had slain his counterpart with his own hand. These honors, involving the dedication of the enemy commander's captured panoply to Jupiter Feretrius, had only been earned on dissertation three prior occasions in all of Roman history. Since Crassus's claim to the spolia opima would have raised Crassus into the uppermost echelons of military glory, it had the potential to confuse the in mla format soldiers' loyalty toward Augustus.
So Augustus blocked the dissertation abstract claim on a technicality. Crassus held his triumph and - imagination, promptly disappears from our records. (It is unlikely that he was killed but, rather, that his public profile died a death in the face of Augustus's displeasure, a good example, if true, of the workings of what is a, auctoritas .) Not long afterward, another governor proved problematic. C. Cornelius Gallus had been appointed the first prefect of Egypt on its annexation in 30 BC. Like Crassus, he had embarked on campaigns to surpress revolts and to cyber argumentative attack neighboring people. He then celebrated his successes with statues of himself and bragging inscriptions, one of which has survived. Is A Dissertation Abstract? Enraged, Augustus let it be known that he no longer considered Gallus his friend. Charges were immediately brought and proposals laid that Gallus be convicted in absentia , exiled, and his property given to Augustus. His social status and no uniforms in schools, political career in ruins, his very life perhaps in danger, Gallus committed suicide (possibly in what abstract 26 BC). Both of these men had behaved fully within the boundaries of republican precedent but had failed utterly to count include title appreciate a fundamental rule of the new order: there was to be no military glory but Augustus's.
In contrast, Agrippa, for so long Augustus's right-hand man, repeatedly refused honors and triumphs granted to him; all his victories were celebrated by Augustus. [] Augustus and the Empire II: Administration. In the sphere of external affairs, many of the army's conquests were formed into new provinces, especially along the south shore of the Danube (Moesia, Pannonia, Noricum, and Raetia) and the Alps (Alpes Cottiae and Maritimae). In the what dissertation abstract East and in Mauretania in North Africa, client kingdoms and principalities were allowed to exist, sometimes in very complex arrangements, as with the essay word count include Tetrarchs in what is a abstract Palestine or the numerous lesser kingdoms that dotted the interior and eastern reaches of Asia Minor. From 27 BC onward these provinces were divided into those that fell into the vast provincia of Augustus (the imperial provinces) and those that were retained by the senate and essay writing company, people (the senatorial or public provinces; see above, From Octavian to Augutus: A New Order Established). What Abstract? When the disposition of the provinces is examined (as it stood on Augustus's death in AD 14), it shows that the imperial territories outnumber the public ones by a factor of almost two, and that all but one of the empire's twenty-five legions then in service fell under the essay - imagination and reality emperor's command.
Further, the what is a Cyrenaica decrees reveal the emperor making decisions about the internal operation of this, a public province. Such interference on Augustus's part was legitimated by the improved imperium proconsulare granted him in the settlement of 23 BC and brings into question any notions of joint rule by senate and essay - imagination, princeps (so-called dyarchy). What Is A Abstract? Ultimately, all the provinces were Augustus's concern. [] Overall, it is fair to say that the provinces, whether public or imperial, benefited enormously from cyber bullying essay, Augustus's reign. Not only had he brought them peace, he also brought them good government. Legates in imperial provinces were appointed by Augustus for periods of what is a, three years or more depending on local conditions, whereas proconsuls in the public provinces continued to argumentative rotate annually.
The men varied in rank from senators (proconsuls, usually of praetorian rank, in public provinces; legates of praetorian or consular rank in dissertation imperial ones) to equites (governing as prefects, as in Egypt and some of the smaller, unarmed provinces). Whatever their status, under the new order governors had no reason to extort from and reality, their provinces the huge sums of money that Republican-era proconsuls and propraetors had used to bankroll their domestic political careers, since the dissertation abstract success of those careers now depended less on victory at the polls and more on the emperor's favor. Indeed, extortion in the provinces could be positively dangerous, as it raised suspicions about the nature of one's ultimate ambitions. Legit Company? These strictures applied no less in the public than in the imperial provinces, since all governors were now answerable to a single source of authority in a way they had not been under the Republic. This does not mean that rapacious governors entirely disappeared as a breed but that, for the most part--the disappointments of Gallus and what is a dissertation abstract, Crassus aside--Augustus's gubernatorial appointments were sound. We hear of no major failings in the management of the provinces during his reign and certainly nothing on a par with the rapacious activities of the likes of Caesar or Sulla under the Republic. Augustus, by virtue of by barbara ascher thesis, proconsular power, could also intervene directly in any provincial dispute, as he did famously in Cyrenaica. Abstract? Hardly surprising, then, is the fact that of all the emperors, Augustus's image is the most commonly found in the provinces, even long after his death. Essay In Mla? The remarkable period of peace and prosperity ushered in by Augustus's reign is known not only as the Pax Romana but also as the Pax Augusta . What? [] Augustus, as the protector and guardian of Roman tradition, also sought to inculcate a return to that tradition by means of legislation: by new laws passed at my instigation, I brought back those practices of our ancestors that were passing away in our age ( RG 8.5). Thus, for instance, he passed laws limiting public displays of extravagance (so-called sumptuary legislation) in the manner of the old Republican senate, and he attempted through marriage regulations to put a cap on divorces and punish childlessness and adultery among the elite.
He also reinforced the traditional social hierarchy, making sure that everyone knew their place in it. Minimum property qualifications for membership of the upper orders were reinforced, and status symbols for all the classes, especially the amorphous equestrians, clearly established. The convergence of this sort of legislation is in schools essay illustrated by the series of laws pertaining to freed slaves, passed between 17 BC and AD 4. What Is A Abstract? In the essay first place, the numbers of slaves that could be informally manumitted or freed in wills was restricted in proportion to the total number of slaves owned. This is a piece of sumptuary regulation, limiting overly extravagant displays of abstract, wealth and generosity in public. Second, informally freed slaves were placed into a special class of quasi-citizenship termed Junian Latinity that was capable of being upgraded to full citizenship only after the in schools essay Junians had proved themselves worthy; one way of achieving worthiness was to have children. Such regulations, then, encapsulated the Augustan attitudes toward public extravagance, maintenance of the social hierarchy, and marriage and is a abstract, reproduction. Essay Word Count Include Title? In his private life, Augustus fell short of what abstract, his own ideals (witness the turmoil engendered in his family by adultery and essay include title, infidelities of all sorts), but the thrust of his social legislation was less to dissertation regulate individuals' private behavior than to on compassion ascher thesis maintain the proper outward appearance of dignitas and what, decency that Augustus felt had been lost during the Late Republic.
As such, it pertained to - imagination the ruling classes of the what is a abstract state and hardly at all affected the commoner on essay the street. [] Finally, there is the issue of the worship of Augustus. The imperial cult evolved gradually over many centuries, and it has been long recognized that ruler worship extended back well before Roman times in the eastern Mediterranean. In the is a East, then, the essay worship of Augustus as a god commenced not long after Actium. Augustus, reticent in this regard, often rejected divine honors outright or insisted that his worship be coupled with that of Rome. What Dissertation Abstract? He probably had an eye on Caesar's fate in so acting. The situation in the West, however, was more difficult. In Rome itself there could be no question of Augustus being worshipped as a living god, which would go against the grain of the Principate. In any case, he was already the son of a god and the revered one (Augustus).
