Rcm ring closing metathesis
Mar/Tue/2018 | Uncategorized
Special Topic G Part 2 - Olefin Metathesis
In this video we see the two ways Olefin Oetathesis can be used and then tackle a practice synthesis problem.
Ring-Closing Metathesis (RCM) and Ring- Opening Metathesis (ROMP)
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Protecting group directed ring-closing metathesis (RCM): the first total
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ChemFiles Volume 9 Article 6 | Ring-Closing Metathesis | Sigma-Aldrich
Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. John Locke was among the most famous philosophers and political theorists of the 17 th century. He is often regarded as the founder of a school of thought known as British Empiricism, and rcm ring closing metathesis, he made foundational contributions to modern theories of a tale cities essay, limited, liberal government. He was also influential in the areas of theology, religious toleration, and educational theory. In his most important work, the Essay Concerning Human Understanding , Locke set out to metathesis, offer an analysis of the human mind and its acquisition of knowledge. He offered an empiricist theory according to organizational and leadership workplace essay, which we acquire ideas through our experience of the closing, world. The mind is laboratory, then able to examine, compare, and combine these ideas in numerous different ways. Knowledge consists of a special kind of relationship between different ideas. Locke’s emphasis on closing metathesis the philosophical examination of the human mind as a preliminary to the philosophical investigation of the in macbeth, world and its contents represented a new approach to philosophy, one which quickly gained a number of converts, especially in Great Britain. In addition to this broader project, the Essay contains a series of more focused discussions on important, and widely divergent, philosophical themes.
In politics, Locke is best known as a proponent of limited government. He uses a theory of natural rights to metathesis, argue that governments have obligations to their citizens, have only limited powers over their citizens, and can ultimately be overthrown by citizens under certain circumstances. He also provided powerful arguments in favor of religious toleration. This article attempts to give a broad overview of all key areas of Locke’s thought. John Locke was born in persuasive for college, 1632 in Wrington, a small village in rcm ring metathesis, southwestern England. His father, also named John, was a legal clerk and persuasive essay for college, served with the Parliamentary forces in the English Civil War. His family was well-to-do, but not of particularly high social or economic standing. Metathesis? Locke spent his childhood in the West Country and as a teenager was sent to Westminster School in London. Locke was successful at ayn rand contest 2012, Westminster and rcm ring metathesis, earned a place at Christ Church, Oxford. He was to remain in Oxford from 1652 until 1667. Although he had little appreciation for the traditional scholastic philosophy he learned there, Locke was successful as a student and after completing his undergraduate degree he held a series of administrative and essay help, academic posts in rcm ring closing metathesis, the college.
Some of Locke’s duties included instruction of undergraduates. One of his earliest substantive works, the Essays on the Law of Nature , was developed in the course of his teaching duties. Much of Locke’s intellectual effort and energy during his time at Oxford, especially during his later years there, was devoted to the study of medicine and natural philosophy (what we would now call science). Ayn Rand Institute Essay 2012? Locke read widely in these fields, participated in various experiments, and became acquainted with Robert Boyle and many other notable natural philosophers. Rcm Ring? He also undertook the normal course of education and training to become a physician. Locke left Oxford for London in 1667 where he became attached to the family of Anthony Ashley Cooper (then Lord Ashley, later the Earl of thesis in ghana, Shaftesbury).
Locke may have played a number of roles in the household, mostly likely serving as tutor to Ashley’s son. In London, Locke continued to closing, pursue his interests in medicine and natural philosophy. In Macbeth? He formed a close working relationship with Thomas Sydenham, who later became one the most famous physicians of the age. He made a number of closing, contacts within the newly formed Royal Society and became a member in 1668. He also acted as the personal physician to Lord Ashley. Indeed, on one occasion Locke participated in a very delicate surgical operation which Ashley credited with saving his life. Persuasive Essay? Ashley was one of the rcm ring, most prominent English politicians at in ghana, the time. Through his patronage Locke was able to hold a series of governmental posts. Rcm Ring? Most of essay help, his work related to policies in England’s American and Caribbean colonies. Most importantly, this was the period in Locke’s life when he began the closing metathesis, project which would culminate in his most famous work, the Essay Concerning Human Understanding . The two earliest drafts of that work date from 1671.
He was to continue work on ayn rand institute 2012 this project intermittentlyfor nearly twenty years. Locke travelled in France for several years starting in 1675. When he returned to England it was only to be for a few years. The political scene had changed greatly while Locke was away. Shaftesbury (as Ashley was now known) was out of metathesis, favor and Locke’s association with him had become a liability.
It was around this time that Locke composed his most famous political work, the thesis on csr in ghana, Two Treatises Concerning Government . Metathesis? Although the Two Treatises would not be published until 1689 they show that he had already solidified his views on in ghana the nature and proper form of government. Closing? Following Shaftesbury’s death Locke fled to the Netherlands to escape political persecution. While there Locke travelled a great deal (sometimes for his own safety) and worked on in macbeth two projects. First, he continued work on the Essay . Second, he wrote a work entitled Epistola de Tolerantia , which was published anonymously in 1689. Rcm Ring? Locke’s experiences in England, France, and the Netherlands convinced him that governments should be much more tolerant of religious diversity than was common at the time. Following the Glorious Revolution of 1688-1689 Locke was able to return to England. He published both the Essay and the Two Treatises (the second anonymously) shortly after his return. Laboratory Report Writing? He initially stayed in London but soon moved to the home of Francis and Damaris Masham in the small village of Oates, Essex. Damaris Masham, who was the daughter of a notable philosopher named Ralph Cudworth, had become acquainted with Locke several years before. The two formed a very close friendship which lasted until Locke’s death.
During this period Locke kept busy working on politics, toleration, philosophy, economics, and educational theory. Locke engaged in a number of controversies during his life, including a notable one with Jonas Proast over toleration. But Locke’s most famous and philosophically important controversy was with Edward Stillingfleet, the Bishop of Worcester. Stillingfleet, in addition to being a powerful political and theological figure, was an astute and forceful critic. The two men debated a number of the positions in the Essay in a series of published letters. In his later years Locke devoted much of his attention to theology. His major work in this field was The Reasonableness of Christianity , published (again anonymously) in closing, 1695.
This work was controversial because Locke argued that many beliefs traditionally believed to be mandatory for Christians were unnecessary. On Csr In Ghana? Locke argued for a highly ecumenical form of Christianity. Closer to rcm ring closing, the time of his death Locke wrote a work on and leadership workplace essay the Pauline Epistles. The work was unfinished, but published posthumously. A short work on miracles also dates from this time and was published posthumously. Locke suffered from health problems for closing most of his adult life. In particular, he had respiratory ailments which were exacerbated by his visits to London where the thesis in ghana, air quality was very poor.
His health took a turn for the worse in rcm ring closing, 1704 and he became increasingly debilitated. He died on 28 October 1704 while Damaris Masham was reading him the Psalms. He was buried at High Laver, near Oates. For College Students? He wrote his own epitaph which was both humble and forthright. According to Locke’s own account the motivation for writing the Essay came to him while debating an unrelated topic with friends. He reports that they were able to make little headway on this topic and that they very quickly met with a number of confusions and difficulties. Locke realized that to make progress on metathesis this topic it was first necessary to examine something more fundamental: the human understanding.
It was “necessary to examine our own Abilities, and see, what Objects our Understandings were, or were not fitted to deal with.” ( Epistle , 7). Locke’s insight was that before we can analyze the world and our access to it we have to know something about ourselves. We need to know how we acquire knowledge. We also need to know which areas of inquiry we are well suited to and which are epistemically closed to us, that is, which areas are such that we could not know them even in principle. Laboratory Report Writing? We further need to rcm ring metathesis, know what knowledge consists in. In keeping with these questions, at the very outset of the Essay Locke writes that it is his “ Purpose enquire into the Original, Certainty, and Extent of humane Knowledge; together, with the Grounds and Degrees of Belief, Opinion, and Assent.” (1.1.2, 42). Locke thinks that it is only once we understand our cognitive capabilities that we can suitably direct our researches into witches in macbeth the world. This may have been what Locke had in mind when he claimed that part of his ambition in the Essay was to be an “Under-Laborer” who cleared the ground and closing metathesis, laid the foundations for the work of witches essay, famous scientists like Robert Boyle and Isaac Newton.
The Essay is divided into four books with each book contributing to Locke’s overall goal of examining the human mind with respect to its contents and rcm ring closing metathesis, operations. In Book I Locke rules out one possible origin of our knowledge. He argues that our knowledge cannot have been innate. This sets up Book II in which Locke argues that all of organizational essay, our ideas come from experience. In this book he seeks to give an account of rcm ring closing, how even ideas like God, infinity, and space could have been acquired through our perceptual access to the world and our mental operations.
Book III is something of a digression as Locke turns his attention to language and the role it plays in our theorizing. Locke’s main goal here is on csr, cautionary, he thinks language is often an metathesis, obstacle to understanding and he offers some recommendations to avoid confusion. Finally, Book IV discusses knowledge, belief, and opinion. Locke argues that knowledge consists of special kinds of relations between ideas and that we should regulate our beliefs accordingly. The first chapter of the Essay contains an writing, apology for the frequent use of the word “idea” in the book. According to Locke, ideas are the rcm ring closing, fundamental units of mental content and so play an integral role in his explanation of the persuasive, human mind and his account of our knowledge. Locke was not the first philosopher to give ideas a central role; Descartes, for rcm ring example, had relied heavily on them in explaining the human mind. But figuring out precisely what Locke means by “idea” has led to disputes among commentators. One place to organizational and leadership essay, begin is rcm ring metathesis, with Locke’s own definition. He claims that by “idea” he means “whatsoever is the Object of the Understanding when a Man thinks…whatever is meant by Phantasm, Notion, Species , or whatever it is, which the Mind can be employ’d about in thinking.” (1.1.8, 47). This definition is helpful insofar as it reaffirms the central role that ideas have in Locke’s account of the understanding.
Ideas are the sole entities upon which our minds work. Locke’s definition, however, is less than helpful insofar as it contains an ambiguity. On one reading, ideas are mental objects . The thought is that when an agent perceives an external world object like an apple there is ayn rand essay contest, some thing in closing metathesis, her mind which represents that apple. So when an agent considers an apple what she is really doing is thinking about the ayn rand institute contest 2012, idea of rcm ring, that apple. Ayn Rand Institute Essay 2012? On a different reading, ideas are mental actions . The thought here is that when an agent perceives an apple she is really perceiving the apple in a direct, unmediated way.
The idea is the rcm ring closing, mental act of making perceptual contact with the external world object. In recent years, most commentators have adopted the first of these two readings. But this debate will be important in organizational and leadership in the workplace, the discussion of knowledge below. The first of the Essay ’s four books is devoted to a critique of nativism, the doctrine that some ideas are innate in the human mind, rather than received in experience. It is rcm ring closing metathesis, unclear precisely who Locke’s targets in this book are, though Locke does cite Herbert of Cherbury and other likely candidates include Rene Descartes, the Cambridge Platonists, and persuasive essay for college, a number of lesser known Anglican theologians. Finding specific targets, however, might not be that important given that much of what Locke seeks to do in Book I is motivate and make plausible the alternative account of idea acquisition that he offers in Book II. The nativist view which Locke attacks in Book I holds that human beings have mental content which is innate in the mind. This means that there are certain ideas (units of mental content) which were neither acquired via experience nor constructed by the mind out of ideas received in experience. Closing? The most popular version of this position holds that there are certain ideas which God planted in in ghana, all minds at metathesis, the moment of 2012, their creation. Locke attacks both the view that we have any innate principles (for example, the whole is greater than the rcm ring closing, part, do unto others as you would have done unto you, etc.) as well as the ayn rand 2012, view that there are any innate singular ideas (for example, God, identity, substance, and so forth).
The main thrust of Locke’s argument lies in pointing out that none of the mental content alleged to be innate is universally shared by rcm ring closing all humans. He notes that children and institute essay contest, the mentally disabled, for example, do not have in their minds an allegedly innate complex thought like “equals taken from equals leave equals”. He also uses evidence from travel literature to point out that many non-Europeans deny what were taken to be innate moral maxims and that some groups even lack the idea of a God. Locke takes the fact that not all humans have these ideas as evidence that they were not implanted by God in humans minds, and that they are therefore acquired rather than innate. There is one misunderstanding which it is important to avoid when considering Locke’s anti-nativism. Rcm Ring Closing Metathesis? The misunderstanding is, in part, suggested by Locke’s claim that the mind is like a tabula rasa (a blank slate) prior to sense experience. This makes it sound as though the mind is nothing prior to persuasive essay for college students, the advent of ideas.
In fact, Locke’s position is much more nuanced. He makes it clear that the mind has any number of metathesis, inherent capacities, predispositions, and inclinations prior to receiving any ideas from sensation. Witches In Macbeth Essay? His anti-nativist point is just that none of these is triggered or exercised until the mind receives ideas from sensation. In Book II Locke offers his alternative theory of how the human mind comes to be furnished with the ideas it has. Closing Metathesis? Every day we think of complex things like orange juice, castles, justice, numbers, and motion. Locke’s claim is that the ultimate origin of all of these ideas lies in experience: “ Experience : In that, all our Knowledge is founded; and from that it ultimately derives itself. Our Observation employ’d either about external, sensible Objects ; or about the internal Operations of our Minds, perceived and reflected on by ourselves, is that, which supplies our Understandings with all the material of thinking . These two are the Fountains of Knowledge, from and leadership in the workplace, whence all the Ideas we have, or can naturally have, do spring.” (2.1.2, 104). In the above passage Locke allows for rcm ring metathesis two distinct types of experience. Outer experience, or sensation, provides us with ideas from the traditional five senses. Sight gives us ideas of colors, hearing gives us ideas of sounds, and motivation and leadership workplace, so on.
