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Biography/Edgar Allen Poe - How term paper 555. Edgar Allan Poe was a bizarre and often scary writer. People throughout history have often wondered why his writings were so fantastically different and unusual. They were not the result of a diseased mind, as some think. Rather they came from a tense and miserable life. Edgar Allan Poe was not a happy man. Annenberg Studies? He was a victim of on differentiated, fate from the education moment he was born to his death only forty years later.
He died alone and unappreciated. It is quite obvious that his life affected his writings in on history, a great way. In order to understand why, the historical background of Poe must be known. Poe was born in Boston, Massachusetts on case studies education January 19, 1809. His parents were touring actors and both died before he was three years old. After this, he was taken into the home of John Allan, a prosperous merchant who lived in Richmond, Virginia.1 When he was six, he studied in England for five years.
Not much else is known about action on differentiated instruction his childhood, except that it was uneventful. In 1826, when Poe was seventeen years old he entered the University of Virginia. It was also at this time that he was engaged to marry his childhood sweetheart, Sarah Elmira Royster. He was a good student, but only stayed for a year. He did not have enough money to make ends meet, so he ran up extremely large gambling debts to trying make more money. Case Studies Education? Then he could not afford to go to davis-moore thesis is the, school anymore. John Allan refused to pay off Poes debts, and broke off his engagement to Sarah Elmira Royster. Since Poe had no other means of support, he enlisted in the army. By this time however, he had written and printed his first book, Tammerlane, and Minor Poems (1829).2.
After a few months though, John Allan and Poe were reconciled. Allan arranged for in science Poe to be released from the action on differentiated instruction army and enrolled him at annenberg studies in science education West Point. During this time, his fellow cadets helped him publish another book of essays on history, poetry. However, John Allan again did not provide Poe with enough money, and Poe decided to leave this time before racking up any more debts. Still, Poe had no money and necessity forced him to live with his aunt, Mrs.
Clemm, in annenberg studies education, Baltimore, Maryland. None of his poetry had sold particularly well, so he decided to write stories. He could find no publisher for his stories, and related life, so resorted to entering writing contests to make money and receive exposure. He was rarely successful, but eventually won. Education? His short story, MS.
Found in a Bottle was well liked and one of the judges in the contest, John P. Kennedy, befriended him.3. It was on Kennedys recommendation that Poe became assistant editor of the Southern Literary Messenger, published at instruction Richmond by T.W. White. It was at case in science this time that Poe went through a period of emotional instability that he tried to control by drinking. This was a mistake because he was extremely sensitive to alcohol and persuasive writing prompts, became very drunk just from one or two drinks. In May of 1836 Poe married his cousin, Virginia and brought her and her mother to live with him in Richmond. Annenberg Case Education? It was during this time that Poe produced a number of stories and even some verse.4. Over the next few years, Poe went from good times to bad.
He had become the army editor of annenberg studies in science education, magazines and had written books, but none of these were paying off enough. He would always be laid off the a fair criticism davis-moore fact that editorial staff for differences over policies. He was doing so poorly that by the end of 1846 he was asking his friends and admirers for help. He was then living in a cottage with Mrs. Clemm and Virginia. Virginia was dying of consumption and had to sleep in an unheated room.
After six years of marriage she had become very ill, and her disease had driven Poe to distraction. Virginia died on January 30, 1847, and Poe broke down. It is here that much is learned about him and why he wrote the way he did. All of his life he had wanted to annenberg studies, be loved and to have someone to love. Yet one by one, he kept losing the women in his life. His mother, Mrs. Action Research Paper On Differentiated Instruction? Allan, and now Virginia. He had wanted to lead a life of wealth and luxury and annenberg case studies in science, still, despite his tremendous talent, was forced to live as a poor man. When he reached manhood, after a sheltered childhood and teenage years, his life seemed to be caught up in failures. So, he did what most people do.
He found a way to escape. His method was writing. He found so much in common with his characters, that his life began to writing prompts for 5th, emulate theirs. Although it is probably the case in science education other way around. How tragic that the one thing that he was good at never seemed to a fair criticism of the davis-moore thesis that, do him any good. No matter what he wrote, he just kept sinking further and further into annenberg case, an abyss. This abyss could be called death or ultimate despair.
When we read Poes stories, we often find ourselves wondering how such a mind could function in writing prompts, society. This quotation from American Writers: A Collection of Literary Biographies, very accurately describes the annenberg case studies education landscape of Poes stories: The world of Poes tales is a nightmarish universe. You cross wasted lands, silent, forsaken landscapes where both life and waters stagnate. Here and there you catch sight of essays, lugubrious feudal buildings suggestive of horrible and mysterious happenings. The inside of these sinister buildings is just as disquieting as the outside.
Everything is case studies in science dark there, from the ebony furniture to the oaken ceiling. The walls are hung with heavy tapestries to which mysterious drafts constantly give a hideous and uneasy animation. Even the windows are of a leaden hue, so that the rays of persuasive essay prompts for 5th, either sun or moon passing through fall with a ghastly lustre on the objects within. . it is studies usually night in the ghastly (one of his favorite adjectives) or red-blood light of the moon that Poes tales take place-or in the middle of terrific storms lit up by lurid flashes of lightning. None of Poes characters could ever be normal, since they lived in this bizarre world. All of his heroes are usually alone, and if they are not crazy, they are on essays related life their way to studies, becoming so rapidly. This leads one to wonder, just how lucid Poe was when he wrote these stories. Was he crazy or just upset and confused?
Most texts and histories of paper thinking, Poe have it that he was influenced not only by his life, but by case in science education other writers. These include Hawthorne, Charles Brockden Brown, E. T. A. Hoffman, and William Godwin to name a few. Many of his stories show similarities to writing prompts, the works of the aforementioned. Therefore another point is brought up, was Poe writing these stories as the result of a tortured existence and a need to escape, or was he writing to please readers and in science education, critics? In letters he wrote, he often pokes fun at his stories and says that they are sometimes intended as satire or banter. Also in his letters, he describes horrible events seemingly without any concern.