A compromise solution appears to on compassion thesis have been to have his will ( numen ) or essence ( genius ) recognized as divine. In Italy and out in the western provinces Augustus did not actively block direct worship, and dissertation, two major cult centers were established at Lugdunum in by barbara ascher thesis Gaul and is a dissertation, Cologne on the Rhine with altars at each place to writing company for students Rome and Augustus, maintained by officials drawn from the what local elite. In communities all across the West, in fact, altars and temples to Rome and Augustus and to Augustus himself are attested, all staffed by locals. Such cult centers therefore acted not only to promote unity in on compassion ascher the previously barbarous western provinces and to direct loyalties accordingly, but they also facilitated the what is a dissertation abstract assimilation of local populations into no uniforms in schools a Roman way of what abstract, life. Essay? [] The Augustan literary scene was also exceptionally vibrant. This is the what abstract era of some of Rome's most famous and influential writers, including Vergil, Horace, Ovid, Propertius, and Tibullus in poetry, and Livy in prose. Vergil, in no uniforms in schools essay particular, crafted a new national epic for the Romans in the Aeneid , which quickly came to replace Ennius's Annales as the poem every schoolchild learned by abstract heart. This great flowering of literary activity was generated by the development of literary circles of patronage, which had been mostly in abeyance since the second century BC. The most famous literary, indeed artistic, patron of his day was C. Maecenas, a close associate of Augustus from the very beginning but one who never played an active role in politics (in contrast to Agrippa). Something of a bon vivant , he actively supported the careers of Vergil and Horace, for by barbara thesis, instance, until his death in what is a 8 BC.
Another circle formed around M. Valerius Messalla Corvinus, who promoted the careers of bullying argumentative essay, Tibullus and Ovid. For the historian the most intriguing question such literary circles prompt is the degree to which the political and cultural sentiments expressed by these writers were officially directed, and so in effect provided propaganda for the Augustan regime. When all the evidence is what dissertation weighed, there can be no question of a state-controlled literature (on the model of media in modern totalitarian states) but there may have been encouragement from the top to express the correct view coupled, no doubt, with genuine gratitude and relief on the part of the patrons and writers alike that Augustus had restored peace and stability to public affairs. In this way, Vergil's Eclogues and on compassion by barbara ascher thesis, Georgics can reflect the hope Augustus brought for a restoration of peace to dissertation abstract the Italian countryside, while the Republican sentiments of Livy's history could be so pronounced that Augustus jokingly termed him my Pompeian. The point is that both authors flourished under the regime. [] The inscription entitled The Achievements of the Divine Augustus ( Res Gestae Divi Augustae ; usually abbreviated RG ) remains a remarkable piece of evidence deriving from Augustus's reign. The fullest copy of it is the bilingual Greek and - imagination, Latin version carved into what is a dissertation abstract the walls of the Temple of Rome and Augustus at Ancyra in Galatia (for this reason the RG used to be commonly referred to as the Monumentum Ancyranum ). Other evidence, however, demonstrates that the original was inscribed on two bronze pillars that flanked the entrance to the Mausoleum of Augustus in Rome. The inscription remains the only first-person summary of any Roman emperor's political career and, as such, offers invaluable insights into the Augustan regime's public presentation of itself. [] In looking back on the reign of Augustus and its legacy to the Roman world, its longevity ought not to essay writing company for students be overlooked as a key factor in its success. People had been born and reached middle age without knowing any form of government other than the Principate. What Dissertation Abstract? Had Augustus died earlier (in 23 BC, for in mla, instance), matters may have turned out very differently.
The attrition of the civil wars on the old Republican aristocracy and the longevity of Augustus, therefore, must be seen as major contributing factors in the transformation of the Roman state into a monarchy in these years. Augustus's own experience, his patience, his tact, and his great political acumen also played their part. All of these factors allowed him to put an end to the chaos of the Late Republic and what is a dissertation abstract, re-establish the writing company Roman state on a firm footing. He directed the future of the empire down many lasting paths, from the existence of a standing professional army stationed at or near the frontiers, to the dynastic principle so often employed in what is a dissertation abstract the imperial succession, to the embellishment of the capital at the emperor's expense. Augustus's ultimate legacy, however, was the peace and prosperity the empire was to thesis enjoy for the next two centuries under the system he initiated. Dissertation? His memory was enshrined in the political ethos of the Imperial age as a paradigm of the good emperor; although every emperor adopted his name, Caesar Augustus, only a handful earned genuine comparison with him. Benario, H.W., Octavian's Status in 32 BC, Chiron 5 (1975): 301-9. Birch, R.A., The Settlement of 26 June, AD 4 and its Aftermath, CQ 31 (1981): 443-56. Bleicken, J., Zwischen Republik und Prinzipat: Zum Charakter des Zweiten Triumvirats (Göttingen, 1990).
________. Augustus (Berlin, 1998). Bradley, K.R., Slaves and Masters in the Roman Empire (Oxford, 1987). Braund, D., Augustus to Nero: A Sourcebook on Roman History 31 BC - AD 68 (London, 1985). Carter, J. M., The Battle of word count include title, Actium: The Rise and is a dissertation abstract, Triumph of Augustus Caesar (New York, 1970). Conlin, D.A., The Artists of the Ara Pacis (Chapel Hill, 1997).
Corbett, J.H., The Succession Policy of Augustus, Latomus 33 (1974): 87-97. Crook, J., Consilium Principis: Imperial Councils and cyber argumentative essay, Counsellors from Augustus to Diocletian (Cambridge, 1955). Demougin, S., L'Ordre equestre sous les Julio-Claudiens (Rome, 1988). Durry, M., Les Cohortes Prétoriennes (Paris, 1938). Eck, W., Die Verwaltung des römischen Reiches in der hohen Kaiserzeit , 2 volumes (Basel, 1995). W. Eck, The Age of Augustus (Oxford: Blackwell's, 2003)
Eder, W., Augustus and the Power of Tradition: The Augustan Principate as Binding Link between Republic and Empire, in Raaflaub and dissertation abstract, Toher, 71-122. Fishwick, D., The Imperial Cult in the Latin West (Leiden, 1987). Galinsky, K., Augustan Culture: An Interpretive Introduction (Princeton, 1996). Gowing, A.M. The Triumviral Narratives of Appian and Cassius Dio (Ann Arbor, 1992). Gray, E.W., The Imperium of M. Agrippa, ZPE 6 (1970): 227-38. Gruen, E. S., The Imperial Policy of Augustus, in on compassion by barbara ascher thesis Raaflaub and Toher, 395-416 (expanded on in his entry in CAH vol. 10) Gurval, R.A., Actium and Augustus: The Politics and Emotions of what is a abstract, Civil War (Ann Arbor, 1995).
Hadas, M., Sextus Pompey (New York, 1930; reprint, 1966). Issac, B., The Limits of Empire: The Roman Army in no uniforms essay the East , revised edition (Oxford, 1992). Jameson, S., Augustus and Agrippa Postumus, Historia 24 (1975): 287-314. Kaiser Augustus und die verlorene Republik, eine Ausstellung im Martin-Gropius-Bau, Berlin, 7. Juni-14. August 1988 . (Mainz, 1988) . Keppie, L., Colonisation and Veteran Settlement in Italy, 47-14 BC (London, 1983). ________. The Making of the Roman Army: From Republic to Empire , updated edition (Norman, 1998). Kienast, D., Augustus: Prinzeps und Monarch (Darmstadt, 1982).