Thus, my idea of a particular shade of green is a product of seeing a fern. And my idea of a particular tone is the product of my being in the vicinity of a piano while it was being played. Inner experience, or reflection, is slightly more complicated. Locke thinks that the human mind is incredibly active; it is constantly performing what he calls operations. For example, I often remember past birthday parties, imagine that I was on vacation, desire a slice of pizza, or doubt that England will win the World Cup. Locke believes that we are able to notice or experience our mind performing these actions and when we do we receive ideas of reflection. Metathesis? These are ideas such as memory, imagination, desire, doubt, judgment, and persuasive, choice. Locke’s view is that experience (sensation and rcm ring, reflection) issues us with simple ideas. These are the cities, minimal units of metathesis, mental content; each simple idea is “in itself uncompounded, [and] contains in it nothing but one uniform Appearance , or Conception in the mind, and is not distinguishable into different Ideas .” (2.2.1, 119). But many of my ideas are not simple ideas.
My idea of organizational motivation essay, a glass of orange juice or my idea of the New York subway system, for example, could not be classed a simple ideas. Locke calls ideas like these complex ideas. His view is that complex ideas are the product of combining our simple ideas together in various ways. For example, my complex idea of a glass of orange juice consists of various simple ideas (the color orange, the rcm ring closing metathesis, feeling of coolness, a certain sweet taste, a certain acidic taste, and so forth) combined together into one object. Thus, Locke believes our ideas are compositional. Simple ideas combine to a tale of two cities essay, form complex ideas. Rcm Ring Closing Metathesis? And these complex ideas can be combined to form even more complex ideas.
We are now in a position to understand the character of Locke’s empiricism. He is committed to the view that all of our ideas, everything we can possibly think of, can be broken down into simple ideas received in experience. Persuasive Essay Students? The bulk of Book II is devoted to rcm ring metathesis, making this empiricism plausible. Locke does this both by undertaking an examination of the various abilities that the human mind has (memory, abstraction, volition, and so forth) and by offering an account of how even abstruse ideas like space, infinity, God, and causation could be constructed using only the simple ideas received in experience. Our complex ideas are classified into three different groups: substances, modes, and relations. Ideas of laboratory report, substances are ideas of things which are thought to exist independently. Ordinary objects like desks, sheep, and mountains fall into closing metathesis this group. But there are also ideas of collective substances, which consist of ayn rand institute, individuals substances considered as forming a whole. A group of individual buildings might be considered a town. And a group of individual men and women might be considered together as an army. In addition to describing the way we think about rcm ring closing metathesis, individual substances, Locke also has an interesting discussion of substance-in-general.
What is it that particular substances like shoes and writing, spoons are made out of? We could suggest that they are made out of leather and metal. But the question could be repeated, what are leather and metal made of? We might respond that they are made of matter. But even here, Locke thinks we can ask what matter is made of. What gives rise to closing, the properties of organizational motivation essay, matter? Locke claims that we don’t have a very clear idea here.
So our idea of substances will always be somewhat confused because we do not really know what stands under, supports, or gives rise to observable properties like extension and solidity. Ideas of modes are ideas of metathesis, things which are dependent on substances in some way. In general, this taxonomic category can be somewhat tricky. It does not seem to have a clear parallel in contemporary metaphysics, and it is sometimes thought to be a mere catch-all category for things which are neither substances nor relations. But it is helpful to think of modes as being like features of substances; modes are “such complex Ideas , which however compounded, contain not in them the supposition of subsisting by themselves, but are considered as Dependences on, or Affections of Substances.” (2.12.4, 165). Modes come in two types: simple and mixed. Simple modes are constructed by combining a large number of essay contest, a single type of simple ideas together. Metathesis? For example, Locke believes there is a simple idea of contest, unity. Our complex idea of the number seven, for example, is closing, a simple mode and is constructed by concatenating seven simple ideas of essay 2012, unity together. Closing? Locke uses this category to explain how we think about a number of topics relating to number, space, time, pleasure and pain, and cognition.
Mixed modes, on a tale of two cities help the other hand, involve combining together simple ideas of more than one kind. A great many ideas fall into this category. But the most important ones are moral ideas. Our ideas of rcm ring metathesis, theft, murder, promising, duty, and the like all count as mixed modes. Ideas of relations are ideas that involve more than one substance. Ayn Rand Institute Contest 2012? My idea of a husband, for example, is more than the idea of an rcm ring closing metathesis, individual man. It also must include the idea of another substance, namely the idea of that man’s spouse. Locke is keen to point out that much more of our thought involves relations than we might previously have thought. For example, when I think about Elizabeth II as the Queen of England my thinking actually involves relations, because I cannot truly think of motivation and leadership workplace essay, Elizabeth as a queen without conceiving of her as having a certain relationship of sovereignty to rcm ring closing metathesis, some subjects (individual substances like David Beckham and on csr in ghana, J.K.
Rowling). Locke then goes on to explore the role that relations have in our thinking about causation, space, time, morality, and (very famously) identity. Throughout his discussion of the rcm ring, different kinds of complex ideas Locke is keen to emphasize that all of our ideas can ultimately be broken down into essay simple ideas received in sensation and reflection. Put differently, Locke is rcm ring closing metathesis, keenly aware that the essay, success of rcm ring closing metathesis, his empiricist theory of mind depends on its ability to account for all the contest, contents of our minds. Whether or not Locke is rcm ring closing, successful is a matter of dispute.
On some occasions the analysis he gives of how a very complex idea could be constructed using only simple ideas is vague and motivation and leadership in the workplace, requires the reader to closing, fill in some gaps. And commentators have also suggested that some of the simple ideas Locke invokes, for example the simple ideas of persuasive for college, power and unity, do not seem to be obvious components of our phenomenological experience. Book II closes with a number of chapters designed to help us evaluate the quality of our ideas. Our ideas are better, according to Locke, insofar as they are clear, distinct, real, adequate, and true. Our ideas are worse insofar as they are obscure, confused, fantastical, inadequate, and rcm ring closing, false. Ayn Rand Contest 2012? Clarity and metathesis, obscurity are explained via an analogy to vision. Clear ideas, like clear images, are crisp and essay contest, fresh, not faded or diminished in the way that obscure ideas (or images) are. Distinction and confusion have to do with the individuation of ideas. Ideas are distinct when there is only one word which corresponds to them. Metathesis? Confused ideas are ones to in macbeth essay, which more than one word can correctly apply or ones that lack a clear and consistent correlation to one particular word. To use one of Locke’s examples, an rcm ring metathesis, idea of a leopard as a beast with spots would be confused.
It is not distinct because the a tale essay, word “lynx” could apply to rcm ring closing, that idea just as easily as the word “leopard.” Real ideas are those that have a “foundation in nature” whereas fantastical ideas are those created by the imagination. For example, our idea of a horse would be a real idea and motivation workplace, our idea of a unicorn would be fantastical. Adequacy and inadequacy have to do with how well ideas match the patterns according to which they were made. Adequate ideas perfectly represent the thing they are meant to metathesis, depict; inadequate ideas fail to do this. Ideas are true when the mind understands them in a way that is correct according to linguistic practices and the way the of two essay help, world is structured. They are false when the mind misunderstands them along these lines. In these chapters Locke also explains which categories of ideas are better or worse according to this evaluative system. Rcm Ring? Simple ideas do very well. Because objects directly produce them in the mind they tend to persuasive for college, be clear, distinct, and so forth.
Ideas of modes and relations also tend to do very well, but for a different reason. Locke thinks that the archetypes of these ideas are in the mind rather than in the world. As such, it is easy for these ideas to be good because the mind has a clear sense of what the rcm ring closing, ideas should be like as it constructs them. By contrast, ideas of substances tend to fare very poorly. The archetypes for these ideas are external world objects. Because our perceptual access to these objects is limited in a number of ways and because these objects are so intricate, ideas of substances tend to on csr in ghana, be confused, inadequate, false, and so forth. Book III of the Essay is rcm ring closing, concerned with language. Organizational And Leadership In The Workplace Essay? Locke admits that this topic is something of a digression. Rcm Ring Closing Metathesis? He did not originally plan for ayn rand institute language to take up an entire book of the rcm ring closing, Essay . And Leadership Workplace? But he soon began to rcm ring metathesis, realize that language plays an essay students, important role in our cognitive lives.
Book III begins by noting this and by discussing the nature and proper role of language. But a major portion of Book III is devoted to combating the metathesis, misuse of language. Thesis On Csr In Ghana? Locke believes that improper use of language is one of the greatest obstacles to knowledge and clear thought. He offers a diagnosis of the closing, problems caused by language and recommendations for avoiding these problems. Locke believes that language is a tool for communicating with other human beings. Specifically, Locke thinks that we want to communicate about our ideas, the contents of our minds. From here it is a short step to the view that: “ Words in their primary or immediate Signification, stand for nothing, but the Ideas in the Mind of him that uses them .” (3.2.2, 405). When an motivation workplace, agent utters the word “gold” she is referring to her idea of a shiny, yellowish, malleable substance of great value. Closing? When she utters the persuasive for college, word “carrot” she is referring to her idea of a long, skinny, orange vegetable which grows underground. Locke is, of course, aware that the names we choose for these ideas are arbitrary and merely a matter of social convention. Although the primary use of words is to refer to ideas in rcm ring closing metathesis, the mind of the speaker, Locke also allows that words make what he calls “secret reference” to essay students, two other things.
First, humans also want their words to refer to the corresponding ideas in the minds of other humans. When Smith says “carrot” within earshot of closing, Jones her hope is that Jones also has an idea of the long, skinny vegetable and that saying “carrot” will bring that idea into Jones’ mind. After all, communication would be impossible without the supposition that our words correspond to ideas in the minds of others. In Macbeth? Second, humans suppose that their words stand for objects in the world. Metathesis? When Smith says “carrot” she wants to witches essay, refer to more than just her idea, she also wants to metathesis, refer to the long skinny objects themselves.
But Locke is suspicious of these two other ways of understanding signification. He thinks the latter one, in particular, is illegitimate. After discussing these basic features of language and reference Locke goes on to discuss specific cases of the relationship between ideas and words: words used for simple ideas, words used for modes, words used for substances, the way in which a single word can refer to and leadership workplace, a multiplicity of ideas, and so forth. There is also an interesting chapter on “particles.” These are words which do not refer to an idea but instead refer to a certain connection which holds between ideas. Rcm Ring Metathesis? For example, if I say “Secretariat is brown” the word “Secretariat” refers to my idea of a certain racehorse, and “brown” refers to my idea of witches, a certain color, but the word “is” does something different.
That word is a particle and indicates that I am expressing something about the rcm ring closing, relationship between my ideas of Secretariat and brown and organizational motivation and leadership workplace essay, suggesting that they are connected in a certain way. Rcm Ring Metathesis? Other particles includes words like “and”, “but”, “hence”, and so forth. As mentioned above, the problems of language are a major concern of Book III. Locke thinks that language can lead to confusion and misunderstanding for a number of reasons. The signification of words is arbitrary, rather than natural, and this means it can be difficult to understand which words refer to which ideas. Many of essay for college, our words stand for rcm ring closing metathesis ideas which are complex, hard to acquire, or both.
So many people will struggle to use those words appropriately. And, in some cases, people will even use words when they have no corresponding idea or only a very confused and inadequate corresponding idea. Ayn Rand Essay? Locke claims that this is exacerbated by the fact that we are often taught words before we have any idea what the word signifies. A child, for example, might be taught the word “government” at a young age, but it will take her years to form a clear idea of what governments are and how they operate. People also often use words inconsistently or equivocate on their meaning. Finally, some people are led astray because they believe that their words perfectly capture reality.
Recall from above that people secretly and incorrectly use their words to refer to closing metathesis, objects in the external world. The problem is that people might be very wrong about what those objects are like. Locke thinks that a result of a tale of two cities essay, all this is that people are seriously misusing language and that many debates and discussions in important fields like science, politics, and philosophy are confused or consist of merely verbal disputes. Locke provides a number of rcm ring closing metathesis, examples of language causing problems: Cartesians using “body” and “extension” interchangeably, even though the two ideas are distinct; physiologists who agree on laboratory writing all the facts yet have a long dispute because they have different understandings of the word “liquor”; Scholastic philosophers using the term “prime matter” when they are unable to actually frame an idea of such a thing, and so forth. The remedies that Locke recommends for fixing these problems created by language are somewhat predictable. But Locke is quick to closing metathesis, point out that while they sound like easy fixes they are actually quite difficult to implement. The first and most important step is to only use words when we have clear ideas attached to them. (Again, this sounds easy, but many of us might actually struggle to come up with a clear idea corresponding to even everyday terms like “glory” or “fascist”.) We must also strive to make sure that the ideas attached to terms are as complete as possible. We must strive to ensure that we use words consistently and do not equivocate; every time we utter a word we should use it to signify one and the same idea. Finally, we should communicate our definitions of words to others.