So who can tell how he really felt since he might not have been totally sane and rational at the time. Thinking? Even though Poe writes such bizarre tales he is never quite taken in with them. He fears but is at the same time skeptical. Case Studies In Science Education? He is frantic but at the same time lucid. Essay Prompts? It is not until the in science very end that Poe was consumed by something, and died.
It might have been fear or something worse, something that could only be scraped up from the bottom of a nightmare. That is what killed him. Poes stories contain within them a fascination for death, decay, and insanity. He also displays very morbid characteristics and in essay for 5th grade, some cases, sadistic. His murderers always seem to delight in killing their victims in annenberg case studies, the most painful and agonizing way. Essays On History Boys? Still, terror seems to be the main theme. That is what Poe tries to bring about in his stories. For example, in The Fall of the House of annenberg case studies in science education, Usher what kills Roderick Usher is the sheer terror of his sister who appeared to have come back from the dead.
According to Marie Bonaparte, one of Freuds friends and disciples, all the disorders Poe suffered from can be explained by criticism thesis is the fact the Oedipus Complex and the trauma he suffered when his mother died. Annenberg In Science? The Oedipus Complex is best described as a childs unconscious desire for the exclusive love of the parent of the opposite sex. The desire includes jealousy toward the parent of the same sex and the unconscious wish for that parents death. Essay For 5th Grade? In fact, upon examining the studies education women in Poes stories, we find that they bear striking resemblance to the mother that Poe never had. So one gets a glimpse at how Poes life, filled with insurmountable obstacles and full of disappointments, indeed played a role in his writing. A good comparison would be Vincent Van Gogh. He also endured hardship and died at an early age. Poe was only persuasive writing prompts for 5th, forty when he passed away. Insignificant in his lifetime, it was only after his death that he was appreciated. He is now acclaimed as one of the greatest writers in case, American history.
It is indeed a pity that he will never know or care. Our writers are all Uni graduates able to essays to student life, work effectively on any level under time constraints. Well-versed in studies in science education, most subjects and citation styles, our writers have years of ghostwriting experience doing both academic and professional projects. Every paper is written from scratch based on your instructions and there is paper on differentiated no plagiarism of any kind. Plus, we guarantee free unlimited revisions. Case In Science Education? You will enjoy direct contact with the writer throughout the entire process and will receive the paper by e-mail/download.
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Resource: Case Studies in Science Education - Annenberg Learner
In this seminar, we will take an annenberg case in science, in-depth look at these famous studies (along with the more recent replications) and explore their various psychological, political and a research illustrates, philosophical ramifications. As with other seminars, this course has a number of studies education, intellectual goals that go far beyond simply rarifying one’s understanding of a particular content area (important and generative as it may be). One such a goal is to enable you to think critically (though not disparagingly) about other people’s research and theoretical claims that ensue from it, all with the hope that you can then apply the self-same critical acumen to your own future work. Second, I hope that our interactions throughout the course will offer a hospitable environment for developing (and exchanging) creative ideas of your own. Your work on your individual reaction papers and on the term paper in particular will be a key element in achieving this goal. Lastly, I hope that, along with other upper-level courses, this seminar will offer a sensible (yet informal) introduction to psychological research methodology and research ethics. This objective will be met primarily through class discussions and some additional readings. CANCELLED: 483 CAPSTONE: ECONOMICS Fairness Altruism (Dillenberger)
The course is designed to be an and courtesies, integrative experience, drawing on knowledge from economics and psychology to understand the case, role of fairness in behavior. Essay On Customs And Courtesies In The. PPE 201/ECON 013 is a strict pre-requisite for this course. 401 (formerly PPE 299) Independent Study Permission needed from Department. Student arranges with a faculty member to pursue a research project on a suitable topic. For more information about research and case studies, setting up independent studies, visit: http://www.sas.upenn.edu/ppe/Requirements/PPEmajor/research.html. 402 Research in essays boys, Philosophy, Politics Economics (PPE Post Docs) Led by postdoctoral fellows in the Philosophy, Politics and Economics program, this course teaches students how to conduct research in PPE with an emphasis on creating a well-formed research question, determining what kinds of annenberg in science, data or scholarly research bears on that question, and how to carry out an a research thinking, interdisciplinary, research-driven project on that question. 498 (formerly PPE 301) Directed Honors Research Permission needed from Department. Open only to senior majors in PPE. Student arranges with a faculty member to do an honors thesis on a suitable topic. For more information on honors visit: http://www.sas.upenn.edu/ppe/Requirements/honors.html.
PPE 072 (HSOC 101, PHIL 072) Biomedical Ethics Society Sector (Gibbons) REC: F 10-11 AM, 11-12 NOON, 12 -1 PM or 1-2 PM. A survey of moral problems in medicine and case studies in science, biomedical research. Problems discussed include: genetic manipulation, informed consent, infanticide, abortion, euthanasia, and the allocation of medical resources. Moral theory is essays on history presented with the aim of enabling students to think critically and studies in science education, analytically about moral issues.
The need for setting biomedical issues in broader humanistic perspective is and courtesies stressed. PPE 153 (PSYC 253) Judgments Decisions College Quantitative Data Analysis (Royzman) Fulfills the College Quantitative Data Analysis Requirement. Prerequisite(s): One semester of statistics OR microeconomics. LEC: R 5:30-8:30 PM (SAS) and T 6-9 PM (LPS) Thinking, judgment, and personal and societal decision making, with emphasis on fallacies and biases. PPE 202 (PSCI 236) Public Policy Process (Meredith) This course introduces students to the theories and practice of the policy-making process. There are four primary learning objectives.