________. Römische Kaisertabelle , 2nd edition (Darmstadt, 1996). Kolb, F., Zur Statussymbolik im antiken Rom, Chiron 7 (1977): 239-59. Lacey, W.K., Augustus and the Principate: The Evolution of the System (Liverpool, 1996). Lanza, C., Auctoritas Principis (Milan, 1996). Levick, B., Drusus Caesar and the Adoptions of AD 4, Latomus 25 (1966): 227-44.
________. Abdication and Agrippa Postumus, Historia 21 (1972): 674-97. ________. Julians and Claudians, Greece and Rome 22 (1975): 29-38. Lintott, A., Imperium Romanum: Politics and Administration (London, 1993). Jones, A.H.M. Augustus (London, 1970) Magdelain, A., Auctoritas Principis (Paris, 1947).
Mette-Dittman, A., Die Ehegesetze des Augustus: Eine Untersuchung im Rahmen der Gesellshaftspolitik des Prinzeps (Stuttgart, 1991). Millar, F., The Emperor, the Senate and the Roman Provinces, JRS 56 (1966): 156-66. ________. Is A? Triumvirate and Principate, JRS 63 (1973): 50-67. ________.
The Emperor in the Roman World (London, 1977). ________. The Roman Empire and its Neighbours , 2nd edition (London, 1981). Millar, F. and E. On Compassion Thesis? Segal, Caesar Augustus: Seven Aspects (Oxford, 1984). Ostrow, S.E., The Augustales in the Augustan Scheme, in Raaflaub and Toher, 364-78. Pollini, J., Man or God: Divine Assimilation and Imitation in the Late Republic and Early Empire, in Raaflaub and Toher, 334-63. Prince, S.R.F., Rituals and Power: The Roman Imperial Cult in what abstract Asia Minor (Cambridge, 1984) Raaflaub, K., and essay and reality, L. J. Samons II, Opposition to Augustus, in Raaflaub and Toher, 417-54.
________. and M. Toher (eds.), Between Republic and Empire: Interpretations of what is a, Augustus and his Principate (Berkeley, 1990). Ramage, E.S., The Nature and Purpose of Augustus's Res Gestae (Stuttgart, 1987). Rawson, E., Discrimina Ordinum: The Lex Julia Theatralis, PBSR 55 (1987): 83-114 (reprinted in her Roman Culture and Society: Collected Papers [Oxford, 1991], 508-45). Rich, J.W., Cassius Dio and the Augustan Settlement (Warminster, 1990). Reinhold, M., Marcus Agrippa: A Biography (Rome, 1965). Roddaz, J.-M., Marcus Agrippa (Rome, 1984). Salmon, E.T., The Evolution of Augustus's Principate, Historia 5 (1956): 456-78. Schlüter, W. The Battle of the Teutoburg Forest: Archaeological Research at Kalkreise near Osnabrück, in J.D.
Creighton and R.J.A. Wilson (eds), Roman Germany: Studies in Cultural Interaction (Portsmouth, RI, 1999), 125-59. Shotter, D.C., Augustus Caesar (London, 1991) Simon, E., Augustus: Kunst und Leben in Rom um die Zeitenwende (Munich 1986). Southern, P., Augustus (London, 1998).
Syme, R., The Roman Revolution , rev. ed. (Oxford, 1952). ________. History in Ovid (Oxford, 1978). ________. The Augustan Aristocracy (Oxford, 1986). Talbert, R.J.A., The Senate of Imperial Rome (Princeton, 1984). Taylor, L. R., The Divinity of the Roman Emperor (Middletown, 1931; reprint, New York, 1979). Von Premerstein, A. Vom Werden und Wesen des Prinzipate. (Munich, 1937). Ward-Perkins, J.B., Roman Imperial Architecture , 2nd edition (Hammondsworth, 1981). Weigel, R.D., Lepidus: The Tarnished Triumvir (London, 1992). Whittaker, C.R., Frontiers of the Roman Empire: A Social and Economic Study (Baltimore, 1994).
Williams, G., Did Maecenas 'Fall from legit essay writing for students, Favor'? Augustan Literary Patronage, in Raaflaub and Toher, 258-75. Zanker, P., The Power of Images in the Age of Augustus (Ann Arbor, 1988). NOTES (throughout the notes, items in the bibliography are referred to in abbreviated form) [] The chief ancient sources for the life of Augustus (mostly available as Penguin Classics or in the Loeb Classical Library) are: Appian B. What Is A Dissertation? Civ . Bullying? books 3-5; Dio, books 45-56; Cicero, Philippics and some letters; Nicolaus of is a dissertation abstract, Damascus, Augustus ; Plutarch, Mark Antony ; Suetonius, Augustus ; the word count include Res Gestae Divi Augusti (see the edition by P.A. Is A Abstract? Brunt and J.M. Writing? Moore [Oxford, 1967]). Fragments of the biography of what is a dissertation, Augustus by Nicolaus of Damascus (fl. ca. 20 BC) are especially valuable, since this work is widely accepted as preserving elements of in schools essay, Augustus's lost De Vita Sua (covering the years down to 25 BC; Suet. Aug . 1-18 appears also to be based on what is a dissertation abstract this autobiography).
The surviving text of Nicolaus, however, only treats Octavian's life down to the raising of his private legions in cyber bullying argumentative 44 BC (for editions with English translations and notes, see J. Bellemore, Nicolaus of Damascus: Life of Augustus [Bristol, 1984]; C.M. Hall, Nicolaus of Damascus: Life of Augustus [Baltimore, 1923]). There are also innumerable references to him in other ancient literary works and inscriptions, and large quantities of iconographic evidence (statues, busts, reliefs, gems, etc). The number of is a dissertation, modern accounts is also formidable, with useful and concise introductions to be found in Shotter, Augustus Caesar and Jones, Augustus . More thorough and specific treatments include Bleicken, Augustus ; Kienast, Augustus ; Millar and Segal, Caesar Augustus: Seven Aspects ; Raaflaub and Toher, Between Republic and Empire ; Southern, Augustus ; Syme, Roman Revolution ; id. History in Ovid . In the interests of conciseness, the company notes emphasize the ancient evidence; most of the secondary studies just cited tackle the what is a issues addressed in this article. [] The fall of the Roman Republic has also generated vast quantities of bibliography; see, esp., P.A. Brunt, The Fall of the Roman Republic and Related Essays (Oxford, 1988); M. Crawford and M. Beard, Rome in the Late Republic (Ithaca, 1985); F. Millar, The Crowd in Rome in the Late Republic (Ann Arbor, 1998); E. Gruen, The Last Generation of the Roman Republic (Berkeley, 1974); Syme, Rom. Legit Company For Students? Rev . [] The lack of popular enthusiasm for what dissertation, Caesar's naked autocracy is reflected in a famous incident during the Lupercalia (15 February) in 44 BC. Bullying? Caesar had twice been offered a royal diadem in front of the crowd.
The crowd, we hear, reacted badly to this spectacle, remaining largely silent, despite the presence of a pro-Caesar claque in their midst. Only when Caesar refused the crown did the crowd cheer wildly. See Dio 44.11-12; App. B. Civ . 2.109; Plut. Caes . 61-62. What Dissertation? Suet. Caes . 79.2 only alludes to the incident. [] Ancient accounts of Augustus's birth and early life are seriously marred by fantastical prophesies of future greatness, so that the historical reality is hard to weed out. He seems, however, to no uniforms in schools essay have lived a largely uneventful first nineteen years. See Dio 45.1-2; Suet. Is A Abstract? Aug . 1-8; Nic.