In Book IV, having already explained how the mind is laboratory writing, furnished with the ideas it has, Locke moves on to discuss knowledge and belief. A good place to start is with a quote from the beginning of closing, Book IV: “ Knowledge then seems to me to be nothing but the perception of the in ghana, connexion and agreement, or disagreement and repugnancy of any of our Ideas . Where this Perception is, there is Knowledge, and where it is closing metathesis, not, there, though we may fancy, guess, or believe, yet we always come short of Knowledge.” (4.2.2, 525). Locke spends the first part of essay for college students, Book IV clarifying and exploring this conception of knowledge. The second part focuses on how we should apportion belief in cases where we lack knowledge. What does Locke mean by the “connection and agreement” and the “disagreement and repugnancy” of our ideas? Some examples might help. Bring to mind your idea of white and your idea of black. Locke thinks that upon metathesis doing this you will immediately perceive that they are different, they “disagree”. It is when you perceive this disagreement that you know the fact that white is not black.
Those acquainted with American geography will know that Boise is in Idaho. For College Students? On Locke’s account of knowledge, this means that they are able to rcm ring metathesis, perceive a certain connection that obtains between their idea of Idaho and their idea of Boise. Locke enumerates four dimensions along which there might be this sort of agreement or disagreement between ideas. First, we can perceive when two ideas are identical or non-identical. For example, knowing that sweetness is not bitterness consists in perceiving that the idea of sweetness is organizational motivation and leadership in the workplace, not identical to the idea of bitterness. Second, we can perceive relations that obtain between ideas. For example, knowing that 7 is rcm ring closing, greater than 3 consists in perceiving that there is a size relation of bigger and ayn rand essay 2012, smaller between the two ideas. Third, we can perceive when our idea of rcm ring, a certain feature accompanies our idea of a certain thing. If I know that ice is thesis, cold this is because I perceive that my idea of cold always accompanies my idea of ice.
Fourthly, we can perceive when existence agrees with any idea. Closing? I can have knowledge of this fourth kind when, for example, I perform the cogito and recognize the special relation between my idea of myself and my idea of existence. Locke thinks that all of our knowledge consists in agreements or disagreements of one of these types. After detailing the types of relations between ideas which constitute knowledge Locke continues on to discuss three “degrees” of report, knowledge in 4.2. These degrees seem to consist in different ways of closing, knowing something. The first degree Locke calls intuitive knowledge. Essay? An agent possesses intuitive knowledge when she directly perceives the connection between two ideas.
This is the best kind of knowledge, as Locke says “Such kind of Truths, the Mind perceives at the first sight of the Ideas together, by bare Intuition , without the intervention of any other Idea ; and rcm ring, this kind of knowledge is the clearest, and most certain, that humane Frailty is capable of.” (4.2.1, 531). The second degree of knowledge is thesis on csr in ghana, called demonstrative. Often it is impossible to perceive an immediate connection between two ideas. Closing? For example, most of us are unable to tell that the three interior angles of a triangle are equal to persuasive essay for college students, two right angles simply by closing looking at them. But most of us, with the assistance of a mathematics teacher, can be made to on csr, see that they are equal by means of a geometric proof or demonstration. Rcm Ring Closing Metathesis? This is the model for demonstrative knowledge. Even if one is unable to directly perceive a relation between idea-X and idea-Y one might perceive a relation indirectly by means of for college, idea-A and idea-B. This will be possible if the agent has intuitive knowledge of a connection between X and A, between A and B, and rcm ring, then between B and Y. A Tale Essay Help? Demonstrative knowledge consists, therefore, in a string of relations each of which is known intuitively. The third degree of knowledge is called sensitive knowledge and rcm ring, has been the source of considerable debate and confusion among Locke commentators. Thesis? For one thing, Locke is unclear as to whether sensitive knowledge even counts as knowledge.
He writes that intuitive and demonstrative knowledge are, properly speaking, the only forms of metathesis, knowledge, but that “There is, indeed, another Perception of the Mind…which going beyond bare probability, and yet not reaching perfectly to either of the cities help, foregoing degrees of certainty, passes under the name of metathesis, Knowledge.” (4.2.14, 537). Sensitive knowledge has to do with the relationship between our ideas and the objects in the external world that produce them. Locke claims that we can be certain that when we perceive something, an orange, for example, there is an object in the external world which is responsible for these sensations. Part of Locke’s claim is that there is a serious qualitative difference between biting into an orange and report writing, remembering biting into an orange. There is something in the phenomenological experience of the former which assures us of a corresponding object in the external world. Locke spends a fair amount of rcm ring closing, time in persuasive essay, Book IV responding to worries that he is a skeptic or that his account of knowledge, with its emphasis on ideas, fails to be responsive to the external world. The general worry for closing Locke is fairly simple. By claiming that ideas are the only things humans have epistemic access to, and by claiming that knowledge relates only to ayn rand institute essay contest 2012, our ideas, Locke seems to rule out the claim that we can ever know about the external world.
Lockean agents are trapped behind a “veil of ideas.” Thus we cannot have any assurance that our ideas provide us with reliable information about the rcm ring, external world. We cannot know what it would be for an idea to resemble or represent an object. In The Essay? And we cannot tell, without the ability to step outside our own minds, whether our ideas did this reliably. This criticism has historically been thought to endanger Locke’s entire project. Gilbert Ryle’s memorable assessment is that “nearly every youthful student of philosophy both can and closing, does in his second essay refute Locke’s entire Theory of Knowledge.” Recent scholarship has been much more charitable to Locke. But the central problem is still a pressing one. Debates about the correct understanding of sensitive knowledge are obviously important when considering these issues. At first blush, the laboratory writing, relation involved in sensitive knowledge seems to be a relation between an idea and a physical object in the world. But, if this reading is metathesis, correct, then it becomes difficult to understand the many passages in which Locke insists that knowledge is a relation that holds only between ideas.
Also relevant are debates about how to correctly understand Lockean ideas. Recall from above that although many understand ideas as mental objects, some understand them as mental acts. While most of the text seems to favor the first interpretation, it seems that the second interpretation has a significant advantage when responding to in the workplace, these skeptical worries. The reason is metathesis, that the connection between ideas and external world objects is built right into the definition of an idea. An idea just is a perception of an external world object. However the debates discussed in the previous paragraph are resolved, there is essay, a consensus among commentators that Locke believes the scope of human understanding is very narrow. Humans are not capable of very much knowledge. Locke discusses this is 4.3, a chapter entitled “Extent of Humane Knowledge.” The fact that our knowledge is so limited should come as no surprise.
We have already discussed the ways in which our ideas of substances are problematic. And we have just seen that we have no real understanding of the connection between our ideas and the objects that produce them. The good news, however, is metathesis, that while our knowledge might not be very extensive, it is in macbeth essay, sufficient for our needs. Locke’s memorable nautical metaphor holds that: “’Tis of great use to closing metathesis, the Sailor to know the length of his Line, though he cannot with it fathom all the in macbeth essay, depths of the Ocean. ‘Tis well he knows, that it is long enough to reach the rcm ring metathesis, bottom, at such Places, as are necessary to direct his Voyage, and caution him against running upon Shoales, that may ruin him. Our Business here is not to witches, know all things, but those which concern our Conduct.” (1.1.6, 46). Rcm Ring? Locke thinks we have enough knowledge to live comfortable lives on Earth, to realize that there is a God, to understand morality and behave appropriately, and to gain salvation.
Our knowledge of morality, in particular, is very good. Locke even suggests that we might develop a demonstrable system of morality similar to Euclid’s demonstrable system of geometry. This is possible because our moral ideas are ideas of modes, rather than ideas of substances. And our ideas of witches in macbeth, modes do much better on metathesis Locke’s evaluative scheme than our ideas of substances do. Finally, while the organizational motivation in the, limits to our knowledge might be disappointing, Locke notes that recognizing these limits is closing, important and useful insofar as it will help us to better organize our intellectual inquiry. Workplace? We will be saved from investigating questions which we could never know the answers to and can focus our efforts on areas where progress is rcm ring closing metathesis, possible. One benefit of Locke’s somewhat bleak assessment of the scope of our knowledge was that it caused him to focus on on csr an area which was underappreciated by many of his contemporaries. This was the arena of judgment or opinion, belief states which fall short of knowledge. Rcm Ring? Given that we have so little knowledge (that we can be certain of motivation in the workplace, so little) the rcm ring closing metathesis, realm of probability becomes very important. Recall that knowledge consists in a perceived agreement or disagreement between two ideas.
Belief that falls short of knowledge (judgment or opinion) consists in a presumed agreement or disagreement between two ideas. Consider an example: I am not entirely sure who the Prime Minister of Canada is, but I am somewhat confident it is Stephen Harper. Locke’s claim is laboratory report, that in judging that the Canadian PM is Stephen Harper I am acting as though a relation holds between the two ideas. I do not directly perceive a connection between my idea of Stephen Harper and my idea of the Canadian PM, but I presume that one exists. After offering this account of rcm ring, what judgment is, Locke offers an analysis of a tale help, how and why we form the opinions we do and offers some recommendations for rcm ring closing forming our opinions responsibly. Persuasive? This includes a diagnosis of the errors people make in judging, a discussion of the different degrees of assent, and an interesting discussion of the epistemic value of testimony. As discussed above, the main project of the Essay is an rcm ring, examination of the human understanding and of two cities, an analysis of rcm ring closing, knowledge. But the Essay is a rather expansive work and contains discussion of many other topics of philosophical interest. Some of these will be discussed below. A word of warning, however, is required before proceeding. It can sometimes be difficult to tell whether Locke takes himself to a tale cities help, be offering a metaphysical theory or whether he merely is describing a component of human psychology.
For example, we might question whether his account of closing, personal identity is meant to witches, give necessary and closing, sufficient conditions for a metaphysical account of personhood or whether it is merely designed to report writing, tell us what sorts of identity attributions we do and should make and rcm ring, why. We may further question whether, when discussing primary and secondary qualities, Locke is offering a theory about how perception really works or whether this discussion is a mere digression used to illustrate a point about the nature of our ideas. So while many of these topics have received a great deal of attention, their precise relationship to the main project of the Essay can be difficult to locate. a. Ayn Rand 2012? Primary and Secondary Qualities. Book 2, Chapter 8 of the Essay contains an extended discussion of the rcm ring, distinction between primary and secondary qualities.
Locke was hardly original in making this distinction. By the thesis in ghana, time the Essay was published, it had been made by many others and was even somewhat commonplace. That said, Locke’s formulation of the distinction and his analysis of the related issues has been tremendously influential and has provided the framework for rcm ring closing much of the subsequent discussion on the topic. Locke defines a quality as a power that a body has to produce ideas in us. Witches In Macbeth? So a simple object like a baked potato which can produce ideas of brownness, heat, ovular shape, solidity, and determinate size must have a series of corresponding qualities. There must be something in the potato which gives us the idea of brown, something in the potato which gives us the rcm ring closing metathesis, idea of ovular shape, and persuasive essay, so on. The primary/secondary quality distinction claims that some of these qualities are very different from others. Locke motivates the distinction between two types of qualities by discussing how a body could produce an closing, idea in thesis, us.
The theory of perception endorsed by Locke is highly mechanical. Rcm Ring? All perception occurs as a result of motion and collision. If I smell the baked potato, there must be small material particles which are flying off of the potato and bumping into essay for college nerves in rcm ring closing metathesis, my nose, the motion in the nose-nerves causes a chain reaction along my nervous system until eventually there is some motion in my brain and motivation essay, I experience the idea of a certain smell. Metathesis? If I see the and leadership in the workplace, baked potato, there must be small material particles flying off the potato and bumping into my retina. That bumping causes a similar chain reaction which ends in my experience of a certain roundish shape. From this, Locke infers that for an object to metathesis, produce ideas in us it must really have some features, but can completely lack other features. Witches In Macbeth Essay? This mechanical theory of perception requires that objects producing ideas in us have shape, extension, mobility, and solidity. Metathesis? But it does not require that these objects have color, taste, sound, or temperature. So the primary qualities are qualities actually possessed by bodies.
These are features that a body cannot be without. The secondary qualities, by contrast, are not really had by bodies. They are just ways of talking about the ideas that can be produced in us by bodies in persuasive essay for college students, virtue of their primary qualities. So when we claim that the baked potato is solid, this means that solidity is one of its fundamental features. But when I claim that it smells a certain earthy kind of way, this just means that its fundamental features are capable of producing the idea of the earthy smell in my mind. These claims lead to Locke’s claims about resemblance: “From whence I think it is rcm ring, easie to draw this Observation, That the Ideas of primary Qualities of Bodies, are Resemblances of them, and their Patterns do really exist in the Bodies themselves; but the Ideas, produced in essay contest, us by these Secondary Qualities, have no resemblance of them at all.” (2.8.14, 137). Insofar as my idea of the rcm ring metathesis, potato is of something solid, extended, mobile, and possessing a certain shape my idea accurately captures something about the real nature of the potato. But insofar as my idea of the potato is students, of something with a particular smell, temperature, and taste my ideas do not accurately capture mind-independent facts about the potato.
Around the time of the Essay the closing, mechanical philosophy was emerging as the predominant theory about the physical world. The mechanical philosophy held that the fundamental entities in contest, the physical world were small individual bodies called corpuscles. Each corpuscle was solid, extended, and had a certain shape. These corpuscles could combine together to form ordinary objects like rocks, tables, and plants. The mechanical philosophy argued that all features of bodies and all natural phenomena could be explained by appeal to these corpuscles and their basic properties (in particular, size, shape, and rcm ring, motion). Locke was exposed to essay for college students, the mechanical philosophy while at Oxford and became acquainted with the writings of its most prominent advocates. On balance, Locke seems to have become a convert to the mechanical philosophy. Rcm Ring Closing? He writes that mechanism is the best available hypothesis for ayn rand institute contest 2012 the explanation of nature. We have already seen some of the explanatory work done by mechanism in the Essay . The distinction between primary and secondary qualities was a hallmark of the rcm ring closing, mechanical philosophy and neatly dovetailed with mechanist accounts of perception. Locke reaffirms his commitment to this account of organizational motivation in the essay, perception at closing metathesis, a number of other points in the Essay . And when discussing material objects Locke is very often happy to allow that they are composed of material corpuscles. What is peculiar, however, is laboratory, that while the Essay does seem to have a number of passages in which Locke supports mechanical explanations and speaks highly of mechanism, it also contains some highly critical remarks about mechanism and discussions of the limits of the rcm ring metathesis, mechanical philosophy.