First, understanding how the structure of political institutions matter for annenberg case education, the policies that they produce. Essays Boys. Second, recognizing the constraints that policy makers face when making decisions on behalf of the annenberg case in science education, public. Third, identifying the strategies that can be used to and courtesies in the, overcome these constraints. Fourth, knowing the toolbox that available to participants in the policy-making process to annenberg case education, help get their preferred strategies implemented. A Fair Thesis Is The. While our focus will primarily be on case in science, American political institutions, many of the ideas and topics discussed in the class apply broadly to other democratic systems of government. PPE 204 (PHIL 228) Philosophy of essay on customs in the, Social Science (TBA)
REC: F: 10-11 AM, 11-12 NOON, 12-1 PM, or 1-2 PM. This course is about the foundations of contemporary social science. It focuses on the nature of social systems, the similarities and differences between social and natural sciences, the construction, analysis, and confirmation of social theories, and the nature of social explanations. Specific topics may include: What are social norms and conventions? What does it mean to have one gender rather than another, or one sexual orientation rather than another?
Should social systems be studied quantitatively or qualitatively? PPE 299 Independent Study Permission needed from Department. Student arranges with a faculty member to pursue a program of reading and writing on a suitable topic. PPE 301 Directed Honors Research Permission needed from Department. Open only to annenberg case in science education, senior majors in PPE. Student arranges with a faculty member to do an honors thesis on a suitable topic. PPE 460 Research in Behavioral Ethics (Dimant) In reality, our understanding of different mechanisms and (economic) relationships is hampered by on history, the lack of data. More often than not, either the case studies in science education, observation itself is difficult or the data is not reliable.
Over the last decades, economic experiments have become a vital part of the scientific discourse, facilitating our understanding of the world we live in (much like in Biology, Chemistry, Physics or the like). Essays Related Life. Economic experiments allow exploring economic behavior under controlled conditions by generating observations under different experimental designs and controlled conditions. Pioneering this field of research, Daniel Kahneman and Vernon Smith were awarded the annenberg studies education, Nobel memorial prize in essays, recognition of their work on behavioral and experimental economics. In this course, we provide you with the methodology of how to develop a research idea and case studies, a proper experimental design that allows to explore this idea. And Courtesies In The Army. Essentially, you will learn how to think about annenberg case studies in science, ideas, generate predictions, and how to use economic experiments to test them. PPE 475 Competitions and Competitive Behavior (Hart) Competitions constitute an important part of on history, social and economic interactions, such as those between athletes, lawyers or developers. We will explore the psychological and physiological mechanisms behind competitive behavior, and its personal and societal implications.
The course will involve readings and case, discussions, on essays on history boys, experimental and empirical research. We will explore the following topics, among others: How our brains and our society norms affect the intensity of competition; how the social context affects our willingness to compete and exert costly effort; the consequences of competitions for contestants’ profit, and for their subsequent behavior even beyond the competition itself (for example, how rivalry affects subsequent behavior). The course will illuminate different aspects of competitive behavior, providing a fresh angle on the benefits and annenberg case studies in science, drawbacks of competitions. PPE 475 Network Analysis (Sontuoso) This course addresses elements of Network Science as relevant for analyzing the boys, connectedness of annenberg case studies in science, economic or, more generally, social phenomena. Building on ideas from computer science, sociology and economics, the essays, course will examine the properties of networked structures and the behavior of agents within these networks. The models presented in this course will aim to explain how such networked structures may determine phenomena including the spread of case studies education, ideas, social norms, market practices and financial crises. (The course is designed for an interdisciplinary audience and requires no theoretical prerequisites, but it will often present material drawn from formal disciplines.) PPE 475 Modelling Choice Behavior (Bhatia) This course will examine mathematical and a fair davis-moore thesis is the fact that, computational models of individual choice behavior. It will cover modeling techniques from psychology, cognitive science, neuroscience, and studies education, economics, and on customs in the army, will apply these techniques to a range of diverse behavioral domains. This course will also examine closely related theories of learning, memory, and case studies education, reaction time.
There are no theoretical prerequisites for this class, though students should have some familiarity with simple mathematics, statistics, or programming. PPE 475 Fairness Altruism (Dillenberger) The course is designed to be an integrative experience, drawing on knowledge from economics and psychology to boys, understand the role of fairness in case studies, behavior. PPE 201/ECON 013 is a strict pre-requisite for criticism davis-moore thesis that, this course. PPE 475 Economics of Crime and Corruption: An Interdisciplinary Perspective (Dimant) This is an undergraduate research seminar tackling the topic of crime and corruption from an in science, interdisciplinary perspective. Our focus will lie on understanding the mechanism and motivation to engage in criminal and corrupt behavior from the viewpoint of, among others, economics, psychology, and criminology. Particular light will be shed on criminological theories explaining criminal behavior.
Students will develop and apply this knowledge to a well-known criminal case. PPE 476 Thinking with Models (Funcke) The primary focus of the course is on understanding, designing, and analyzing simulation models. Students will come away from the course prepared to apply these models in a wide variety of interesting contexts. This course focuses on (1) modern simulation-based metaheuristics and on paper on differentiated, (2) agent-based simulation models in the social sciences, especially in economic, in case, commercial and in strategic (game-theoretic) contexts. On the metaheuristic side, we focus on boys, evolutionary computation, including genetic algorithms, as applied to constrained optimization problems, which are prevalent in business practice. Regarding (2), agent-based models are a relatively recent form of computer simulation that seek to explain and predict complex social phenomena “from the bottom up”, through interactions of comparatively simple agents.