Aug . 2-5; Tac. Dial . 28.5 Cicero's letters provide the only contemporary evidence for Augustus's early career, and are indispensable for in mla, that, but provide little information on his early life. A note on names: Augustus was born C. Octavius, became C. Julius Caesar Octavianus (usually abbreviated Octavian in modern sources) in 44 BC, and was renamed yet again as Imperator Augustus Caesar in 27 BC. Dissertation? Following standard practice, I shall refer to him by his appropriate name in each period. [] Association with Caesar: Nic. Aug . 7-12. Aftermath of murder: App.
B. Civ . 3.9-11. Octavian seems to have arrived in Italy in early April or late March: Cicero, in a letter from essay - imagination and reality, Astura dated 11 April, inquired of Atticus how it went ( Att . 14.5.3 = SB 359). Note that the influential Caesarian L. Munatius Plancus had taken note of the young Octavius prior to Caesar's murder, so the young man had not gone entirely unnoticed by the elite; see Cic. Fam . 10.24.5. [] For ancient narratives of the what is a events here described, see App. B. Civ . 3.11-98; Dio 45.5.1-46.52.4; Nic. Aug . 16-31; Suetonius ( Aug . 8.3-12) presents a conflated and rather confused account. Augustus's own summary of this phase of his career ( RG 1.1) is restricted to the simple and tendentious assertion he successfully championed the liberty of the essay republic when it was oppressed by the tyranny of a faction. [] Technically, however, the adoption was not made official until October/November 43 BC. That is what abstract why, it seems, Cicero comments that, when he met Octavian at Puteoli on 22 April, 44 BC, his followers call him Caesar, but Philippus [Octavian's stepfather] does not, so neither do I ( Att . 14.12.2 = SB 366); the Liberator M. Junius Brutus also refers to Octavian as Octavius (Cic.
Ad Brut . 17.5-6, 25.1, 2, 7, 8, 11; dated June and July 43 BC). In contrast, L. Argumentative? Munatius Plancus, a Caesarian, calls Octavian Caesar in letters roughly contemporary with Brutus's (e.g., Cic. Fam . 10.23.6, 10.24.4-8). The political importance of the name was beyond doubt to contemporaries. [] Cicero first met Octavian in Naples on 19 April, 44 BC, one day after Octavian had arrived in what is a abstract the city ( Att . 14.10.3 = SB 364). A few days later, on 22 April, he had decided that Octavian's influence on no uniforms in schools events could not be good, since his supporters were threatening death to the Liberators ( Att . Abstract? 14.12.2 = SB 366).
[] For his part, Cicero paid little attention to Octavius, at no uniforms least initially: on 12 April, 44 BC he wrote to Atticus ( Att . 14.6.1 = SB 360), As for Octavius -- it's neither here not there. [] Appian ( B. Civ . Is A Abstract? 3.14-21) puts windy speeches into both their mouths: Octavian asks for no uniforms, his inheritance, Antony refuses by claiming the money is tied up in dissertation abstract litigation, largely spent already, or not yet counted. By Barbara Ascher Thesis? In contrast, Dio (45.5.3) merely comments that Antony insulted Octavian, despite the what is a latter's deference and failure to demand his inheritance. Regardless of the on compassion by barbara ascher thesis details, in both accounts the meeting was not successful. [] Cicero, in is a dissertation letters to Atticus dated 11 and 18 May, 44 BC ( Att . 14.20.5 = SB 374, 14.21.4 = SB 375, and 15.2.3 = SB 379), makes reference to Octavian addressing a contio in Rome and essay, preparing to give games (see Dio 45.6.4). C. Matius, an is a abstract, obscure but affluent Caesarian, saw to essay and reality the games at Octavian's request (Cic. Fam . 11.28.6).
[] See App. B. Civ . Is A Dissertation? 3.27, 30; Dio 45.9.3. [] All of this took place in October and essay, November 44 BC, as Cicero's letters make plain ( Att . 16.8.1-2 = SB 418; Fam . 12.23.2). What Is A? See also App. B. In Schools? Civ . 3.40-48; Dio 45.12. [] Cicero, however, had been from the outset doubtful about Octavian's nature and intentions; see Att . 14.12.2 = SB 366 (April 44 BC) and what is a, 16.9 = SB 419 (November 44 BC). Needless to say, it was also to the political benefit of the Liberators and their supporters (Cicero among them) to keep the Caesarian leadership quarrelling.
[] Cicero's speeches against Antony, called the Philippics , have survived. In Philippics 3-5 (dated 20 December, 44 BC - 1 January, 43 BC), Cicero secured Octavian's appointment as propraetor from the senate. See also Cic. Count? Fam . 10.28.3 (dated 2 February, 43 BC) [] App. B. Civ . 3.49-73; Cic. Fam . 11.8.2 (Cicero to Decimus Brutus, dated late January, 43 BC), 10.30.4 (letter from Ser. Sulpicius Galba serving with consuls at Mutina, dated 15 April, 43 BC), 10.33.3-4 (letter from C. Is A? Asinius Pollio, dated late May, 43 BC); Cic. Phil . Essay Word Count? 14; Dio 45.12-46.38. Cicero's quip, reported back to him by Decimus Brutus in a letter dated 24 May, 43 BC ( Fam . 11.20.1) was that the youth [Octavian] should be praised, decorated, immortalized (the Latin-- laudandum, ornandum, tollendum --is deliberately ambiguous: tollere can mean both raise up and destroy). [] App.
B. Civ . 3.74-95; Cic. Fam . 11.10.2, 11.13.1, 11.14.2 (correspondence to and from Decimus Brutus, dated May, 43 BC), 10.23.6 (letter from Plancus, dated 6 June, 43 BC). Octavian's election to the consulship took place on 19 August (as attested in the Feriale Cumanum , InscIt 13.2.278ff.), though his demand for the consulship appears to have begun in June (Cic. Ad Brut . Dissertation? 18.3); Dio 46.39-49. On Cassius and count, Brutus in the East, see App. B. What Dissertation? Civ . 3.26, 63, 77-79, 96; Dio 47.20-36. [] Overtures to Antony: App. B. Civ . 3.80-81. Meeting and by barbara ascher, formation of the triumvirate: App. B. Civ . 3.96-4.3 (Appian places the meeting at Mutina); Dio 46.54.3-55.5. Passage of the lex Titia : App.
B. What Dissertation? Civ . Essay For Students? 4.7; Dio 47.2.2. What Dissertation Abstract? The terminal date of the triumvirate is essay unequivocally established by the Fasti Colotiani . Is A Dissertation Abstract? On the legalities of the Second Triumvirate, see Bleicken, Zwischen Republik und Prinzipat ; see also Millar, Triumvirate. [] See App. B. Civ . 4.8-9 (text of word count include title, proclamation) and 4.10-51 (anecdotes of the dissertation proscribed); see also Dio 47.9-13. Death of essay - imagination, Cicero: App. B. Civ . 4.19; Dio 47.8.3-4; Plut. Cic. 46-49.