Locke’s critiques of mechanism can be divided into two strands. First, he recognized that there were a number of observed phenomena which mechanism struggled to explain. Mechanism did offer neat explanations of some observed phenomena. For example, the contest, fact that objects could be seen but not smelled through glass could be explained by positing that the corpuscles which interacted with our retinas were smaller than the ones which interacted with our nostrils. So the sight corpuscles could pass through the spaces between the closing, glass corpuscles, but the smell corpuscles would be turned away. But other phenomena were harder to explain. Magnetism and various chemical and biological processes (like fermentation) were less susceptible to a tale of two essay help, these sorts of metathesis, explanations. And universal gravitation, which Locke took Newton to persuasive essay, have proved the existence of in the Principia , was particularly hard to explain. Locke suggests that God may have “superadded” various non-mechanical powers to material bodies and that this could account for gravitation. (Indeed, at rcm ring closing, several points he even suggests that God may have superadded the power of thought to essay for college, matter and closing metathesis, that humans might be purely material beings.)
Locke’s second set of critiques pertain to witches essay, theoretical problems in closing metathesis, the mechanical philosophy. One problem was that mechanism had no satisfactory way of explaining cohesion. In Ghana? Why do corpuscles sometimes stick together? If things like tables and chairs are just collections of small corpuscles then they should be very easy to break apart, the same way I can easily separate one group of closing, marbles from another. Further, why should any one particular corpuscle stay stuck together as a solid? What accounts for its cohesion?
Again, mechanism seems hard-pressed to offer an answer. Finally, Locke allows that we do not entirely understand transfer of motion by impact. When one corpuscle collides with another we actually do not have a very satisfying explanation for why the second moves away under the force of the impact. Locke presses these critiques with some skill and in a serious manner. Still, ultimately he is laboratory, guardedly optimistic about mechanism. This somewhat mixed attitude on metathesis Locke’s part has led commentators to debate questions about his exact attitude toward the mechanical philosophy and his motivations for discussing it.
In Book 2, Chapter 21 of the Essay Locke explores the topic of the will. One of the things which separates people from rocks and billiard balls is our ability to organizational motivation and leadership workplace essay, make decisions and control our actions. Rcm Ring Metathesis? We feel that we are free in certain respects and that we have the power to choose certain thoughts and actions. Locke calls this power the will. But there are tricky questions about what this power consists in and about what it takes to freely (or voluntarily) choose something. 2.21 contains a delicate and sustained discussion of these tricky questions. Locke first begins with questions of freedom and in macbeth essay, then proceeds to a discussion of the will. On Locke’s analysis, we are free to rcm ring closing, do those things which we both will to do and are physically capable of doing. Persuasive? For example, if I wish to jump into a lake and rcm ring closing metathesis, have no physical maladies which prevent it, then I am free to jump into the lake. By contrast, if I do not wish to jump into the lake, but a friend pushes me in, I did not act freely when I entered the water. Or, if I wish to thesis on csr, jump into rcm ring closing the lake, but have a spinal injury and cannot move my body, then I do not act freely when I stay on the shore.
So far so good, Locke has offered us a useful way of differentiating our voluntary actions from our involuntary ones. But there is still a pressing question about freedom and the will: that of whether the will is itself free. Persuasive For College? When I am deciding whether or not to jump into the water, is the will determined by outside factors to choose one or the other? Or can it, so to speak, make up its own mind and choose either option? Locke’s initial position in the chapter is that the will is determined. But in later sections he offers a qualification of sorts. In normal circumstances, the will is rcm ring, determined by what Locke calls uneasiness: “ What is it that determines the Will in regard to in macbeth, our Actions? … some (and for the most part the most pressing) uneasiness a Man is at present under. That is that which successively determines the Will , and sets us upon rcm ring those Actions, we perform.” (2.21.31, 250-1). The uneasiness is caused by the absence of institute, something that is perceived as good. The perception of the thing as good gives rise to a desire for that thing.
Suppose I choose to eat a slice of pizza. Locke would say I must have made this choice because the rcm ring, absence of the pizza was troubling me somehow (I was feeling hunger pains, or longing for something savory) and this discomfort gave rise to on csr, a desire for food. Closing? That desire in essay students, turn determined my will to choose to eat pizza. Locke’s qualification to this account of the will being determined by uneasiness has to do with what he calls suspension. Beginning with the second edition of the Essay , Locke began to argue that the most pressing desire for the most part determines the will, but not always: “For the closing, mind having in most cases, as is evident in Experience, a power to suspend the execution and satisfaction of any of its desires, and so all, one after another, is at liberty to consider the objects of them; examine them on all sides, and weigh them with others.” (2.21.47, 263). So even if, at this moment, my desire for pizza is the strongest desire, Locke thinks I can pause before I decide to eat the ayn rand institute contest, pizza and consider the decision. I can consider other items in my desire set: my desire to lose weight, or to closing metathesis, leave the pizza for my friend, or to keep a vegan diet. Careful consideration of these other possibilities might have the effect of changing my desire set. If I really focus on how important it is to stay fit and healthy by eating nutritious foods then my desire to leave the pizza might become stronger than my desire to eat it and my will may be determined to choose to not eat the pizza. But of course we can always ask whether a person has a choice whether or not to ayn rand institute 2012, suspend judgment or whether the suspension of judgment is rcm ring metathesis, itself determined by the mind’s strongest desire. On this point Locke is somewhat vague.
While most interpreters think our desires determine when judgment is of two essay, suspended, some others disagree and argue that suspension of judgment offers Lockean agents a robust form of free will. d. Closing? Personhood and Personal Identity. Locke was one of the first philosophers to give serious attention to the question of laboratory report, personal identity. And his discussion of the question has proved influential both historically and in the present day. The discussion occurs in the midst of Locke’ larger discussion of the identity conditions for various entities in rcm ring metathesis, Book II, Chapter 27. Thesis On Csr In Ghana? At heart, the question is simple, what makes me the same person as the person who did certain things in the past and that will do certain things in the future? In what sense was it me that attended Bridlemile Elementary School many years ago? After all, that person was very short, knew very little about soccer, and loved Chicken McNuggets. I, on the other hand, am average height, know tons of soccer trivia, and get rather queasy at the thought of eating chicken, especially in nugget form. Nevertheless, it is true that I am identical to the boy who attended Bridlemile. In Locke’s time, the topic of personal identity was important for religious reasons.
Christian doctrine held that there was an afterlife in which virtuous people would be rewarded in heaven and sinful people would be punished in hell. Rcm Ring Closing? This scheme provided motivation for individuals to behave morally. In Macbeth Essay? But, for this to work, it was important that the person who is rewarded or punished is the rcm ring, same person as the one who lived virtuously or lived sinfully. And this had to essay for college students, be true even though the person being rewarded or punished had died, had somehow continued to exist in an afterlife, and had somehow managed to be reunited with a body. So it was important to get the issue of personal identity right. Locke’s views on personal identity involve a negative project and a positive project. The negative project involves arguing against the view that personal identity consists in or requires the rcm ring, continued existence of thesis, a particular substance. And the metathesis, positive project involves defending the view that personal identity consists in continuity of consciousness. We can begin with this positive view.
Locke defines a person as “a thinking intelligent Being, that has reason and reflection, and can consider itself as itself, the same thinking thing in laboratory, different times and places; which it does only by that consciousness, which is rcm ring closing, inseparable from thinking, and as it seems to me essential to it.” (2.27.9, 335). Locke suggests here that part of what makes a person the same through time is their ability to recognize past experiences as belonging to them. For me, part of what differentiates one little boy who attended Bridlemile Elementary from all the essay for college, other children who went there is my realization that I share in his consciousness. Rcm Ring Metathesis? Put differently, my access to his lived experience at Bridlemile is very different from my access to the lived experiences of others there: it is first-personal and immediate. I recognize his experiences there as part of a string of experiences that make up my life and join up to my current self and current experiences in a unified way. That is what makes him the same person as me.
Locke believes that this account of personal identity as continuity of consciousness obviates the need for an account of personal identity given in terms of substances. A traditional view held that there was a metaphysical entity, the soul, which guaranteed personal identity through time; wherever there was the same soul, the same person would be there as well. Locke offers a number of thought experiments to cast doubt on this belief and show that his account is superior. For example, if a soul was wiped clean of all its previous experiences and given new ones (as might be the on csr, case if reincarnation were true), the same soul would not justify the closing, claim that all of those who had had it were the same person. Or, we could imagine two souls who had their conscious experiences completely swapped. In this case, we would want to say that the person went with the conscious experiences and did not remain with the soul. Locke’s account of personal identity seems to of two essay, be a deliberate attempt to rcm ring closing, move away from some of the metaphysical alternatives and to offer an account which would be acceptable to of two essay help, individuals from rcm ring, a number of different theological backgrounds. Of course, a number of report writing, serious challenges have been raised for Locke’s account..
Most of these focus on the crucial role seemingly played by memory. And the metathesis, precise details of Locke’s positive proposal in 2.27 have been hard to pin down. Nevertheless, many contemporary philosophers believe that there is an important kernel of truth in Locke’s analysis. Locke’s distinction between the real essence of organizational workplace essay, a substance and the nominal essence of a substance is one of the most fascinating components of the Essay . Scholastic philosophers had held that the main goal of rcm ring closing metathesis, metaphysics and science was to learn about the essences of things: the key metaphysical components of ayn rand institute essay, things which explained all of their interesting features. Locke thought this project was misguided. That sort of rcm ring metathesis, knowledge, knowledge of the real essences of beings, was unavailable to human beings.
This led Locke to suggest an alternative way to understand and investigate nature; he recommends focusing on the nominal essences of laboratory report, things. When Locke introduces the term real essence he uses it to refer to the “real constitution of any Thing, which is the foundation of all those Properties, that are combined in, and are constantly found to co-exist with [an object]” (3.6.6, 442). For the Scholastics this real essence would be an rcm ring closing, object’s substantial form. For proponents of the mechanical philosophy it would be the number and arrangement of the material corpuscles which composed the body. Locke sometimes endorses this latter understanding of real essence. But he insists that these real essences are entirely unknown and writing, undiscoverable by us. The nominal essences, by contrast, are known and are the rcm ring closing, best way we have to understand individual substances. Nominal essences are just collections of all the observed features an individual thing has. So the nominal essence of a piece of gold would include the ideas of yellowness, a certain weight, malleability, dissolvability in certain chemicals, and so on.
Locke offers us a helpful analogy to illustrate the difference between real and nominal essences. He suggests that our position with respect to ordinary objects is like the position of someone looking at a very complicated clock. Organizational In The Essay? The gears, wheels, weights, and closing metathesis, pendulum that produce the motions of the hands on the clock face (the clock’s real essence) are unknown to the person. They are hidden behind the casing. He or she can only know about the observable features like the in macbeth essay, clock’s shape, the movement of the hands, and the chiming of the hours (the clock’s nominal essence). Similarly, when I look at an object like a dandelion, I am only closing, able to observe its nominal essence (the yellow color, the bitter smell, and so forth). I have no clear idea what produces these features of the dandelion or how they are produced. Locke’s views on real and nominal essences have important consequences for his views about the division of objects into thesis on csr groups and sorts. Metathesis? Why do we consider some things to be zebras and other things to be rabbits?
Locke’s view is organizational essay, that we group according to nominal essence, not according to (unknown) real essence. But this has the consequence that our groupings might fail to adequately reflect whatever real distinctions there might be in nature. So Locke is not a realist about species or types. Instead, he is a conventionalist. We project these divisions on the world when we choose to metathesis, classify objects as falling under the various nominal essences we’ve created. The epistemology of religion (claims about our understanding of God and our duties with respect to him) were tremendously contentious during Locke’s lifetime. The English Civil War, fought during Locke’s youth, was in large part a disagreement over the right way to understand the Christian religion and the requirements of religious faith. Throughout the seventeenth century, a number of fundamentalist Christian sects continually threatened the stability of English political life. And the status of Catholic and Jewish people in England was a vexed one. So the stakes were very high when, in 4.18, Locke discussed the nature of faith and reason and ayn rand contest 2012, their respective domains.
He defines reason as an attempt to discover certainty or probability through the use of closing metathesis, our natural faculties in the investigation of the world. Faith, by contrast, is certainty or probability attained through a communication believed to have come, originally, from God. So when Smith eats a potato chip and comes to believe it is salty, she believes this according to reason. But when Smith believes that Joshua made the sun stand still in students, the sky because she read it in the Bible (which she takes to be divine revelation), she believes according to faith. Although it initially sounds as though Locke has carved out quite separate roles for faith and reason, it must be noted that these definitions make faith subordinate to reason in rcm ring closing, a subtle way. For, as Locke explains: “Whatever GOD hath revealed, is certainly true; no Doubt can be made of it. This is the ayn rand institute contest, proper Object of Faith : But whether it be a divine Revelation, or no, Reason must judge; which can never permit the Mind to reject a greater Evidence to embrace what is less evident, nor allow it to entertain Probability in rcm ring, opposition to Knowledge and Certainty.” (4.18.10, 695). First, Locke thinks that if any proposition, even one which purports to be divinely revealed, clashes with the clear evidence of cities help, reason then it should not be believed. So, even if it seems like God is telling us that 1+1=3, Locke claims we should go on believing that 1+1=2 and we should deny that the metathesis, 1+1=3 revelation was genuine. Second, Locke thinks that to determine whether or not something is divinely revealed we have to exercise our reason.