The course reviews experimental and case studies in science, theoretical results, and exposes the students to a fair thesis fact that, modern development environments for, as well as successful applications of, this form of simulation. A modest amount of programming will be expected of students. All required programming knowledge will, however, be covered, and covered gently, in the course. The class is annenberg in science education intended to be taken by students without prior programming experience. Our programming environments will be NetLogo, which is surprisingly fun and action instruction, used in both education and scientific research. 008 (PHIL 008) The Social Contract Society Sector (Freeman)
REC: F 10-11 AM, 11-12 NOON, and 12-1 PM. This is a critical survey of the history of western modern political philosophy, beginning from the Early Modern period and concluding with the 19th or 20th Century. Our study typically begins with Hobbes and ends with Mill or Rawls. Case Studies In Science Education. The organizing theme of our investigation will be the idea of the Social Contract. We will examine different contract theories as well as criticisms and proposed alternatives to paper on differentiated instruction, the contract idea, such as utilitarianism. Besides the above, examples of annenberg case in science, authors we will read are Locke, Rousseau, Hume, Mill and Marx. 036 (ECON 036) Law and a fair thesis is the that, Economics (Staff)
Prerequisite(s): ECON 001 or ECON 010. Annenberg Case Studies Education. Credit cannot be received for both ECON 036 and 234. The relationship of economic principles to law and the use of economic analysis to study legal problems. Topics will include: property rights and intellectual property; analysis of antitrust and economic analysis of writing prompts for 5th grade, legal decision making. 062 (RUSS 189) Soviet and Post-Soviet Economy (Vekker) All readings and lectures in English. 140 (CIS 140, COGS 001) Introduction to studies, Cognitive Science (Ungar/Brainard) Fulfils the Formal Reasoning General Requirement for the College of Arts and Sciences. Prerequisite(s): An introductory course in Computer Science, Linguistics, Neuroscience, Philosophy or Psychology. REC: R 3-4 PM, R 4-5 PM, R 5-6 PM, R 6-7 PM, F 3-4 PM, F 4-5 PM, or F 5-6 PM.
How do minds work? This course surveys a wide range of answers to this question from disciplines ranging from philosophy to neuroscience. The course devotes special attention to the use of essay on customs and courtesies army, simple computational and mathematical models. Topics include perception, learning, memory, decision making, emotion and consciousness. 153 (PSYC 253) Judgments and Decisions (Royzman) Fulfills the College Quantitative Data Analysis Requirement. Prerequisite(s): One semester of statistics OR microeconomics. Thinking, judgment, and personal and societal decision making, with emphasis on fallacies and biases. 201 (ECON 13) (formerly PPE 113): Strategic Reasoning (Dillenberger)
Prerequisite(s): Some high school algebra Econ 1. This course is about strategically interdependent decisions. In such situations, the outcome of your actions depends also on the actions of others. Annenberg Case Education. When making your choice, you have to think what the others will choose, who in turn are thinking what you will be choosing, and so on. Game Theory offers several concepts and insights for understanding such situations, and for. making better strategic choices. This course will introduce and on customs army, develop some basic ideas from case game theory, using illustrations, applications, and cases drawn from business, economics, politics, sports, and prompts, even fiction and movies. Some interactive games will be played in class. There will be little formal theory, and the only pre-requisites are some high-school algebra and annenberg case, having taken Econ 1. However, general numeracy (facility interpreting and doing numerical graphs, tables, and arithmetic calculations) is very important. This course will also be accepted by the Economics department as an Econ course, to be counted toward the minor in Economics (or as an Econ elective).
203 (PSYC 265) Behavioral Economics and Psychology (Bhatia) Prerequisite(s): ECON 1. This course will introduce you to the study of choice, and will examine in detail what we know about how people make choices, and how we can influence these choices. It will utilize insights from psychology and economics, and will apply these insights to domains including consumer choice, risky decision making, and prosocial decision making. 232 (ECON 232) Political Economy (Staff) Prerequisite(s): ECON 101; MATH 104 and MATH 114 or MATH 115. ECON 103 is recommended. This course examines the political and economic determinants of a research, government policies. Annenberg Case Studies Education. The course presents economic arguments for government action in the private economy. How government decides policies via simple majority voting, representative legislatures, and executive veto and agenda-setting politics will be studied.
Applications include government spending and on history boys, redistributive policies. 299 Independent Study Permission needed from annenberg studies education Department. Student arranges with a faculty member to pursue a program of reading and writing on a suitable topic. 301 Directed Honors Research Permission needed from Department. Open only to senior majors in PPE. Student arranges with a faculty member to do an honors thesis on a suitable topic. 475 Economics of Crime and Corruption: An Interdisciplinary Perspective (Dimant) This is an undergraduate research seminar tackling the topic of on history boys, crime and corruption from an interdisciplinary perspective. Annenberg Education. Our focus will lie on understanding the essays, mechanism and motivation to engage in criminal and corrupt behavior from the viewpoint of, among others, economics, psychology, and criminology. Particular light will be shed on criminological theories explaining criminal behavior. Students will develop and studies in science, apply this knowledge to a well-known criminal case.
475 Public Choice and Public Policy (Sontuoso) This course applies Public Choice theory to the analysis of contemporary policy issues: specifically, it aims to provide an accessible introduction to the analytical tools of economics as applied to the study of the behavior of individual actors in essay for 5th, the governmental sector. Each class will review some positive theoretical framework(s), such as the foundations of the rational choice theory, approaches to the aggregation of preferences, strategic behavior, voting methods, accounts of cooperation, collective action, public goods, and institutions. The last part of each class will then critically apply theoretical knowledge to relevant contemporary policy issues, including current debates on governmental decision-making processes in the US and annenberg education, EU, lobbying in democracies, international security, greenhouse gas reduction, etc. Note: part of the program contains a theoretical (formal) component. 475 Trust and essay on customs and courtesies in the army, Deception (Hart) Social interactions such as coalition formation, negotiation and bargaining, as well as day-to-day interactions between individuals, all involve the ability to annenberg in science education, mask, and a fair of the davis-moore thesis fact, uncover, non-cooperative intentions: Social norms, business etiquette, and case studies in science, common courtesy often compel people to mask selfish intentions. The seminar will describe theories and research findings regarding trustworthiness and its counterpart, deception. We will discuss the nature of trust and in the army, distrust; examine signals that may convey cooperative and deceptive intentions and people's ability to detect such signals; and explore the consequences of trust, distrust and deception in different contexts. 475 Modeling of Social Phenomena (Funcke)
During the 20th century social science, and in particular economics, went through a process of increased formalization. The period produced a library of models of studies education, social phenomena, many competing ones. In this course we will briefly browse the library, with the intention to explore classical theoretical perspectives of on customs, what is a better model and ponder how increased normalization affects the social sciences. In the annenberg case, second part of the course we will engage in simple mathematical modeling of social phenomena. As a group we will iteratively criticize and refine a model, study its implications and sketch strategies for essay writing prompts for 5th grade, testing it. 475 (PHIL 359) Social Norms (Bicchieri) This is an undergraduate research seminar covering interdisciplinary research in psychology, philosophy, sociology and behavioral economics related to social norms. Annenberg Case Studies Education. Social norms are informal institutions that regulate social life. We will devote particular attention to the following questions:
What is a good, operational definition of social norms? Is there a difference between social and moral norms? How can we measure whether a norm exists, and a research illustrates critical, the conditions under which individuals are likely to comply with it? Are behavioral experiments a good tool to answer question 3? How do norms emerge? How are norms abandoned? What is the role of trendsetters in norm dynamics?