Plutarch ( Cic . 49.5) preserves the moving anecdote of Augustus, years later, unexpectedly confronted by his compliance in Cicero's murder. When visiting one of his grandsons, the fearful child attempted to conceal the book of Cicero he was reading. Augustus took the book, read it for some time, and gave it back to the boy saying, A learned man, my boy, learned and a true patriot. Dio (47.8.1), Pliny ( HN 7.147), Plutarch ( Ant . 21), Suetonius ( Aug . 27.1), and Velleius (2.66.1-3) unite in blaming the proscriptions mainly on dissertation Antony (and Lepidus), the former public enemies out for essay word count include, revenge; there has to be a suspicion of pro-Augustan retroactive finger-pointing here. (Perhaps the later tradition of Octavian's reluctance stems from apologia in Augustus's own Memoirs , now lost.) The final count of the dead is what given by Appian ( B. Civ . 4.5) as 300 senators and 2,000 Knights. Southern (57-59) joins Kienast (35) in arguing forcefully that the proscriptions were motivated by the mentality of the political purge, not financial need.
[] Africa: App. B. Civ . 4.53-56. Campaign of Philippi: App. B. Civ . 4.86-139; Dio 47.37-49. Octavian's limited role in essay the fighting: Dio 47.41.1-4; Pliny HN 7.148. Re-alignment of the triumviral provinces: App. B. Civ . 5.3, 12; Dio 48.1.2-3. (Cisalpine Gaul now ceased to be a province and was finally integrated into Italia.) [] On the depradations of the soldiers in Italy, see Dio 47.14.4-5. What? On this settlement, see Keppie, Colonisation , 58-69.
On the methods and impact of veteran settlement, see ibid., 87-133. On Compassion By Barbara Thesis? The eighteen towns: App. Is A? B. Legit Company For Students? Civ . 4.3 (Appian says the towns were remarkable for their wealth and fine lands and houses). What Is A Dissertation Abstract? It should be noted that where the territory of essay and reality, a designated veteran colony proved insufficient for what is a dissertation abstract, the requirements of settlement, the territory of neighboring towns would be encroached upon, occasionally to - imagination the point of total subsumption (e.g., Caudium, entirely absorbed by the settlement at Beneventum). Abstract? Thus, many more than the eighteen towns mentioned by Appian were affected by the settlement process. [] On the bullying essay Perusine War, see App.
B. Civ . 5.14, 30-51; Dio 48.13-14 . Is A? Antony's complicity: App. B. Essay And Reality? Civ . 5.21-22; Dio 48.28. Abstract? Execution of councilors: App. B. Civ . 5.48; Dio 48.14.3. Acquisition of Gaul: App. B. Civ . 5.51, 53; Dio 48.20.1, 3. [] Threatened war and Pact of Brundisium: App. B. Civ.
5.52-65; Dio 48.28-30. [] Career of Sextus: App. B. Civ . 2.105, 122, 3.4, 4.25, 36-54 (passim), 83-85, bk. In Mla Format 2010? 5 (passim); Dio 47.36.4, 47.49.4, 48.16-20. What Abstract? Date of appointment of Sextus to the prefecture of the fleet: Cic. Phil . 13.13. Essay In Mla 2010? Sextus's pact with Antony: App. B. Civ . Dissertation Abstract? 5.56. Treaty of Misenum/Puteoli: App. B. Civ . 5.67-74 (Appian places the meeting at Puteoli); Dio 48.36-38.
The scene at the latter was almost comical (as described by Appian): Antony and Octavian sat on a platform built over on compassion by barbara the sea close to dissertation the land; Sextus had his own, more seaward platform with his ships behind. A narrow strip of water separated the two platforms. Negotiations were then shouted across the word sea until agreement was reached. On Sextus Pompeius, see also Hadas, Sextus Pompey . In Syme's view ( Rom. Rev ., 221), the Peace of Puteoli enlarged the Triumvirate to include a fourth partner, which is something of an is a dissertation abstract, overstatement, given its evidently expedient nature. [] Collapse of format 2010, Misenum/Puteoli agreement and war: App. B. Civ . 5.77-92; Dio 48.45.4-49 . Treaty of Tarentum and renewal of what dissertation, triumvirate: App. B. Civ . 5.93-95; Dio 48.54.1-6. The issue of the 2010 duration of the second period of the triumvirate has proven difficult: was it renewed at Tarentum (September?, 37 BC) retroactively from dissertation, 1 January, 37 BC (to end on 31 December, 33 BC) or did it run directly from September(?), 37 BC (to end sometime toward the end of 32 BC)? The more convincing case is on the side of the retroactive view: see the excellent summary in Benario, Octavian's Status.
See also Bleicken, Zwischen Republik und Prinzipat , 65-82; id., Augustus , 269-70; W. Eder, Augustus and the Power of Tradition: The Augustan Principate as Binding Link Between Republic and Empire, in Raaflaub and Toher, 97-98; Jones, 31; Kienast, 55; Southern, 94. In all likelihood, Republican legalities played a lesser part in the considerations of the time than the observable reality of the triumvirate's dominance and, therefore, in the actual operation of its power; see below, n. 29. Word Count? On the growth of Octavian's party at what is a abstract this time, see Syme, Rom. Rev ., 227-42. [] Final campaign against Sextus: App. B. Civ . No Uniforms? 5.96-144; Dio 49.1-18.
Lepidus: App. B. Civ . Dissertation Abstract? 5.123; Dio 49.11.2-12.4; see also Weigel, Lepidus . Essay 2010? Lepidus's rash actions were, in Syme's words, sparked by a strange delusion ( Rom. Rev ., 232). These events in Sicily were capped by unrest among the legions there, with the soldiers demanding rewards for service. Octavian discharged 20,000 of them on the spot and promised the rest bounties after campaigns in Illyricum; see Appian and Dio locc. citt.; Keppie, Colonisation , 69-73. [] One of the honors allegedly given to Octavian after Naulochus, late in 36 BC, was the tribunician power (App. B. What Is A Dissertation? Civ . 5.132). However, Augustus later reckoned his tribunician power from 23 BC, which settles the no uniforms in schools essay argument decisively: he did not get it in 36 BC.
Dio is probably correct (49.15.6) in is a dissertation abstract saying that he was given a tribune-like protection from insult or injury ( sacrosanctitas ). Refusal of the pontificate: App. B. Civ . 5.131; Dio 49.15.3; Suet. Aug . Essay In Mla? 31.1. Burning of the records: App. B. Civ . Dissertation? 3.132. [] Antony's wars in the East: Dio 49.19-30; Plut. Ant . 37-52. Octavian in Illyricum: App. Ill . 12-28. Antony's behavior and the Donations of Alexandria (much of it no doubt drawn from pro-Augustus propaganda): Dio 49.41, Plut.
Ant . 54.3-6 (Donations); Dio 50.4-5 (behavior). Cleopatra's ambitions: Dio 50.4.1, 5.4. Rising tensions: Plut. Ant . 54-55. Agrippa's aedileship and munificence instigated by Octavian: Dio 49.43.1-4; Pliny HN 36.121; Roddaz, 145-57 (aedileship); Suet. Aug . 29.4-5; Vell. Legit Essay Writing Company? Pat. 2.89.4 (munificence).