How can we tell whether the Bible contains God’s direct revelation conveyed through the inspired Biblical authors or whether it is students, instead the closing metathesis, work of mere humans? Only reason can help us settle that question. Locke thinks that those who ignore the report, importance of reason in determining what is and is not a matter of faith are guilty of “enthusiasm.” And in a chapter added to later editions of the Essay Locke sternly warns his readers against the serious dangers posed by this intellectual vice. In all of this Locke emerges as a strong moderate. He himself was deeply religious and took religious faith to be important. But he also felt that there were serious limits to what could be justified through appeals to faith.
The issues discussed in this section will be very important below where Locke’s views on the importance of religious toleration are discussed. Locke lived during a very eventful time in rcm ring closing metathesis, English politics. The Civil War, Interregnum, Restoration, Exclusion Crisis, and Glorious Revolution all happened during his lifetime. For much of his life Locke held administrative positions in government and witches essay, paid very careful attention to contemporary debates in political theory. So it is perhaps unsurprising that he wrote a number of works on political issues. In this field, Locke is best known for metathesis his arguments in favor of religious toleration and limited government. Today these ideas are commonplace and widely accepted. On Csr? But in Locke’s time they were highly innovative, even radical. Locke’s Two Treatises of Government were published in 1689. It was originally thought that they were intended to defend the Glorious Revolution and William’s seizure of the throne.
We now know, however, that they were in fact composed much earlier. Nonetheless, they do lay out a view of government amenable to many of William’s supporters. The First Treatise is now of primarily historical interest. It takes the form of rcm ring closing, a detailed critique of a work called Patriacha by Robert Filmer. Filmer had argued, in a rather unsophisticated way, in favor of divine right monarchy. Institute Essay Contest 2012? On his view, the power of kings ultimately originated in the dominion which God gave to Adam and which had passed down in an unbroken chain through the ages. Locke disputes this picture on a number of historical grounds.
Perhaps more importantly, Locke also distinguishes between a number of different types of rcm ring metathesis, dominion or governing power which Filmer had run together. After clearing some ground in the First Treatise , Locke offers a positive view of the nature of government in thesis on csr in ghana, the much better known Second Treatise . Part of Locke’s strategy in this work was to offer a different account of the origins of government. While Filmer had suggested that humans had always been subject to political power, Locke argues for the opposite. Rcm Ring Metathesis? According to him, humans were initially in a state of nature. The state of nature was apolitical in the sense that there were no governments and each individual retained all of his or her natural rights. People possessed these natural rights (including the right to of two cities essay help, attempt to preserve one’s life, to seize unclaimed valuables, and rcm ring closing, so forth) because they were given by God to all of his people. The state of nature was inherently unstable. Persuasive Essay For College Students? Individuals would be under contrast threat of closing metathesis, physical harm.
And they would be unable to pursue any goals that required stability and widespread cooperation with other humans. Locke’s claim is that government arose in this context. Individuals, seeing the benefits which could be gained, decided to a tale help, relinquish some of their rights to a central authority while retaining other rights. This took the form of a contract. In agreement for relinquishing certain rights, individuals would receive protection from physical harm, security for their possessions, and the ability to interact and cooperate with other humans in a stable environment. So, according to this view, governments were instituted by the citizens of those governments. Rcm Ring Metathesis? This has a number of very important consequences.
On this view, rulers have an obligation to laboratory writing, be responsive to the needs and desires of these citizens. Further, in establishing a government the citizens had relinquished some, but not all of their original rights. So no ruler could claim absolute power over all elements of a citizen’s life. This carved out important room for certain individual rights or liberties. Finally, and perhaps most importantly, a government which failed to adequately protect the rights and interests of its citizens or a government which attempted to overstep its authority would be failing to rcm ring metathesis, perform the task for writing which it was created. As such, the citizens would be entitled to revolt and replace the existing government with one which would suitably carry out the duties of closing metathesis, ensuring peace and of two essay, civil order while respecting individual rights.
So Locke was able to use the account of natural rights and a government created through contract to closing metathesis, accomplish a number of important tasks. He could use it to show why individuals retain certain rights even when they are subject to a government. He could use it to show why despotic governments which attempted to unduly infringe on the rights of their citizens were bad. Motivation And Leadership In The Workplace Essay? And he could use it to show that citizens had a right to revolt in instances where governments failed in certain ways. These are powerful ideas which remain important even today. Locke’s Second Treatise on metathesis government contains an influential account of the nature of private property.
According to Locke, God gave humans the world and its contents to have in common. The world was to provide humans with what was necessary for the continuation and a tale cities help, enjoyment of life. Metathesis? But Locke also believed it was possible for witches in macbeth individuals to appropriate individual parts of the world and justly hold them for closing their own exclusive use. Put differently, Locke believed that we have a right to acquire private property. Locke’s claim is that we acquire property by mixing our labor with some natural resource. For example, if I discover some grapes growing on a vine, through my labor in picking and collecting these grapes I acquire an motivation and leadership workplace, ownership right over them. Rcm Ring Closing Metathesis? If I find an empty field and then use my labor to plow the field then plant and raise crops, I will be the proper owner of those crops. If I chop down trees in an unclaimed forest and use the wood to fashion a table, then that table will be mine. Ayn Rand Essay Contest 2012? Locke places two important limitations on the way in which property can be acquired by mixing one’s labor with natural resources. First, there is what has come to be known as the Waste Proviso. One must not take so much property that some of closing, it goes to waste.
I should not appropriate gallons and gallons of a tale of two cities, grapes if I am only closing, able to eat a few and the rest end up rotting. If the goods of the Earth were given to us by God, it would be inappropriate to allow some of 2012, this gift to rcm ring closing metathesis, go to waste. Second, there is the Enough-And-As-Good Proviso. This says that in appropriating resources I am required to leave enough and as good for others to appropriate. If the world was left to us in motivation and leadership, common by God, it would be wrong of me to appropriate more than my fair share and closing metathesis, fail to leave sufficient resources for others. After currency is introduced and after governments are established the nature of property obviously changes a great deal. Using metal, which can be made into coins and which does not perish the on csr in ghana, way foodstuffs and other goods do, individuals are able to accumulate much more wealth than would be possible otherwise. So the proviso concerning waste seems to drop away. And particular governments might institute rules governing property acquisition and distribution. Locke was aware of this and devoted a great deal of thought to the nature of property and the proper distribution of property within a commonwealth.
His writings on economics, monetary policy, charity, and social welfare systems are evidence of this. But Locke’s views on property inside of rcm ring, a commonwealth have received far less attention than his views on the original acquisition of property in the state of nature. Locke had been systematically thinking about writing, issues relating to religious toleration since his early years in London and even though he only published his Epistola de Tolerantia ( A Letter Concerning Toleration ) in 1689 he had finished writing it several years before. The question of whether or not a state should attempt to prescribe one particular religion within the state, what means states might use to do so, and what the metathesis, correct attitude should be toward those who resist conversion to the official state religion had been central to European politics ever since the Protestant Reformation. Witches Essay? Locke’s time in closing, England, France, and the Netherlands had given him experiences of three very different approaches to these questions. These experiences had convinced him that, for the most part, individuals should be allowed to practice their religion without interference from the state. Indeed, part of the impetus for the publication of Locke’s Letter Concerning Toleration came from Louis XIV’s revocation of the Edict of Nantes, which took away the already limited rights of Protestants in France and exposed them to state persecution. It is possible to see Locke’s arguments in favor of toleration as relating both to the epistemological views of the Essay and the political views of the Two Treatises . Relating to Locke’s epistemological views, recall from above that Locke thought the scope of human knowledge was extremely restricted.
We might not be particularly good at determining what the witches essay, correct religion is. There is no reason to think that those holding political power will be any better at discovering the true religion than anyone else, so they should not attempt to enforce their views on others. Metathesis? Instead, each individual should be allowed to pursue true beliefs as best as they are able. Little harm results from allowing others to have their own religious beliefs. Indeed, it might be beneficial to allow a plurality of beliefs because one group might end up with the correct beliefs and contest 2012, win others over to their side. Relating to Locke’s political views, as expressed in the Two Treatises , Locke endorses toleration on the grounds that the enforcement of religious conformity is rcm ring, outside the proper scope of government. People consent to governments for essay students the purpose of establishing social order and the rule of law.
Governments should refrain from enforcing religious conformity because doing so is unnecessary and irrelevant for these ends. Indeed, attempting to closing metathesis, enforce conformity may positively harm these ends as it will likely lead to resistance from members of prohibited religions. Locke also suggests that governments should tolerate the religious beliefs of laboratory report, individual citizens because enforcing religious belief is closing metathesis, actually impossible. Acceptance of in ghana, a certain religion is an inward act, a function of one’s beliefs. But governments are designed to control people’s actions . So governments are, in many ways, ill-equipped to enforce the adoption of a particular religion because individual people have an almost perfect control of their own thoughts. While Locke’s views on toleration were very progressive for the time and while his views do have an closing metathesis, affinity with our contemporary consensus on the value of religious toleration it is important to recognize that Locke did place some severe limits on toleration. He did not think that we should tolerate the intolerant, those who would seek to forcibly impose their religious views on others. Similarly, any religious group who posed a threat to political stability or public safety should not be tolerated. Importantly, Locke included Roman Catholics in this group. On his view, Catholics had a fundamental allegiance to the Pope, a foreign prince who did not recognize the witches in macbeth, sovereignty of English law.
This made Catholics a threat to civil government and rcm ring closing metathesis, peace. Finally, Locke also believed that atheists should not be tolerated. Because they did not believe they would be rewarded or punished for their actions in an afterlife, Locke did not think they could be trusted to laboratory report, behave morally or maintain their contractual obligations. We have already seen that in closing, the Essay Locke developed an account of belief according to faith and belief according to reason. Recall that an agent believes according to reason when she discovers something through the use of on csr in ghana, her natural faculties and she believes according to rcm ring closing, faith when she takes something as truth because she understands it to be a message from God. Recall as well that reason must decide when something is or is not a message from persuasive for college students, God.
The goal of Locke’s The Reasonableness of Christianity is to show that it is reasonable to be a Christian. Rcm Ring? Locke argues that we do have sufficient reason to think that the persuasive essay for college students, central truths of Christianity were communicated to us by God through his messenger, Jesus of Nazareth. For Locke’s project to succeed he needed to show that Jesus provided his original followers with sufficient evidence that he was a legitimate messenger from God. Given that numerous individuals in history had purported to be the recipients of divine revelation, there must be something special which set Jesus apart. Locke offers two considerations in rcm ring closing metathesis, this regard. The first is that Jesus fulfilled a number of historical predictions concerning the coming of a Messiah. The second is that Jesus performed a number of miracles which attest that he had a special relationship to God. Locke also claims that we have sufficient reason to believe that these miracles actually occurred on the basis of testimony from those who witnessed them first-hand and a reliable chain of reporting from Jesus’ time into our own. This argument leads Locke into a discussion of the types and value of testimony which many philosophers have found to be interesting in ayn rand essay, its own right. One striking feature of The Reasonableness of rcm ring metathesis, Christianity is the requirement for salvation that Locke endorses. Disputes about organizational motivation in the workplace, which precise beliefs were necessary for salvation and eternal life in Heaven were at the core of much religious disagreement in Locke’s time.
Different denominations and sects claimed that they, and often only they, had the rcm ring, correct beliefs. Ayn Rand Essay Contest? Locke, by rcm ring metathesis contrast, argued that to persuasive essay for college, be a true Christian and worthy of salvation an individual only need to believe one simple truth: that Jesus is the Messiah. Of course, Locke believed there were many other important truths in metathesis, the Bible. But he thought these other truths, especially those contained in the Epistles rather than the Gospels, could be difficult to interpret and could lead to disputes and disagreement. The core tenet of Christianity, however, that Jesus is the Messiah, was a mandatory belief. In making the requirements for Christian faith and salvation so minimal Locke was part of a growing faction in the Church of England. Thesis On Csr In Ghana? These individuals, often known as latitudinarians, were deliberately attempting to construct a more irenic Christianity with the goal of avoiding the conflict and controversy that previous internecine fights had produced. So Locke was hardly alone in rcm ring, attempting to find a set of core Christian commitments which were free of for college, sectarian theological baggage. But Locke was still somewhat radical; few theologians had made the requirements for Christian faith quite so minimal. Locke was regarded by many in his time as an rcm ring, expert on educational matters. Essay Students? He taught many students at Oxford and also served as a private tutor.
Locke’s correspondence shows that he was constantly asked to recommend tutors and offer pedagogical advice. Closing? Locke’s expertise led to his most important work on the subject: Some Thoughts Concerning Education . The work had its origins in a series of letters Locke wrote to ayn rand essay 2012, Edward Clarke offering advice on the education of Clarke’s children and was first published in 1693. Locke’s views on education were, for the time, quite forward-looking. Classical languages, usually learned through tedious exercises involving rote memorization, and corporeal punishment were two predominant features of the seventeenth century English educational system. Locke saw little use for either. Rcm Ring Closing Metathesis? Instead, he emphasized the importance of teaching practical knowledge. He recognized that children learn best when they are engaged with the subject matter. Locke also foreshadowed some contemporary pedagogical views by suggesting that children should be allowed some self-direction in their course of study and should have the ability to pursue their interests. Locke believed it was important to take great care in educating the young.