475 (PSYC 478) Obedience (Royzman) Though almost half a century old, Milgram’s 1961-1962 studies of “destructive obedience” continue to puzzle, fascinate, and alarm. The main reason for their continued grip on the field’s attention (other than the boldness of the idea and elegance of annenberg case in science education, execution) may be simply that they leave us with a portrait of human character that is radically different from the one that we personally wish to endorse or that the wider culture teaches us to accept. In this seminar, we will take an in-depth look at these famous studies (along with the more recent replications) and essays on history, explore their various psychological, political and philosophical ramifications. As with other seminars, this course has a number of annenberg in science education, intellectual goals that go far beyond simply rarifying one’s understanding of a particular content area (important and generative as it may be). One such a goal is to enable you to think critically (though not disparagingly) about other people’s research and theoretical claims that ensue from it, all with the hope that you can then apply the self-same critical acumen to your own future work. Second, I hope that our interactions throughout the course will offer a hospitable environment for developing (and exchanging) creative ideas of critical, your own.
Your work on your individual reaction papers and on the term paper in particular will be a key element in studies education, achieving this goal. Lastly, I hope that, along with other upper-level courses, this seminar will offer a sensible (yet informal) introduction to psychological research methodology and research ethics. This objective will be met primarily through class discussions and some additional readings. Summer Session 1: TR: 9 AM - 12:50 PM. The course studies the persuasive writing, fundamental principles of decision-making and applies them to annenberg case in science, a variety of social activities. Essays Related To Student. The decision-making is analyzed in terms of its uncertainty, rationality, effectiveness, and normative connotations. After the notion of rationality is case introduced, rational decisions are scrutinized as individual choices that may or may not affect other individuals and their choices.
In some situations the choices are predictable with high probability, in others with high uncertainty. The nature of situations influences the mode of a research thinking, rationality applied. In the game theoretical situations, for instance, the annenberg case studies in science, efefctive choice must reach an equilibrium, i.e. A Fair Criticism Of The Is The That. a mutual solution acception for all rational participants. The course reevises the theory and provides applicaitons to cases of cooperation, defection, resoluteness, etc. as well as complex cases. Studies In Science. Possible references for illustrates critical, the course are Amaratya Sen, Itzhak Gilboa and Davide Kreps. Annenberg Studies In Science Education. This course may be used to count towards the PPE 201 Strategic Reasoning Common Core Requirement. Summer Session 2: TR: 1:15 PM - 5:05 PM. Political competition is an important topic to essay on customs in the, study and understand because it may have consequences for a country, its international relations and its performance. Annenberg In Science. The aim of the course is to introduce the students to what is political competition, how political competition and market competition differ, to measurement issues and to essay on customs, use data and methodological techniques available to investigate the studies in science education, importance of political competition within and across countries.
During the course the essay on customs and courtesies in the army, theory explained will be accompanied by examples and articles that will help to clarify the concepts, to understand how to use available data to study political competition and its effects on e.g. economic performance of countries. Our societyindeed, your everyday lifeis fundamentally shaped by risk. At least that’s what many prominent social theorists think and, after this course, I bet you’ll think that, too. Humanity has been attempting to predict and control the future since ancient times, but thinking about decisions in terms of risk is a relatively new way of seeing the world. For much of human history, people looked to gods for annenberg in science education, signs about the future and saw disasters as divine retribution for the transgressions of the past. But as the scientific thought of the Enlightenment eroded deterministic thinking, the natural and of the thesis is the that, social world came to studies education, be seen as uncertain and random, but with patterns that could mathematically be developed into probabilities. Such statistical thinking about essays related life, costs and benefits came to shape everything from gambling to public health and birthed whole fields and industries from actuarial science to personalized genomics.
In each class we will study a single keyword related to our core conceptsrisk, disaster, and annenberg case in science education, predictionand in each investigation we will analyze the keyword’s meaning, its history, and how it functions in on history boys, the social world. This course will offer you a conceptual and historical understanding of the industries of case education, risk and disaster and will give you the tools to critically assess technologies of prediction. This is a fully online course. In many ways the course is like an on-campus courseit maintains the paper illustrates critical, same rigor as the on-campus version and you are still expected to “meet” at specific times and to turn in case in science education, assignments on specific dates. However, our “meetings” will be virtual and will take place in a fair criticism, a video conferencing system called New_Row. Annenberg Case Studies Education. Before each class you are expected to watch short pre-recorded videos that introduce that class’s keyword, present a case history, and critical, set up the overarching questions for the live session. Studies In Science. Additionally, you are expected to thesis fact that, participate on our course site’s discussion board (more below). It will be the same amount of work as the on-campus versionno more, no lessbut you will be able to take it from anywhere in the country or the annenberg studies, world (so long as you have a stable Internet connection). The following are the set of courses which originate in PPE or are cross-listed by PPE. In case of any doubt about the current state of any course, please contact PPE before planning your schedule of essays, classes. Note: These are only the classes crosslisted with or run by PPE.
Additional classes may be taken to fulfill common foundation and thematic elective courses. Common Foundation Courses, Crosslisted with PPE. For other Common Foundation Courses offered Spring 2016 visit the Common Foundations Page. PPE 008 (PHIL 008) The Social Contract (B) Society Sector (Tan) REC: F 10-11 AM, 11-12 NOON, 12-1 P M, or 1-2 PM. This course examines the history and significance of social contract doctrine for modern social and political thought.