[] On the date of the what dissertation expiration of the triumviral powers, see above n. 25. It is my opinion that many modern scholars, wedded to contemporary paradigms of legally-sanctioned government, have overstated the importance of legalities in establishing the powers of Roman Republican officials; precedent, ritual, and appearance were just as important, if not more so. In Mla Format? Certainly traditional procedures and practices were used during the Republic to what is a dissertation legitimate magisterial authority, but many of essay - imagination, these niceties had fallen by the wayside in the years since Pompey and Caesar. Time and again in what dissertation abstract the period after Sulla extraordinary powers and - imagination, privileges had been voted to generals in recognition of their de facto supremacy. So too now, with Octavian. Technically, his triumviral powers had lapsed. No one, however, not even the Antonian consuls for is a abstract, 32 BC, C. Sosius and on compassion by barbara ascher, Cn.
Domitius Ahenobarbus, were going to point that out publicly; although the content of Sosius's anti-Octavian speech of 1 January, 32 BC has not survived, that he focused on the expiration of the triumviral powers is unlikely, since the lapse applied to Antony as well. The reality of Octavian's pre-eminence in the West overshadowed the strict legalities of his position. On ritual, ceremony, and appearance in Republican magistracy, see D.J. Gargola, Lands, Laws and Gods: Magistrates and Ceremony in the Regulation of dissertation, Public Lands in Republican Rome (Chapel Hill, 1995), esp. 16-24; R. Stewart, Public Office in Early Rome: Ritual Procedure and Political Practice (Ann Arbor, 1998). The 1 January meeting of the cyber bullying essay senate and aftermath: Dio 50.2.3-7.
Reading Antony's will: Dio 50.3.1-4.1, Plut. Ant . 58.3-4. Is A Abstract? Oath: RG 25.2; Dio 50.6.3-4 (where the oath is word count unmentioned but implicit); Suet. Aug . 17.2. Augustus himself ( RG , loc. cit.) states that the what is a dissertation abstract oath was voluntary ( sponte sua ), but it may not have been (see Dio and Suetonius, locc. Essay In Mla Format? citt.).
Syme ( Rom. Rev ., 284) was convinced the dissertation abstract oath came before the denunciation of Antony in the senate and the declaration of war and, in a rousing phrase, believed the oath riveted the in schools shackles of [Italy's] servitude. [] Campaign at Actium: Dio 50.10-35; Plut. Ant . 61-68.3; Vell. Pat. Is A Abstract? 2.84-85; Carter, Battle of Actium . The forces on each side were monumental: about in schools, 30 legions apiece, and Antony had 500 warships to Octavian's 250 (Plut. Ant . 61). For the later reception of the Actian campaign, see Gurval, Actium and Augustus . [] Aftermath of Actium: Dio 51.1-17; Plut. Ant . 68.4-86. Date of the fall of Alexandria: Fasti Praenestini and what dissertation, Amiterini ( InscrIt . 13.2.107 and 13.2.185).
Cleopatra, according to Plutarch ( Ant . 78-86.3), was taken alive by Octavian, who planned to display her at his triumph. But she had an asp smuggled into a banquet she was holding, hidden among a plate of figs. (The asp bit her on the arm, not the breast, according to Plutarch [ Ant . 86.1-3] and Dio [51.14.1-2].) The revolt or plot of Lepidus is on compassion a shadowy affair: Vell. What Is A? Pat. No Uniforms In Schools? 2.88; Dio 54.15.4; Suet. Aug . What Is A Dissertation Abstract? 19.1. [] Settling affairs in - imagination the East: Dio 51.18. Veteran settlements: Keppie, Colonisation , 73-82. Wealth of Egypt used for settlements: Dio 51.17.6-8.
Three triumphs: Dio 51.21.6-9. By universal consent I was in complete control of affairs: RG 34.1. On 11 January, 29 BC the doors of the what is a dissertation Temple of Janus in Rome were closed, symbolizing that the entire Roman world was at peace (though Dio is quick to legit essay writing company point out the various wars still in progress in dissertation abstract diverse locales): it had only happened twice before in essay writing all of Roman history (Dio 51.20.4-5). Such a symbolic gesture must have had a powerful effect on abstract those who witnessed or heard about it and reinforced the notion of Octavian as the bringer of essay writing company, peace. Honors: Dio 51.19-21. [] None of this is meant to what dissertation suggest that the system later called the Principate was, in no uniforms its entirety, planned out and effected according to a pre-ordained blueprint, but rather that Octavian, in the run up to the First Settlement, must have given careful thought to dissertation his position and acted accordingly.
That attitude, in on compassion by barbara fact, had marked his behavior from the very outset of his career and was encapsulated in his favorite aphorisms, Rush slowly ( festina lente ) and Whatever is done well enough is done quickly enough ( sat celeriter fieri quidquid fiat satis bene ; see, for both, Suet. Aug . 25.4). These are the mottoes of a patient and careful planner. Nevertheless, that the Principate emerged piecemeal over is a dissertation almost three decades was demonstrated long ago by E.T. Salmon in his seminal article, The Evolution of Augustus's Principate; see also Lacey, Augustus and ascher, the Principate . Need for a rector : Cic. Rep . 2.51; 5.5, 6; 6.13. What Is A Dissertation? As consul in word count include 28 BC, Octavian had annulled all the illegal acts of the dissertation triumvirate, effectively wiping the slate clean in that department (Dio 53.2.6); his behavior in this year, with Agrippa as his colleague, was generally traditional, generous, and ascher thesis, exemplary (Dio 53.1-2). A new beginning was being heralded, support for it organized, and its nature indicated: later, Augustus himself considered the events of abstract, 28 and 27 BC as part of a single process of transferring the republic from my power to the dominion of the senate and people of Rome ( RG 34.1).
[] First Settlement: Dio 53.3-17.1; RG 34.1-2; Suet. On Compassion By Barbara Ascher Thesis? Aug . 28.1; Vell. 2.89. Settlement staged: Dio 53.2.7. Division of provinces: Dio 53.12; see also Millar, The Emperor, the Senate and dissertation abstract, the Roman Provinces. Debate over legal status of Octavian: Southern, 111-13.
Imperium proconsulare is more likely to have been granted for ten years than imperium consulare , which Octavian already held by virtue of argumentative essay, his consulship: or was it expected he would be consul every year for the following ten years? On the settlement, see, e.g., Bleicken, 315-42; Rich, Cassius Dio ; Southern, 111-17; Syme, Rom. Rev . 313-30. [] Travels of what dissertation, Augustus: Dio 53.22.5. Illness and recovery: Dio 53.30.3; Hor. Epist . 1.15; Pliny HN 25.77; Suet.
Aug. 81.1. Conspiracy: Dio 54.3.2-3 (who dates the event to 22 BC, so breaking the direct link between it and the Settlement of 23); Vell. Pat. 2.91.2; the details are perceptively discussed by Raaflaub and Samons, Opposition to Augustus, 425-27; see also Rich, Dio Cassius , 168-69.
Second Settlement: Dio 53.32; RG 10.1; Suet. Aug . Essay And Reality? 28.1. For the Cyrenaica decrees, see below n. 48. [] Refusal of dictatorship et al.: Dio 54.1.3-4; RG 5.1-2; Vell. Pat. 2.89.5; Suet. Aug . 52.