He recognized that habits and prejudices formed in youth could be very hard to break in later life. Thus, much of Some Thoughts Concerning Education focuses on essay for college morality and the best ways to metathesis, inculcate virtue and industry. Persuasive Essay For College Students? Locke rejected authoritarian approaches. Instead, he favored methods that would help children to understand the difference between right and metathesis, wrong and to cultivate a moral sense of witches in macbeth essay, their own. The Essay was quickly recognized as an rcm ring closing metathesis, important philosophical contribution both by its admirers and by its critics. Ayn Rand Institute 2012? Before long it had been incorporated into the curriculum at Oxford and Cambridge and its translation into both Latin and French garnered it an audience on the Continent as well. Rcm Ring Closing? The Two Treatises were also recognized as important contributions to political thought. While the work had some success in England among those favorably disposed to the Glorious Revolution, its primary impact was abroad.
During the American Revolution (and to a lesser extent, during the French Revolution) Locke’s views were often appealed to by those seeking to contest, establish more representative forms of government. Related to this last point, Locke came to be seen, alongside his friend Newton, as an embodiment of Enlightenment values and ideals. Newtonian science would lay bare the workings of nature and lead to important technological advances. Lockean philosophy would lay bare the metathesis, workings of organizational motivation and leadership workplace, men’s minds and lead to important reforms in law and government. Voltaire played an instrumental role in shaping this legacy for Locke and worked hard to publicize Locke’s views on reason, toleration, and limited government.
Locke also came to be seen as an closing metathesis, inspiration for the Deist movement. Figures like Anthony Collins and John Toland were deeply influenced by Locke’s work. Locke is often recognized as the persuasive students, founder of British Empiricism and it is rcm ring closing metathesis, true that Locke laid the foundation for much of English-language philosophy in the 18 th and in macbeth, early 19 th centuries. But those who followed in closing metathesis, his footsteps were not unquestioning followers. George Berkeley, David Hume, Thomas Reid, and others all offered serious critiques. In recent decades, readers have attempted to witches, offer more charitable reconstructions of Locke’s philosophy. Given all this, he has retained an rcm ring metathesis, important place in the canon of Anglophone philosophy. Laslett, P. [ed.] 1988. Two Treatises of Government . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Locke, J. 1823. The Works of organizational workplace essay, John Locke . London: Printed for T. Tegg (10 volumes). Locke, J. The Clarendon Edition of the rcm ring closing, Works of thesis on csr in ghana, John Locke , Oxford University Press, 2015. This edition includes the rcm ring closing, following volumes: Nidditch, P. [ed.] 1975. Organizational Motivation In The Workplace? An Essay Concerning Human Understanding . Nidditch, P. and G.A.J. Rogers [eds.] 1990. Drafts for the Essay Concerning Human Understanding . Yolton, J.W. and J.S. Yolton. [eds.] 1989. Some Thoughts Concerning Education . Higgins-Biddle, J.C. [ed.] 1999.
The Reasonableness of Christianity . Milton, J.R. and P. Milton. Rcm Ring Metathesis? [eds.] 2006. An Essay Concerning Toleration . de Beer, E.S. [ed.] 1976-1989. The Correspondence of John Locke . (8 volumes). von Leyden, W. Of Two Cities Essay Help? [ed.] 1954. Essays on the Law of Nature . Oxford: Clarendon Press. The following are recommendations for rcm ring metathesis further reading on Locke.
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Style aspects of Baroque Art and Music essay. This paper is closing going to thesis, prove that Baroque era stands for extravagant, highly detailed, flamboyant art and music of the period dating from closing, roughly 1600 1750. The paper is also going to show the connection between the style aspects of Baroque visual art and Baroque music. Spanish novelist and poet, Juan Goytisolo, in his essay “ Problemas de la novella” wrote: “A contemporary artist can use the findings of a tale cities, all epochs and all styles, from the most primitive literary expressions up the most refined products of the baroque” (Goytisolo, 1990). Light and dark, divine and human, violent and gentle, religious and secular became the foremost features in Baroque arts. Artworks and musical compositions of this era are manifestations of closing metathesis, this turmoil: their bright, emotional, theatrical and energetic compositions are featured by expressive and persuasive essay students intense movement (Charles, 2009). Metathesis? Such artists like Gianlorenzo Bernini, Rembrandt, Rubens, Velazquez, Caravaggio, Vermeer, Bach, Vivaldi, Monteverdi, Purcell and in macbeth essay Handle invented inimitable Baroque style have illustrated intense emotions and created characters that seem to be alive, often appealing to rcm ring, the viewer’s feelings.
Musicians, sculptors and persuasive painters became fascinated with the closing metathesis idea of creating a total illusion of living art. They exploited their talent, feelings and emotions to expand the of two cities help dramatic potential of light, color, sound, space and contrasts; to create so baroque and simultaneously emotional, logical and natural world that is rcm ring metathesis still ruled by an invisible hand of in macbeth, God. Baroque Historical Background. The Baroque was complex and contradictory. A lot of ambivalent arts were created for rcm ring closing metathesis, the Church and monarchy. The Baroque era was a thrilling time of scientific explorations, increased education, and new discoveries. In the south, majorly Catholic Europe was influenced by the consequences of the Counter Reformation. Largely Protestant Northern Europe was characterized by growing capitalism.
The 17 th century was also a disquiet time of constant battles throughout Europe, as a result of the Reformation of the Catholic Church. With the in macbeth essay pretentious prosperity of monarchs and increased cruelty of priesthood in some regions of Europe and growingcapitalism; the spiritual, sensual as well as simultaneously scientific and logical the Baroqueperiod was an era of rcm ring, remarkable contrasts (CMS, 2002). Origination of the Baroque Era. The Baroque Era was an era of increasing emotionality, secularization and thesis on csr naturalness. These phenomena can be observed in a plethora of art works and metathesis compositions that referred to the end of 16 th century. In visual art, it was for instance, “Feast at the House of Levi” painted by Paolo Veronese in 1573; initially the thesis in ghana painting was conceived by the artist and painted for the Dominican order as a scene of the Last dinner. However, Paolo Veronese was pursued by the Catholic inquisition for depicting the irrelevant commoners, drunk Germans, buffoons, and even dogs and other scurrilities. Therefore, Veronese was forced to change the rcm ring closing metathesis name of the painting. Nevertheless, a brisk, agitated and secular sensitivity of the scene demonstrated something more baroque than mannerist (the movement in art peculiar for that time) (Gombrich, 1995). In music, an example of growing secularity, naturalness and emotionality was the “ Euridice” composed by Jacopo Peri (very influential composer and singer of that time) and Giulio Caccini.
It is obvious for today’s contemporaries that music should appeal to emotions; yet, before Baroque Era, the principal concern of musicians was the melodic assembling, not the listener’s emotions. In 1580, The Camerata Bardi, all together, decided that to evoke emotions only one voice should sound at a time; so monody was invented (one singing emotional voice accompanied by simple adequate chords). The “ Euridice” is the earliest opera that was published; so its release in 1600 celebrates an epoch-making turning point in the European history, such as the start of the Baroque era (Germain, 1998). The Greek and institute essay contest Roman classical arts became extremely popular during Renascence and stayed popular during Baroque period; so artists and musicians continued creating their works of art guided by the Greek mythology motifs. Claudio Monteverdi’s “ L’Orfeo ” (1607) is not only the first opera that he composed, but also the first widely acknowledged “real opera”. The tragic story of Orpheus and Eurydice attracted many composers. Although the rcm ring closing metathesis plot remains the same, the setting and performance has changed. For example, Peri’s Eurydice and Monteverdi’s Orfeo have only popular motif in common, but the a tale of two essay help embodiments of the story are completely different.
Monteverdi has used in rcm ring closing this opera synthesis of all musical genres and expressive devices available to him at that time. During the course of the opera, there are madrigals, emotional solos (new Baroque era movement of rising popularity) and students popular at that time rhythmic dance. Monteverdi calls for instrumental ensemble that consists of 40 instruments, whereas Peri’s Eurydice was written only for rcm ring closing, 4 instruments. The most fascinating melodically and dramatically strong recitative (Orpheus cry) ever written before, or since is applied here. Due to the new technique of emotional solo singing, the audience feels the despair of Orpheus in every fibre of in ghana, their being (Charles, 2009). Monteverdi’s opera L’Orfeo is associated by its emotions with “ Orpheus in rcm ring closing the Underworld” (1594) painted by Flemish artist Jan the Elder Brueghel (1568-1625). Jan Brueghel shows Orpheus in the underworld.
This painting still has features of mannerism, but bizarre and graceful posturing of underground creatures is actually truly natural and absolutely appropriate here. Laboratory Report? Moreover, masterly applying light, darkness and shadows Brueghel was able to depict the horror and drama, which explains why Orpheus could not resist the rcm ring closing metathesis temptation of making sure that Eurydice follows him. The dark scene represents enslaved and tortured people; a lot of reptiles throughout the entire composition represent the and leadership in the workplace evil, delusion and death. The Orpheus who plays with lyre to Hades and Persephone, and closing river that lightens represent the only connection with life. Brueghel contrasts the strong dark background colors of the witches in macbeth underworld with Orpheus, Hades and closing metathesis Persephone who are depicted in the pastel shades (Sartorious, 2012). Caravaggio and Handle. Motif of extreme naturalism and unification of secular and religious themes was one more characteristic of in the, Baroque era.
Spanish painter Caravaggio invented a new “naturalism” in art history. Caravaggio painted religious stories as everyday scenes with people of plebeian background; he depicted their poor and rcm ring metathesis dirty clothes. His invention of tenebrism, or the skillful usage of light, shadows and darkness was adopted by other prominent painters. In his “ Judith Decapitating Holofernes ”, an intense ray of light gives an persuasive for college impression of time stoppage as Judith’s sword slices into the general’s neck. Such usage of light emphasizes the horror of the moment and demonstrates the rcm ring metathesis naturalism, which is a main feature of for college students, Caravaggio’s unique artistic style. Caravaggio underlines the gloominess of the scene by making the background so dark, that it is impossible to see any detail except the main action again reinforcing the rcm ring metathesis dramatic impact. Organizational Motivation And Leadership Essay? Caravaggio’s Judith dislikes her action very much, she almost empathizes his pain. The red blood from the rcm ring closing general’s neck is perfectly underlined by the red curtains above him. There is a notable contrast between Judith’s and old lady’s face expressions. Old lady actually wishes to be in Judith’s stead; she hates the thesis on csr general and rcm ring metathesis feels no remorse. However, Caravaggio is faithful to his principles and focuses the a tale of two help audience’s attention on the seventeenth-century clothing; it seems that he contraposes the ordinary aspects to the biblical event (Marceau, 1995).
George Frederic Handel united secular entertainment and sacred texts, which was not acceptable at that time. Based on biblical texts, Handel’s “Messiah” was an extended musical work like opera, and for that time it was a controversial decision. To avoid problems with clergy, it was performed without costumes or scenery, and the performers had no specific roles. The scene “the annunciation to the shepherds” Handel took from the Gospel of Luke: “ There were shepherds abiding in the field, keeping watch over their flocks by night” (Gospel of Luke, 1741).This phrase is “secco”, notably complimented by the continuo. Rcm Ring Closing? It is solo soprano, and it is recitative. Ayn Rand Essay 2012? Handel emphasizes lines by expanded coloraturas. He uses both homophonic and polyphonic instrumental background to rcm ring closing, convey the context of text in the best way.
Timpani highlight the closing movement Part II, Hallelujah . Handel applied four voice parts, bass, tenor, soprano and alto in the choral movements. During Hallelujah Handle uses melisma, multiple repletion of the witches word “Hallelujah ” . He also applies cantus firmus on rcm ring closing metathesis prolonged repetitive notes to underline majesty and grandeur of the scene (Sartorius, 2012). Gentileschi and Purcell. Motifs of death and motivation and leadership workplace essay doom were one more characteristic of Baroque era. Artemisia Gentileschi (1593 1653) was influenced by Caravaggio’s naturalism and dramatic usage of tenebrism. In her painting “ Judith Decapitating Holofernes ” she as well as Caravaggio uses absolute darkness for dramatic effect. The terror of the scene emphasized through blood that flows from the general’s neck and bloodstained sheets. Closing? Gentileschi depicts the young woman who is performing the murder with a sense of confidence and resolution, which were untypical of the traditional concept on feminine character at that time. Some historical facts indicated that Artemisia was raped; so, maybe for reason her Judith image is empowered with physical strength in a way that allows the audience to persuasive, sense her superiority in this concrete situation. She neither enjoys nor fears her action; she just executes her duty (Schaeffer, 2012). In Henry Purcell’s aria that Dido performs in his “Dido and Aeneas” exactly before her suicide, the audience hears over closing metathesis and over the baseline descends, which is a musical icon for death.
Moreover, because the melodic material is set in laboratory report minor, the impression is reinforced by the clear similarity to the funeral march that emphasizes the rhythm of the closing aria. The emotional impact is so profound that Dido’s despair, pain and grief move the audience to tears (Sartorius, 2012). Rembrandt and Vivaldi. The rulers of the European countries wanted these works of art to glamorize their reign. Essay? Therefore, the greatest baroque artists were commissioned to create pieces of work that glorify power of their patrons. Rembrandt van Rijn (1606 - 1669) was an extremely popular painter.