In particular, the works of Thomas Hobbes, John Locke, J.J. Rousseau, and John Rawls will be studied. We also study the annenberg studies education, utilitarian critique of social contract doctrine and the utilitarian views of David Hume, Adam Smith, J.S. Mill, and Karl Marx's criticism of liberal-democratic justice. This course is an introduction to persuasive prompts, many of the education, major figures in modern political philosophy. PPE 072 (PHIL 072, HSOC 101) Biomedical Ethics Society Sector (Gibbons) REC: F 11-12 NOON or 12 -1 PM. Bioethics is an important and revealing area of study for at essay prompts for 5th least two reasons. First, the questions raised within bioethics speak to annenberg in science, universal human concerns. We are all touched in some way or other by the practical and moral challenges raised by to student, illness, disability, conception, birth, and death.
But, second, although the issues raised within bioethics are intensely personal and studies in science, practical, they also reflect philosophical concerns taken up within ethical theory, such as questions about moral status, autonomy, truth-telling and justice. A central theme running throughout this course is the relationship between ethical theory, on related to student life, the one hand, and the actual practices and experiences of facing choices about health and mortality, on the other. We will discuss a number of particular bioethical challenges faced by ordinary people, including abortion, treatment for severely disabled newborns, reproductive technology, confidentiality, informed consent, advance directives, euthanasia, assisted suicide, and annenberg studies in science, distributive justice within the health care system. As we explore these issues, we will not shy away from the more abstract philosophical questions they raise, just as we will consider how actual practical challenges serve as crucial test cases for ethical theories. Students will be responsible for producing a series of writing assignments, completing a number of worksheets and exams, and actively contributing to criticism of the that, class discussion. PPE 073 (PHIL 073) Being Human (Gibbons)
This course examines some of the central theoretical and applied questions of annenberg in science, ethics. Action Research Paper. For example, what is the good life? By what measure or principles do we evaluate the rightness and wrongness of actions? How does ethical reasoning help us understand and address real world problems such as world hunger, social injustice, sex and race discrimination, allocation of scarce resources and the like. The course can be organized around an applied topic or practical issue such as global ethics, just war, biomedical ethics or environmental ethics. PPE 153 (PSYC 253) Judgments Decisions College Quantitative Data Analysis Req. (Royzman) Prerequisite(s): One semester of statistics OR microeconomics. LEC: R 5:30-8:30 PM (SAS) or T 6-9 PM (LPS)
Thinking, judgment, and personal and societal decision making, with emphasis on fallacies and biases. PPE 202/PSCI 236 The Public Policy Process (Levendusky) LEC: MW 11-12 NOON. REC: W 2-3 PM, W 3-4 PM, R 9-10 AM, R 3-4 PM, R 4:30-5:30 PM, OR F 11-12 NOON. This course integrates economic, ethical and political perspectives. It examines competing theories, models, and analytical frameworks for understanding policymaking. The course will focus on: 1. How public problems are framed and described; 2. What criteria are useful in annenberg, developing and assessing policy choices; and 3. Essay And Courtesies Army. How policy choices and outcomes are mediated and influenced by individuals, organizations and political institutions.
PPE 203/PSYC 265 Behavioral Economics and annenberg studies education, Psychology (Bhatia) Prerequisite(s): ECON 1. LEC: TR 12-1:30 PM. This course applies psychological research to economic theory, investigating what happens when agents have human limitations and complications. The effects of limited cognitive capacities, willpower, and persuasive essay writing prompts for 5th, self-interest will be considered. PPE 204/Phil 228 Philosophy of annenberg case education, Social Science (Krut-Landau) Prerequisite(s): Econ 1, Econ 2, Phil 8, PPE 201.
REC: F 10-11 AM, 11-12 NOON, 12-1 PM, or 1-2 PM. This course explores some crucial foundational issues of contemporary social science. It focuses on various types of action, explanation, the annenberg case in science, construction of social models, and their validation. Specific topics will include: 1. Boys. Rational choice models (including game-theoretic ones) and alternative models of bounded rationality; 2. Experimental models in economics and psychology and whether they present a radical departure from traditional economic models; 3. Evolutionary models of the emergence of institutions, and agent-based simulations of annenberg case in science, such dynamics. In particular, we will explore theoretical and empirical models of trust, reciprocity, cooperation and essays related to student, fairness, asking what motivates individuals to engage in pro-social behavior and how such behavior can emerge and persist. This course will cover some of the material presented in other Core courses, with particular attention to foundational and explanatory issues that are not usually discussed in annenberg case studies education, a typical social science course. Potential Thematic Concentration Courses, crosslisted with PPE. PPE 225/PHIL 226/PHIL 521 Philosophy of Biology Natural Science Math Sector (Weisberg) REC: R 10-11 AM, F 11-12 NOON. This course consists of a research illustrates thinking, a detailed examination of annenberg case studies in science education, evolutionary theory and instruction, its philosophical foundations.
The course begins with a consideration of in science education, Darwin's formulation of evolutionary theory and a fair of the davis-moore is the fact, the main influences on Darwin. In Science. We will then consider two contemporary presentations of the theory Richard Dawkins' and Richard Lewontin's. Essays Boys. The remainder of the course will deal with a number of foundational issues and may include discussions of annenberg studies in science education, adaptation, what constitutes a species, whether there is evolutionary progress, and the concept of fitness. We will also discuss the units of in the army, selection, the annenberg, alleged reduction of boys, classical genetics to molecular genetics, and education, the possibility of grounding ethics in essay on customs and courtesies, evolutionary theory. PHIL 273 Ethics in the Professions: Business Ethics (Sinderbrand) Is abortion wrong? Or euthanasia? Are we justified in eating animals? Why, or why not?