Cura annonae : Dio 54.1.3. Ius primae relationis : Dio 54.3.3. Privileges of 19 BC: Dio 54.10.3-7; RG 6.1; Suet. Aug . 27.5. Father of the Country: Dio 55.10.10; RG 35.1; Suet. Aug . 58. Priesthoods: RG 7.3. Auctoritas : RG 34.3; see also Cic. What? Off . 2.2; Magdelain, Auctoritas Principis ; Lanza, Auctoritas Principis ; a useful overview is now Galinsky, 10-41.
Dio (55.34.2) reports that in in mla format AD 8, when he had become too infirm to attend elections in what dissertation abstract person, Augustus would post the names of the candidates for office he favored; it's hard to imagine such candidates failing. Galinsky (42-79) surveys the establishment of the Principate with emphasis on the terminology of power Augustus uses to no uniforms essay describe it. [] Continuity of Principate: Suet. Aug . 28.1-2. [] Before marrying Livia Drusilla in what is a dissertation abstract 39 BC, he had been married to Clodia, stepdaughter of Antonius ( PIR 2 C 1057), from 43-41 BC; and then to Scribonia ( PIR S 220), from 40-39 BC. Appearance at triumph: Suet. Tib . 6.4.
Marriage: Dio 53.27.5. Aedile/legal age: Dio 53.28.3. Successor in power: Vell. Legit Writing Company? Pat. 2.93.1. Deathbed scene: Dio 53.30.1-2; Suet. Aug . 28.1. Death and burial of Marcellus: Dio 53.30.4. Livia 's rumored hand in his demise (Dio 53.33.4.) is entirely unproven; that summer in abstract Rome was considered particularly unhealthy and death by illness was widespread (Dio loc. cit.).
Marcellus was not adopted by Augustus: the RG (21.1) refers to him as my son-in-law as does Marcellus's epitaph (Braund, 27). [] Octavius in Caesar's triumph: see n. 5. Octavius granted right of standing early: App. B. Civ . 3.51. [] Agrippa goes East: Dio 53.31.2-4; Pliny HN 7.149; Tac. Word Include? Ann . 14.53.3; Suet. Aug . 66.3, Tib . 10.3. Agrippa's power in the east: Gray, Imperium of M. Agrippa. Maecenas's quip: Dio, 54.6.5. Marriage: Dio 54.6.5; Suet. Aug . 63.1. Agrippa's powers: Dio 54.12.4-5 (18 BC), 54.28.1 (13 BC).
[] Coins: RIC nos. 407, 408, 414. Gaius and Lucius Caesar: Dio 54.18.1, Tac. Ann . 1.3. Dissertation Abstract? Tiberius and Drusus' advancement: see DIR's Tiberius . In Schools? As to the Regency or paired-succession propositions (for which, see, respectively, R. Is A? Seager, Tiberius [London, 1972], 18-22, 24-26, 29-38, recently restated in Southern, 162, 168; and essay writing for students, B. Levick, Tiberius the Politician (London, 1976), 19-67; ead., Drusus Caesar), what ensured that Agrippa the regent would step down when required to do so? What mechanisms realistically existed for depriving an incumbent regent or princeps of his powers? Indeed, if Agrippa did not step down but died in office, what makes him a regent and not an emperor?
The paired accession idea is no more convincing, since Augustus was under no illusions as to the extreme inadvisability, if not impossibility, of attempting to is a abstract share supreme power (see Suet. Aug . 28.1): his own career as triumvir was illustration enough of that. As it was, joint accessions were not seriously entertained until the second century and beyond, when the Principate was well established, and most were unsuccessful. That Augustus was blind to the danger of presenting two equally qualified and legit essay, favored candidates to the armed forces is all but inconceivable. [] Death of Agrippa: Dio 54.28.2-3, 29. What Is A Abstract? Marriage of no uniforms, Tiberius and Julia: Dio 54.31.2. For more detailed discussion of what abstract, these events with reference to the ancient material involved, see the DIR's Tiberius , C. and L. Caesar, Germanicus , Agrippa Postumus. See also, Birch, Settlement; Levick, Drusus Caesar; Seager, Tiberius , 35-38.
Germanicus, the son of Tiberius' brother Drusus, was himself a Claudian but his marriage to Agrippina (Augustus's granddaughter) offered hope of a Julian heir in essay - imagination and reality the fourth generation. [] Fall of Julia the what dissertation abstract Elder: Dio 55.10.12-16; Suet. Aug . 65.1, Tib . Essay Company For Students? 11.4; Tac. Ann . 1.53.1; Vell. Pat. 2.100.2-5. For the political scheming view, see Levick, Julians and Claudians.
Fall of Agrippa Postumus: Dio 55.32.1-2; Suet. Aug . 65.1, 65.4; Levick, Abdication; Jameson, Augustus and Agrippa Postumus. Fall of Julia the Younger: Suet. Aug . 19.1, 65.1. [] For a concise account of the Roman army under Augustus, see Keppie, Making of the Roman Army , 145-71; also Bleicken, 541-63, Jones, 110-16. Is A Abstract? On the praetorians, see Durry, Cohortes Prétoriennes , esp. 65-89. [] On Augustus's campaigns, see RG 26-27; Keppie, loc. cit. in n. 44. On the Varan disaster, see Schlüter, The Battle of the Teutoburg Forest. For an overview of Augustus's foreign policy, see Gruen, Imperial Policy.
On the bigger question of frontiers and imperial growth, see Isaac, Limits of Empire , esp. 372-418; Whittaker, Frontiers of the on compassion thesis Roman Empire , esp. 10-98 (who includes discussion of ancient concepts of space and cartography). On the reactive nature of ancient government, see Millar, Roman Empire and its Neighbours , esp. 52-80. For the stations of the legions on Augustus's death, see n. 48.
[] On the Crassus affair, see Dio 52.23.2-27.3; Livy 4.19-20 (the previous awards of spolia opima were to A. Cornelius Cossus in the late fifth century BC and M. Claudius Marcellus in abstract 222 BC). On Gallus, see Dio 53.23.5-24.1. The inscription ( ILS 8995) is worth quoting: C. Cornelius Gallus, son of Cnaeus, Roman knight, appointed the first Prefect of Alexandria and for students, of Egypt after its kings had been defeated by Caesar, son of a god; he [Gallus] was twice victor in pitched battles during the Theban revolt, within 15 days, in is a dissertation abstract which he defeated the enemy; he took by assault five cities (Boresos, Coptus, Ceramice, Diospolis Magna, and Opheium) and captured the leaders of their revolts; he led an army beyond the cataphract of the Nile, into which region arms had not previously been borne either by in mla the Roman people or by the kings of is a dissertation, Egypt; he took Thebes, the shared fear of all the kings (of Egypt); he received ambassadors of the Ethiopian king at Philae and received that king into his protection; he appointed a ruler over the Ethiopian region of Triacontaschoenus. He [Gallus] gave and dedicated this monument to the ancestral gods and the Nile, his helper. A useful overview of both incidents is word count include title provided by Southern (115-17).
Augustus arrogated for himself victories won by his generals: the successes of Tiberius and Drusus on the Rhine and Danube in 12 and 11 BC caused him to add two imperatorial acclamations to his titles; Tiberius and what abstract, Drusus got none (Dio 54.33.5). Agrippa refusing triumphs: Dio 53.23.4 (general modesty of cyber argumentative, Agrippa), 54.11.6 (over the Cantabri), 54.24.7 (over the Bosporus). [] For a useful overview of is a dissertation abstract, this subject, see Lintott, Imperium Romanum , 111-28. On the consilium , instituted between 27 and 18 BC, see Dio 53.21.3-5 (quote at 53.21.6); Suet. Aug . 35.4; Crook, Consilium Principis . On the role of the imperial senate, see Talbert, Senate of - imagination and reality, Imperial Rome , esp.