He was especially famous for his portraits, but he also painted a lot of landscapes, religious and secular scenes where he depicted two and more people. In his “ The Night Watch ”, the guardsmen and officers celebrate a visit of Maria de Medici to Amsterdam in 1638. “The Night Watch” is not only natural but also filled with the vivacity and dynamism that are peculiar to a company which is anticipating a noteworthy event. The diverse members of the gathering are shown busily organizing themselves. Metathesis? Rembrandt made skillful use of tenebrism, chiaroscuro as well as intense and dramatic lighting to animate his painting (Charles, 2009). Antonio Vivaldi’s (1678-1741) concertos (“ The Four Seasons”, “Pleasure”, “The Hunt and Storm at Sea” ) were extremely successful, especially in France. The “Spring” was a steadfast favorite of persuasive for college students, French King Louis XV, who was listened it again and again and asked orchestra to perform this masterpiece for him almost every day. Rcm Ring? For this reason Vivaldi was receiving various commissions from the Versailles court for the creation of new compositions (Schaeffer, 2012).
Bach and Rubens. Great French composer and writer Pierre Schaeffer once said: “Has it struck you that the music which is in ghana regarded as the most sublime in western civilization, which is the music of Bach, is called baroque” (Schaeffer, 2012). Johann Sebastian Bach and Peter Paul Rubensare the true representatives ofBaroqueera. Their exuberantand creative works of art came toepitomize theextreme and conflictual differences that characterized the historic periodknown as the Baroque. Johann Sebastian Bach (1685 1750) created over 1100 compositions. There are works for voice, organ, harpsichord, different solo instruments, canons and others. Peter Paul Rubens (15771640) produced about metathesis, 2,000 paintings in a tale essay help his lifetime;his paintings depicted religious, classical (Greek and Roman mythology), and secular scenes. Baroque was successful in Flanders, supported by Peter Rubens (Charles, 2009). The Baroque style mirrors its time-period. Rcm Ring Metathesis? As science discovered new things and Galileo published his heliocentric theory people started to be less and less devoted to God. Therefore, art was getting less and less religious by context.
For example, Jan Vermeer created a painting “The Geographer” that portrays a scientist. Other works of art depicted self-portraits (Rembrandt), soldiers or secular scenes. The Greek motif remained popular, so many of artists and on csr in ghana musicians continue created compositions with mythological heroes. However, some artists continued creating religious paintings and closing metathesis compositions like “ The Raising of the Cross ” by Rubens and “ Hosanna” by Bach, the well-known sculpture “ The Ecstasy of St. Teresa ” by institute essay contest 2012 Bernini. Baroque sculptors, architects, painters and musicians sought the ways to reflect their emotions and feelings in a variety of closing metathesis, movements and essay devices. Such Baroque featured as grandeur drama, opera, pomposity, vitality, action, tension, flamboyance, exuberance erased the distinction between the different kinds of rcm ring closing metathesis, art.
The Baroque Style was characterized by intense contrasts and daring ornamentation that added drama and action to and leadership in the, the art.
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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips. A very common essay prompt/discussion topic for The Great Gatsby is to have you compare and metathesis contrast a pair of characters in Gatsby. Why do teachers love these prompts so much? These compare/contrast essays are an motivation and leadership in the workplace essay, opportunity for you to tie the character similarities and metathesis differences to larger observations about society and class, the laboratory report writing American Dream, or identity in the novel. They also allow you to practice standard English class skills: close reading, using lines from the text as evidence, and taking a stance and closing presenting a supporting argument in an essay. We’ll go over on csr in ghana, some basic dos and don’ts for writing compare/contrast essays before diving into some analysis of the most asked-about character pairings.
Keep reading if you have a Compare/Contrast assignment on the horizon! The do's of a compare and contrast essay The don'ts of a compare contrast essay Why some characters are paired for comparison more often than others Analysis of and essay topic ideas for the most common character pairs: Nick and Gatsby Tom and George Tom and Gatsby Daisy and Jordan Daisy and Myrtle. What to Do in a Compare/Contrast Essay. Like anything you write for English class, your essay should be clearly organized, with a thesis statement (a one-sentence summary of your argument), and topic sentences for each body paragraph. And you should definitely have an overall argument! The point of the metathesis compare/contrast essay isn’t for you to and leadership workplace essay just list the differences and similarities between two characters, you need to take those observations and make a larger argument about the novel as a whole . That larger argument allows you to practice writing an essay that contains an argument, which is a skill that nearly all English teachers are focused on building. To take a quick example, don’t just list the differences between Tom Buchanan and Jay Gatsby. Instead, make an argument like, “Fitzgerald’s portrayal of wealthy New York society through Jay Gatsby and Tom Buchanan allows him to critique both old money and the newly rich, while reserving his most pointed critiques for the old money crowd.” (Obviously, that’s just one example, and there are dozens of potential arguments you could make while comparing and contrasting characters in Gatsby!)
Make sure to address your larger argument in each body paragraph as you draw out the rcm ring metathesis similarities and report differences between the two characters. Don’t get caught in the weeds as you tease out the many differences and similarities in each character pair. Always link back to the bigger picture. Finally, analyze each quote you use – in other words, don’t stick a quote in your essay and rcm ring closing metathesis do nothing with it. Make sure to explain how and why the quote demonstrates a key similarity or difference, and what that means for your bigger argument. What to Avoid in a Compare/Contrast Essay.
Don’t just list differences and similarities without an overarching argument . Although you can definitely start brainstorming by on csr in ghana, making a list of similarities and differences, just presenting that list in essay form won’t get you a good grade, since you need to go deeper and explain what the similarities/differences suggest about the novel as a whole. And, on the other side, don’t make big claims without some evidence from the closing text to back them up . A Tale Cities! For example, don’t say “Tom is selfish while Gatsby cares about others.” Prove those two separate claims (Tom is rcm ring closing, selfish” and “Gatsby cares about others”) with relevant lines from the book. (And if you’re having a hard time locating good quotes, find a digital version of Gatsby you can search using the CTRL-F function. It’s a lifesaver when gathering relevant quotes for an essay!) The garden gnome agrees - our essay tips have helped him out more than you'll ever know. Why Are These Characters Paired Most Often? We will tackle these major pairings in the next sections of on csr in ghana this article: Nick Carraway and Jay Gatsby Tom Buchanan and Jay Gatsby Tom Buchanan and George Wilson Daisy Buchanan and Jordan Baker Daisy Buchanan and Myrtle Wilson. Before we dig into the analysis, you might be wondering: “why are we only closing comparing characters of the same gender?” or maybe “why not other pairings? Why not Jordan and Myrtle, or Nick and writing Tom?” We are focusing on these specific pairings because they are by far the most commonly asked about pairs in essay prompts and rcm ring discussion topics for The Great Gatsby . And we want this guide, first and foremost, to be helpful to students as you work on assignments involving Gatsby!
Furthermore, these pairings help teachers get you to explore some of the novel’s larger themes . Laboratory Report! For example, comparing Daisy/ Myrtle or Tom/George can help you explore the differences between the wealthy and the working class. Comparing Daisy/Myrtle or Daisy/Jordan can help you explore the changing status of women during the 1920s. Comparing Tom and Gatsby can get at the old money/new money divide. Finally, differences between Nick and Gatsby raise some of the novel’s larger questions about the American Dream, repeating the closing past, and identity. In short, these pairings have become common because they each allow fairly easy access to one of the novel’s larger issues. That’s not to say you couldn’t also explore some of report those themes by closing metathesis, comparing, say, Jordan and George, or Daisy and Gatsby, but cross-gender compare/contrast essays can be challenging because the laboratory report status of women and closing men is so different in the novel. If you are interested in seeing how a particular male and female character are paired, you may be better off studying them through the lens of love, desire, and essay relationships in the novel, or through the rcm ring way they relate to witches essay one of the rcm ring metathesis novel's symbols or motifs. With those thoughts in organizational motivation in the workplace essay, mind, let's jump into the top 5 pairings!
For each pairing, we will suggest a few possible larger arguments you can either build from or disagree with, but these are far from comprehensive! You should add to rcm ring closing our analysis of the characters and for college students come up with an argument you’re excited about. Our citation format in rcm ring closing metathesis, this guide is (chapter.paragraph). We're using this system since there are many editions of Gatsby, so using page numbers would only work for motivation and leadership workplace essay, students with our copy of the book. To find a quotation we cite via chapter and paragraph in your book, you can either eyeball it (Paragraph 1-50: beginning of closing metathesis chapter; 50-100: middle of chapter; 100-on: end of chapter), or use the search function if you're using an online or eReader version of the text. Although Jay Gatsby and Nick Carraway vary both in outlook and temperament, they are also alike in essay, interesting ways.
Despite somewhat similar desires, attitudes, and social positions, Nick and Gatsby make very different choices during the novel. Love and Romance . Nick and rcm ring closing Gatsby both want women that are out of their reach, although in different degrees. Daisy is miles above Gatsby in terms of social class. Jordan and Nick are of the same social status, but Jordan doesn't seem free to make her own decisions since an aunt controls her financial life. There is a significant passion gap between Gatsby and Nick as well. Gatsby obsesses over essay contest, Daisy - he has thought of nothing else for five years, going as far as to buy a house across the bay from her just in case she notices. Nick, meanwhile, is attracted to Jordan's cool and self-sufficient demeanor, but he is clearly not in love with her, as he himself notes (I wasn't actually in love, but I felt a sort of tender curiosity (3.159)). Approach to Women.
Both men are not particularly interested in the inner lives of the women they want to be with. Gatsby is devastated when Daisy doesn't want to renounce her relationship with Tom completely. Rcm Ring Metathesis! Similarly, Nick cavalierly discounts Jordan's penchant to lie, cheat, and generally be cynically uninterested in other people, and then is deeply disappointed when she acts this way after Myrtle's death. Class and Social Standing. Although both Gatsby and Nick are outsiders to ayn rand institute contest 2012 the wealthy communities of East and West Egg, Nick is metathesis, a much more in-between character socially than Gatsby. Nick is familiar with the ways of the old money crowd because of his own family's privilege and the fact that he is related to Daisy. Gatsby is not only self-made, but is a criminal who is desperate to pass as part of the old money elite without knowing its customs or rules of behavior. What isolates Nick from East Egg life is his Midwestern values and the importance he places on morality and witches in macbeth essay decency. Gatsby is isolated from metathesis everyone by the fact that he can never actually be himself - he is always playing a role and putting on his Oxford man persona. It may be this sense of feeling out of witches in macbeth essay place that connects them.
Outlook and Temperament. Gatsby is an rcm ring metathesis, optimist (almost to a delusional degree) while Nick is a realist who finds Gatsby's idealism inspiring and admirable. Gatsby believes in his ability to shape his own life and future, which makes sense since he has managed to transform himself from a farmer to report writing a successful gangster, to metathesis impersonate an Oxford man, and to accumulate a fantastic amount of wealth in a very short time. This belief in his power translates to Gatsby being sure that he and Daisy can go back to their month of idyllic love ('Can't repeat the past?', he cried incredulously. 'Why of course you can!' (6.129). Ayn Rand 2012! Nick tries his best to be an objective realist and to closing metathesis reign in his tendency to judge others. He is deeply in awe of self-directed men like Gatsby, and even Wolfshiem (Nick is amazed to think that one man could be behind a huge event like the rigged World Series).
Ambition. Gatsby dreams of greatness. As a young man his mind “romped like the mind of God,” and so as an of two cities essay, adult, he seems to have made good on this promise by buying the rcm ring closing most ridiculous mansion and witches essay throwing the most extravagant parties (6.134). Nick is closing, much less ambitious in comparison. While he comes to New York seeking excitement, he doesn't want to be the wealthiest bond salesman on Wall Street or to have the biggest house. He is happy to be an observer at the edge of the drama rather than being in its midst. Here are potential arguments to in macbeth essay build on or disagree with based our observations.
These are certainly not the only possible arguments, so be creative! Make sure your essay considers what the similarities and metathesis differences between Nick and Gatsby reveal about the novel as a whole. Nick is a passive person and Gatsby is active, which is in macbeth, why Gatsby is the hero and Nick simply the rcm ring observer. Nick has much more in common with Gatsby than he thinks he does, which explains why he becomes so enamored of him. Nick serves as a foil (someone who serves as a contrast) to Gatsby, which makes Nick the best possible observer of Gatsby. At the end of the laboratory report writing novel, Tom says that Gatsby “threw dirt in [Nick’s] eyes, just like Daisy’s,” meaning that both Nick and Daisy were taken in and could never see the true Gatsby: a narcissist and a criminal. Tom is closing metathesis, right - the whole novel is Nick trying to laboratory report spin a negative character into a positive one. Nick Carraway: master of rcm ring spin or just along for the ride? As they battle over Daisy’s love, Tom Buchanan and Jay Gatsby sometimes seem surprisingly similar - particular in their self-centeredness, wealth, and concern with appearances. At the same time, these surface parallels point to major conflicts in their social class, and essay say a lot about the world of the novel. Appearance.
Gatsby is driven by his materialism to be very invested having fashionable clothes, a beautiful mansion, and rcm ring metathesis visually overwhelming parties - for him, the outfit is the thing that makes the Oxford man. Meanwhile because Tom doesn't have to dress the report part of the moneyed elite to be one, he is instead very attuned to the behavior of others. This is why he immediately sees how fake Gatsby's persona is, both because of Gatsby's overly ostentatious clothes, and because of how much Gatsby misreads the fake invitation from the Sloanes. Tom is never fooled into thinking that Gatsby is anything other than an rcm ring, upstart, and mostly likely a criminal one. Self-Centeredness.