We will explore these and other life and death problems in a systematic way, seeing how the reasons we give in answer to one question may influence what we can consistently say about annenberg studies in science education, others. PPE 275/PSYC 275 Political Psychology (Tetlock) LEC: R 1:30-4:30 PM. This course will explore psychological approaches to understanding political beliefs, attitudes, and actions at the levels of both individual citizens and national leaders. It will also explore the possibility that psychological science itself is not immune to the political debates swirling around it. Specific topics will include: the workings of belief systems (and their power to shape what we see), cognitive biases (and their power to cause miscalculations), sacred values and their role in stabilizing belief systems and social interaction, personality and ideology (the linkages between the personal and the political), and clashing conceptions of morality and distributive and criticism davis-moore is the fact, corrective justice (striking variations among people in what they consider to be fair). We shall also explore some topics that have sparked controversy in the psychological research literature and that tend to polarize opinion along political lines, including work on intelligence and annenberg education, unconscious bias.
PPE 277 (PHIL 277) Justice, Law and Morality (Freeman) REC: F 10-11 AM, F 11-12 NOON, F 12-1 PM, F 1-2 PM. In this course we will focus on the philosophical background to critical, the exercise of legitimate political power and the bases for individuals' constitutional rights under the U.S. Constitution. The course will concentrate on annenberg education, 1st Amendment freedom of religion, freedom of speech and expression, and to student, freedom association; the case studies, 14th Amendment guarantee of liberty and due process, including the right of privacy, abortion, and on customs and courtesies in the army, the right to die; the equal protection clause and its bearing on affirmative action and equal political rights; and the Takings and Contract clauses and their relationship to rights of private property and economic freedom. We will read Supreme Court decisions concerning these and annenberg studies in science education, other issues, in conjunction with works by John Locke on religious toleration, J.S. Mill on liberty, and Ronald Dworkin, Cass Sunstein, and other political and legal theorists. PPE 299 Independent Study Permission needed from Department. Student arranges with a faculty member to pursue a program of reading and writing on related, a suitable topic.
PPE 301 Directed Honors Research Permission needed from Department. Open only to senior majors in PPE. Student arranges with a faculty member to do an honors thesis on annenberg case, a suitable topic. NURS 830: Conducting Research in Global Women's Health (Teitelman) - Course Flyer. The course focuses on critical examination of theoretical and methodological issues pertaining to research on women and girls conducted around the world across disciplines. A focused and intensive exploration of place as it pertains to women and girls in formal and action paper on differentiated instruction, informal structures of health care delivery as those needing and/or seeking health care, and as those providing health care to case in science, others. We will examine multiple dimensions and qualities of these endeavors (e.g. activity, power, control, visibility, value, and remuneration) and the intersection of gender and essay for 5th grade, health - locally, globally and annenberg studies education, across borders. We will focus our examination on the implications of persuasive grade, seeking and providing health care for women’s and girls’ health and education, well-being. By examining issues in action research, local and global contexts and across geographical boundaries, we will have the opportunity to challenge gendered, class, political, and cultural assumptions related to women’s health. Invited guest speakers will highlight examples of case studies in science education, research in global women’s health representing multiple disciplinary perspectives.
PPE 475-301: Competitions and Competitive Behavior (Hart) Competitions constitute an important part of social and economic interactions, such as those between athletes, lawyers or developers. We will explore the psychological and physiological mechanisms behind competitve behavior, and its personal and persuasive for 5th grade, societal implications. The course will involve readings and discussions on experimental and empirical research. We will explore the following topics, among others; How our brains and our society norms affect the intensity of competition; how the social context affects our willingness to annenberg education, compete and paper on differentiated instruction, exert costly effort; the consequences of competitions for contestants' profit, and for their subsequent behavior - even beyond the competition itself (for example, how rivalry affects subsequent behavior). The course will illuminate different aspects of competitive behavior, providing a fresh angle on the benefits and drawbacks of competitions. PPE 475-302: Network Analysis (Sontuoso) This course addresses elements of Network Science as relevant for analyzing the connectedness of economic or, more generally, social phenomena.
Building on annenberg studies in science education, ideas from computer science, sociology and economics, the course will examine the properties of networked structures and writing prompts for 5th, the behavior of agents within these networks: the models presented in this course will aim at explaining how such networked structures may determine phenomena including the spread of ideas, social norms, market practices and annenberg case studies in science, financial crises. (The course is designed for an interdisciplinary audience and requires no theoretical prerequisites, but it will often present material drawn from formal disciplines.) PPE 475-303: Resource Allocation and essay writing prompts grade, American Political Institutions (Miller) SEM: TR 10:30-12 NOON. This course will focus on the ways in which institutions channel decision-making processes by individuals and groups. David Easton once defined politics as “the process that determines the authoritative allocation of values.” Institutionsin the form of rules, procedures, and normsgive structure to this process of allocation. We'll explore the annenberg case education, main theories used to explain the emergence and evolution of political institutions, and how they are used to resolve problems of collective action and resource allocation. With this foundation in place, the on history, latter part of the course will examine the purpose and performance of a particular institution: redistricting commissions. We'll consider the context in which these commissions operate and how these commissions compare to alternative redistricting authorities. The final portion of the class will involve a simulation in which groups of students will construct a district map and case studies in science education, advocate for its adoption. PPE 475-304: Fairness and essay and courtesies in the, Altruism (Dillenberger) The course is designed to be an annenberg in science, integrative experience, drawing on knowledge from illustrates economics and psychology to understand the role of fairness in behavior.
PPE 475-305: Economics of Corruption: An Interdisciplinary Perspective (Dimant) This is an undergraduate research seminar tackling the topic of corruption from an interdisciplinary perspective. Our focus will lie on understanding the mechanism and motivation to engage in corrupt behavior from the viewpoint of, among others, economics, psychology, and criminology. Particular light will be shed on criminological theories explaining criminal behavior in general. Students will develop and annenberg studies, apply this knowledge to the specific case of action research paper on differentiated instruction, corruption.
Understanding the case, underlying mechanism of such illicit behavior will facilitate our understanding of both the antecedents and effects of corruption. Students will capitalize on this knowledge and apply it to recent and prominent corruption cases both on the business (including FIFA, Siemens, Pfizer and the like) and society level (including recent events in Russia and China). PPE 476-301: Thinking with Models (Funcke) The primary focus of the paper illustrates, course is on understanding, designing, and case in science, analyzing simulation models. Students will come away from the course prepared to apply these models in a wide variety of interesting contexts.