Part Three: Functions. On suffect consuls, see ibid., 202-7. Newly-created positions: Suet. Aug . 37. On the equestrians, see Demougin, Ordre Equestre . The rosy picture of imperial rule painted by Velleius Paterculus (of equestrian status) reflects, perhaps, not only Velleius's sycophantic personality but also a genuine sense of gratitude toward the imperial regime on what dissertation the part of his class as a whole. Cyber Essay? Note also Syme, Augustan Aristocracy . [] Cyrenaica decrees: SEG 9 (1944) 8 = FIRA 1.68. The disposition of the empire's territories on what is a dissertation abstract Augustus's death was as follows: Territory Status Type of Governor Legions. Baetica Public proconsul (ex-praetor) - Lusitania Imperial legat.
Aug. (ex-praetor) - Tarrocensis Imperial legat. Aug. (ex-consul) 3. Narbonensis Public (23 BC) proconsul (ex-praetor) - Aquitania Imperial legat. Aug. (ex-praetor) - Belgica Imperial legat. Aug. (ex-praetor) - Lugdunensis Imperial legat. Aug. (ex-praetor) - Germany (after AD 9, the area west of the Rhine) Military zone n/a 2 legat. Aug. (ex-consuls) 8 (4 and 4) (Upper and by barbara ascher thesis, Lower)
Cottian Imperial equest. pref. - Maritime Imperial equest. pref. Dissertation? - Upper Danube region. Raetia Imperial equest. pref. - Noricum Imperial equest. pref. - Lower Danube region/northern Balkans. Illyricum Imperial (11 BC) legat. Aug. (ex-consul) 2. Pannonia Imperial legat. Aug. (ex-consul) 3.
Moesia Imperial legat. Aug. In Mla 2010? (ex-consul) 2. Macedonia Public proconsul (ex-praetor) - Achaea Public proconsul (ex-praetor) - Thrace Client kingdom - - Asia Public proconsul (ex-consul) - Bythinia-Pontus Public proconsul (ex-praetor) - Galatia Imperial legat. Aug. (ex-praetor) - Lycia Free federation - - Pontus Client kingdom - - Cappadocia Client kingdom - - Several client principalities - - Syria Imperial legat. Aug. (ex-consul) 4. Judaea Imperial equest. pref. - Several client principalities - - Egypt Imperial equest. pref.
2. Cyrenaeca Public proconsul (ex-praetor) - Africa Public proconsul (ex-consul) 1. Mauretania Client Kingdom - - Sicily Public proconsul (ex-praetor) - Sardinia Imperial (AD 6) equest. pref pro legato - Corsica Imperial (AD 6) equest. pref pro legato - Cyprus Public (23 BC) proconsul (ex-praetor) - Crete was part of Cyrenaeca. [] For a concise overview of Augustus's arrangement and dissertation, administration of the provinces, see Jones, 94-109. See also Bleicken, 391-438; Eck, Verwaltung , 1.83-158. In the regions of Augustus's military activity, of course, matters were not so pleasant; see Dio 56.16.3 on ascher thesis the comment of Bato, leader of the Pannonian revolt of AD 6-9, that the Romans were responsible for the war, since you send as guardians of your flocks not dogs or shepherds, but wolves. Sulla in the East: Plut. Is A Dissertation? Sulla 12.3-9 (pilfering of - imagination and reality, Greece), 22.5 (indemnity from is a dissertation, Mithridates), 25.2 (vast fine extorted from Asian communities). Caesar in Spain and Gaul: Plut. Caes . 12.4 (Spain), 29.3-4.
On Augustus's image, see Zanker's seminal work, The Power of Images . [] There remains to be written a comprehensive account of Augustus's legislation and writing, social programmes; most of the dissertation abstract standard biographies contain pertinent chapters or sections of chapters (e.g., Jones, 131-43; Southern, 146-52). On the marriage laws, see Mette-Dittman, Ehegesetze . On the status symbols of the equestrians, see Kolb, Status-symbolik. A good example of his stiffening of the social hierarchy was the regulation of seating arrangements at spectacles by social class, enforced empire-wide: see Suet. Aug . 44.1; Rawson, Discrimina Ordinum. Legislation on manumission and freedmen: Bradley, Slaves and Masters , 84-95. Augustus's private foibles: Suet. Aug . Word Title? 68-71. [] On the imperial cult, see the still classic study of Taylor, Divinity . For regional studies, see Fishwick, Imperial Cult (on the West) and Price, Rituals and Power (on the East). What Is A Dissertation? On the growth of the cult in Augustus's lifetime, see Galinsky, 312-31; Ostrow, Augustales ; Pollini, Man or God. On the contemporary worship of Augustus's numen , see, e.g., Hor.
Epist . 2.1.15; Ovid Trist . 3.8.13. [] Quote: Dio 56.30.3; Suet. Aug . 28.3. - Imagination And Reality? Building projects: RG 19-21, 24. Augustus's building activity and dissertation, his encouragement of others to munificence: Suet. No Uniforms Essay? Aug . 28.2-29.5; Vell. Pat.
2.89.4. A succinct survey of the Augustan building programme in Rome remains Ward-Perkins, Roman Imperial Architecture , 21-44. On the much-studied Ara Pacis, see RG 12.2; Dio 54.25.1-4; recent analyses include Conlin, Artists of the Ara Pacis ; Galinsky, 141-55. For a survey of the abstract varied artistic achievements of the on compassion by barbara period, see Galinsky, 141-224; Kaiser Augustus und die verlorene Republik . [] On the literature of the period, consult any standard history of Latin literature (e.g., the Cambridge History of Classical Literature , vol. 2, ed. E.J. Kenney, ); for a concise overview, see Galinsky, 225-87.
On Maecenas, see Williams, Did Maecenas 'Fall from what, Favor'? (note also the cyber individual chapters in dissertation abstract Raaflaub and Toher treating Livy, Vergil, Horace, and Ovid). For the definitive presentation of the state-controlled model of Augustan literature, see Syme, Rom. Rev ., 459-75. For more moderated views, see., e.g., Galinsky, passim (esp. 229-34).
My Pompeian: Tac. Ann . 4.34.4 (the anecdote, ironically, appears in the context of the trial of a later historian, A. Cremutius Cordus, charged with maiestas under Tiberius in AD 25 for praising Brutus and Cassius in his history). [] Withdrawal: Dio 55.33.5, 55.34.2, 56.26.2-3, 56.28.1-2; see also Southern, 181-90. Tiberius's position: Suet. Tib . 21.1; Vell. Pat. Essay Word? 2.121.1. Livia 's alleged involvement: Dio 56.30. Death and burial: Dio 56.29-42; Suet. Aug . 98-101. Will: Dio 56.32; Suet.
Aug . What Dissertation Abstract? 101.4. [] Original position of the argumentative essay RG : RG pr.; Suet. Aug . 101.4. ). For a recent analysis, see Ramage, Nature and Purpose . Copyright 1999, Garrett G. Fagan. Abstract? This file may be copied on the condition that the entire contents, including the essay header and this copyright notice, remain intact. Updated: 5 July 2004.
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