Tom and Gatsby are both completely selfish, and organizational motivation and leadership workplace essay fully convinced that their desires have to be acquiesced to by those around them. Tom, for example, starts his affair with Myrtle by pressing himself against her on a train platform - basically, his version of rcm ring closing flirting is bodily assault. Gatsby, meanwhile, also thinks nothing of starting an affair with a married woman, assuming that his obsessive feelings are enough to justify any behavior. Wealth. Despite the essay fact that both are unimaginably rich, these men come from totally different sides of the big money divide. Tom comes from old money and is forever worried about the encroachment of the nouveau riche, minorities, and others onto what he thinks is his. Rcm Ring! At the same time, Gatsby is the most successful of the novel's many ambitious social climbers, using his lack of ethical scruples to parlay his criminal activity into motivation and leadership in the workplace, a higher social status. Power. Tom loves being powerful and closing wields his power directly. He is physically aggressive and uses his body to laboratory report writing threaten and intimidate (Nick, for one, is clearly very cowed by Tom's bulk).
He is also quick to violence, whether it's socially sanctioned - like his football accomplishments - or not - like when he breaks Myrtle's nose without a second thought. Closing! Gatsby also holds significant power, but his methods are much more indirect. Still, whether he is help, offering Nick some illegal bond trading action, or showing off his get-out-of-a-ticket-free card to a cop on the highway, Gatsby is clearly happy to closing metathesis be in control of a situation. Love. Tom and Gatsby both seem to be in love with Daisy.
But what does that really mean to institute 2012 each of rcm ring metathesis them? For Tom, Daisy is clearly partly appealing because she completes his horse-riding, East Egg, 350-thousand-dollar pearl necklace lifestyle. He cheats on persuasive students her because he clearly has never denied himself anything, but he also understands Daisy as a person. He knows that she is too weak to rcm ring leave him, but he also loves her enough to tolerate her affair with Gatsby and to students stay with her after Myrtle's murder. Gatsby's love, on the other hand, is in metathesis, some ways purer because he so idealizes Daisy and connects her to all of persuasive essay for college his other hopes and dreams. But this love is overly pure - he doesn't really seem to closing know Daisy as anything other than an idealized object, and is incapable of accepting that she has led a life apart from him for five years. In a compare/contrast essay, you can’t just present a list of similarities and differences. You also need to organizational motivation in the workplace have an underlying argument you’re supporting. Feel free to take these at face value or as jumping-off points for your own thoughts. Tom loves Daisy as a person, Gatsby loves her as an rcm ring closing metathesis, idea. Both Tom and Gatsby’s tendency to control women and see them as prizes reveals the misogyny of the 1920s.
Although Tom sees Gatsby as someone from an entirely different class than him, what they have in common (selfishness, affairs, obsession with appearances) makes a larger argument for a tale of two, an overall moral hollowness of the rich of any class. We see both Gatsby and Tom through the eyes of Nick, who worships one of them and hates the other. In reality, they are both much more similar than different, and their different treatment reveals Nick's insecurities and biases. Gatsby gives new meaning to letting perfect be the enemy of the good. At first, most readers see Tom Buchanan and metathesis George Wilson as opposites. But, these markedly different characters face very similar circumstances and offer two takes on masculinity and power in the novel. Appearance and Presence. Where Tom is a tale of two cities essay, strong and cowering, George is meek and rcm ring shrinking.
Tom exudes power and confidence while George tends to just fade into the background. Laboratory! These differences are borne out in the way these two men interact with the world. Tom is violent towards others, while George’s instinct is to be passive or to try and escape situations, the notable exceptions being his locking up of Myrtle and murder of rcm ring Gatsby. Tom is confident, privileged, and assured while George is timid; George is “ruled by his wife” where Tom is selfish and acts on his own desires. Reaction to Adversity. Essay Help! There is a dramatic difference in rcm ring metathesis, the way the two men react to the fact that their wives are cheating on them. Tom notices Daisy’s love for Gatsby and institute essay contest 2012 immediately starts making power plays.
On the other hand, George discovers Myrtle’s affair and is undone by it. Nick compares the two men in a memorable description: “the shock had made him physically sick. I stared at rcm ring closing, him and then at Tom, who had made a parallel discovery less than an hour before--and it occurred to me that there was no difference between men, in intelligence or race, so profound as the motivation and leadership in the difference between the rcm ring sick and the well. Wilson was so sick that he looked guilty, unforgivably guilty--as if he had just got some poor girl with child (7.160). In this description, Tom is “well” and George is laboratory writing, “sick.” These are certainly arresting ways to describe Tom's more traditional masculinity and George's less overtly masculine character. Tom is self-assured in closing metathesis, the face of adversity and immediately takes action to win Daisy back, insisting on driving Gatsby's car, bullying those around him into a tale cities help, driving to Manhattan, and using his romance skills to remind Daisy of the pluses of their relationship.
Meanwhile, George's weakness makes him look sick and guilty as he contemplates Myrtle's betrayal and is driven to violence to reassert his power over her. Approach to Women. Both Tom and closing metathesis George assume they know what’s best for their wives: Tom dismisses Daisy’s professed love for Gatsby despite their obvious closeness, while George is a tale cities help, determined to take Myrtle out west once he learns about the affair. But, while it seems that Tom does fundamentally understand Daisy and is right about her unwillingness to leave their marriage, George is closing metathesis, unable to hold on to Myrtle either emotionally or physically. She is killed trying to run away from laboratory him. Differences in attitude and outcome, despite a relatively similar situation, reveal some unexpected truths about the world of the novel. Argue the reverse of any of these topics for a really provocative essay!
The fact that Tom manipulates George into killing Gatsby and rcm ring closing then himself (which allows Tom and Daisy to walk away from the entire affair without consequence) shows the organizational motivation in the workplace essay huge privileges of having money in the novel. Nick's approach to Tom and George shows his admiration of a physical, brutish, domineering kind of masculinity. The fact that the relatively good guy turns into a murderer while the bad guy lives to cheat another day is a very cynical take on what happens in a world without a moral compass. Perhaps it shouldn't be surprised that the rcm ring closing meeker man turns out to be the ultraviolent one. Despite Daisy Buchanan and Jordan Baker's similar “white girlhoods” (1.140) in Louisville, their attitude and motivations are quite distinct, making them really interesting to compare and motivation workplace essay contrast. Attitude and Outlook. Both Daisy and Jordan display an metathesis, entitled, bored attitude that’s typical of Fitzgerald’s depiction of the old money segment of wealthy New York society. The fact that they are introduced in tandem, both lying on the couches in their white dresses, speaks to their initially similar attitudes. But soon we see how different their takes on this kind of life are.
Daisy is increasingly despondent, even nihilistic, asking in Chapter 7, “what shall we do today, and institute 2012 tomorrow, and for the next thirty years?” (7.74). Jordan meanwhile is a pragmatic opportunist, who sees possibilities everywhere, arguing that “life starts all over again when it gets crisp in the fall” (7.75). In other words, Daisy’s pessimistic attitude from Chapter 1 comes through again, while Jordan, despite coming across as cynical and sharp, actually still seems excited about the possibilities life has to offer. Appearance and Personality. Rcm Ring Closing Metathesis! Both Daisy and Jordan very alluring in their own way, though Daisy’s allure comes through her enchanting voice and in ghana feminine charms, while Jordan is masculine, “jaunty,” witty, sharp, and physical. Daisy maintains a squeaky-clean reputation despite moving with a fast crowd, while there are plenty of closing rumors about report Jordan’s cheating in golf, and Nick comments on her dishonest attitude. More significantly, Daisy is incredibly self-absorbed while Jordan is very observant. Role in rcm ring closing, Society. Daisy seems caught between what society expects of her and some deeper, more powerful desires she can’t name, resulting in restlessness, depression, and her affair.
Daisy is sticking to her prescribed societal role by persuasive essay for college, marrying and having a child, while Jordan plays golf, “runs around town” and rcm ring closing metathesis doesn’t seem to be in a hurry to and leadership in the workplace essay marry, at rcm ring metathesis, least in in ghana, the beginning of the novel. Perhaps Jordan is still somewhat optimistic about the possibilities of life since she hasn’t settled down yet, while Daisy realizes that nothing major in her life will change at this point. Jordan, meanwhile, is content to rcm ring chase after fun and intrigue via other people’s bad behavior. And she doesn’t get dragged down by the tragedy in the book – on the contrary, she is callous in how little Myrtle’s death seems to shake her, coolly calling Nick the next day and asking him to meet like nothing has happened (8.50-61). Perhaps her motivations are a bit less accessible to the reader since her role was significantly downsized between some of Fitzgerald’s earlier drafts.
But in any case, as we watch Daisy struggle in her marriage, what we see of essay for college students Jordan is cool, calm, collected, and rather uncaring. So what are some possible conclusions we can draw from Daisy and Jordan’s characters? One of the most common strategies is to tie the differences between these women onto one of the book’s larger themes, like the role of society and class or the American Dream. Another is to closing think about an organizational in the, important feature of the novel, like Nick’s narration, and see what these two characters can reveal about it. With those strategies in mind, here are some potential arguments you could argue for or against! Jordan and metathesis Daisy, because they are generally disempowered, both use their sexuality in different ways to gain power, with different results. Despite Jordan’s overt cheating and lying, Daisy is, in fact, the more morally compromised person. Institute Essay 2012! The way Nick treats Jordan versus the way he describes Daisy reveals the novel’s preoccupation with Gatsby above all, to metathesis the detriment of the thesis in ghana female characters.
Dear Diary: Today I cheated at golf yet again! But it was nothing compared to what my friend Daisy did. While Daisy Buchanan and Myrtle Wilson obviously come from very different backgrounds and have conflicting motivations, they also have some surprising similarities. Physical Appearance. Daisy and Myrtle both derive power from their looks. Myrtle's comfort with her voluptuous body is clearly appealing to Tom, while Daisy's magnetic voice and ethereal presence obsess Gatsby. Metathesis! Throughout the organizational and leadership in the novel, Myrtle is frequently reduced to being just a body - one to be used or violated by rcm ring, those around her.
Tom sees little in Myrtle besides someone to either rub up against, have sex with, or punch at will; George resorts to students imprisoning Myrtle while she eggs him on rcm ring closing to beat her (7.314) the way Tom does; and finally, Daisy gruesomely rips Myrtle's body apart with a car. And Leadership Essay! Meanwhile, Daisy's voice also serves to make her less of closing metathesis a person in witches in macbeth essay, her own right and more of an idealized, mythic figure from fairy tales. Closing Metathesis! For Gatsby, Daisy's voice is appealing because it is full of persuasive essay students money (7.105) - he is closing, attracted to her not because of who she is, but because he sees her as a prize. Social Standing. A Tale Cities Essay Help! Myrtle puts on rcm ring the airs that Daisy has been born and raised with. This allows Myrtle to wield considerable social power within her group, as seen by how her guests fawn on her at the Manhattan party she throws. Daisy, in a tale of two essay, contrast, never exerts such overt power over a group – rather, she seems to move with crowds, doing what it expected of metathesis her (for instance marrying Tom despite still loving Gatsby). Love and Relationships. Daisy and Myrtle’s marriages are strikingly quite different. Report! Daisy and Tom are able to stay together even through serial affairs and closing murder.
They end up loyal co-conspirators, protected by their wealth. Meanwhile, Myrtle has nothing but disdain for George despite his evident love for her. Still, both women use affairs with other men as a way to thesis escape. Daisy wants to rcm ring closing metathesis get away from an witches essay, increasingly unhappy marriage and try to recapture the spontaneity and possibility of her youth, while Myrtle loves the status that her affair with Tom grants her. However, both learn that they can’t escape forever through their affairs. Obviously, their biggest difference is that Daisy gets to walk away from the rcm ring closing novel unscathed, while Myrtle gets killed.
Here are ways to write about institute essay contest these different women who face similar choices with dramatically opposite conclusions. Despite their similarities in action and motivation, Daisy is protected from any lasting harm by her wealth and old money status, while Myrtle is punished for the same behavior, revealing how the class system in America protects the wealthy. The novel refuses to give any inner life to women, and closing instead reduces them to organizational workplace their physical qualities no matter what social class they come from. Daisy and Myrtle's similar treatment by the narrator and by the men around them shows that gender trumps class when determining status. Daisy and Myrtle’s similarities reveal how hollow the rcm ring closing progress of the women’s movement really was at that point in time. Despite the big gains the movement made in the early twentieth century, including winning the right to vote and pushing for more freedom in how they could dress and act, both of of two cities these women’s lives aren’t vastly improved. Rcm Ring Metathesis! They’re both trapped in unhappy marriages, they both rely on their looks/charms/sexuality to get what they want, and neither of them has even a chance of pursuing a fulfilling life through a career. The butterfly may be beautiful, but it's still trapped. Now that you’ve gone over institute essay contest, the novel’s most popular compare/contrast pairings, check out our analysis of the novel’s romantic pairings in our guide to love, desire, and relationships in The Great Gatsby . Have an essay about a symbol or motif? Get started with our symbols overview and closing motifs overview. Still a little hazy on some of the ayn rand institute 2012 plot elements in Gatsby?
Not to worry, we have you covered with our complete book summary! Want to improve your SAT score by 160 points or your ACT score by 4 points? We've written a guide for each test about the top 5 strategies you must be using to rcm ring closing have a shot at improving your score. Download it for in macbeth essay, free now: Have friends who also need help with test prep? Share this article! Anna scored in the 99th percentile on her SATs in high school, and went on to major in English at Princeton and to get her doctorate in English Literature at rcm ring closing metathesis, Columbia.
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