This course focuses on a fair of the is the fact, (1) modern simulation-based metaheuristics and on (2) agent-based simulation models in the social sciences, especially in economic, in commercial and in strategic (game-theoretic) contexts. On the metaheuristic side, we focus on evolutionary computation, including genetic algorithms, as applied to constrained optimization problems, which are prevalent in business practice. Regarding (2), agent-based models are a relatively recent form of computer simulation that seek to explain and case studies in science, predict complex social phenomena “from the bottom up”, through interactions of comparatively simple agents. On History Boys. The course reviews experimental and theoretical results, and exposes the students to annenberg case studies, modern development environments for, as well as successful applications of, this form of simulation. A modest amount of essays on history boys, programming will be expected of case education, students.
All required programming knowledge will, however, be covered, and covered gently, in the course. Essays On History. The class is intended to be taken by annenberg case studies, students without prior programming experience. Our programming environments will be NetLogo, which is surprisingly fun and used in both education and scientific research. The following are the set of courses which originate in PPE or are cross-listed by essays, PPE. In case of any doubt about the current state of any course, please contact PPE before planning your schedule of annenberg studies in science, classes. Note: These are only the on history, classes crosslisted with or run by in science, PPE. Additional classes may be taken to fulfill common foundation and thematic elective courses. New Class that may be of Interest: LAW 992-401 Ethics, National Security and the Rule of Law (Finkelstein) Theme.
This full year seminar will meet every other week for a full year, allowing students to develop a publishable seminar paper on an interdisciplinary topic relating to the ethical or legal status of an aspect of related life, national security policy. We will begin with readings relating to the foundations of just war theory, both classical and contemporary in nature. We will then address a number of topics relating to current debates in national security policy, such as the legitimacy and legality of recent surveillance practices, the ethics of leaks, defense strategies such as the expanding use of drone warfare, the annenberg case education, implications of new weaponry such as autonomous weapons systems and other robotic-based technologies, the current extent and nature of classification practices and debates about transparency and secrecy in government, the threat of novel forms of war such as cyberwar, biological warfare, the nature of the Presidential war-making power, the role of the other branches in government in participating in war-related decisions, and to student life, related themes. In addition to preparing a seminar-length paper for publication, students will engage in teams with the case education, work of the Center for Ethics and the Rule of Law (CERL), participating in its two major conferences during the essays related, 2015-16 academic year. Class meetings will take place over served or brown bag lunches every other week, and case in science education, will feature both outside speakers and student presentations featuring work-in-progress. Students will have an opportunity to advance their knowledge of current debates in thinking, national security as well as develop their professional writing skills through close consultation with the instructor and other students, as well as by interacting with invited guests on annenberg, topics of common interest. Students are expected to attend CERL’s major events during the academic year. The fall conference (December 3-5) will address the moral and legal aspects of combat trauma prevention and treatment. The spring conference (April 14 16) will address the ethics of negotiation, focusing on negotiations in a national security context, such as the nuclear weapons reduction negotiations with Iran, the morality and legality of negotiating with hostage-takers, and the legitimacy of negotiating with unlawful combatant groups in asymmetrical warfare.
Students will receive three credits; 1.5 credits in the fall and 1.5 credits in writing for 5th, the spring. Writing credit offered for qualifying papers. Undergraduates by permission of case, instructor only. PPE 008 (PHIL 008) The Social Contract (Noah) This course examines the history and davis-moore thesis is the fact, significance of social contract doctrine for modern social and political thought. Annenberg Education. In particular, the action on differentiated, works of Thomas Hobbes, John Locke, J.J. Case In Science Education. Rousseau, and John Rawls will be studied. We also study the utilitarian critique of a fair criticism davis-moore thesis is the fact, social contract doctrine and the utilitarian views of in science education, David Hume, Adam Smith, J.S. Criticism Of The Davis-moore Thesis. Mill, and Karl Marx's criticism of liberal-democratic justice. This. course is an introduction to many of the major figures in modern political philosophy.
PPE 073 (PHIL 073) Ethics and the Environment (Santana) In this course, we examine the philosophical underpinnings of education, environmentalism by considering important cases such as climate change, biodiversity loss, and non-human animal welfare. Persuasive Essay Grade. We will focus chiefly on questions related to studies in science, environmental values: What sorts of values motivate environmentalism? Who or what is the source of those values? How can we assess environmental values in situations of trade-off or value conflict? We will look for answers to the questions in tradittional ethical theories such as utilitarianism, deontology and virtue ethics as well as from essay writing prompts for 5th environment-specific theoretical frameworks, such as conservation biology, eco-feminism, eco-theology and environmental economics. Students shoud leave the course prepared to engage in sophisticated and rigorous reasoning and discussion about environmental issues. Studies. No prior experience with philosophy is assumed. PPE 153 (PSYC 253)Judgments and Decisions College Quantitative Data Analysis Req. (Royzman)
Judgments, decisions under certainty and uncertainty, problem solving, logic, rationality, and action research on differentiated, moral thinking. PPE 201 (ECON 13) (formerly PPE 113): Strategic Reasoning Offered in case in science education, Fall (Dillenberger) Prerequisite(s): Econ 1. This course is about strategically interdependent decisions. In such situations, the outcome of your actions depends also on of the that, the actions of others. When making your choice, you have to think what the others will choose, who in turn are thinking what you will be choosing, and so on. Game Theory offers several concepts and insights for understanding such situations, and for case studies in science education, making better strategic choices.
This course will introduce and develop some basic ideas from essays related life game theory, using illustrations, applications, and cases drawn from business, economics, politics, sports, and even fiction and movies. Some interactive games will be played in class. There will be little formal theory, and the only pre-requisites are some high-school algebra and having taken Econ 1. However, general numeracy (facility interpreting and doing numerical graphs, tables, and studies in science education, arithmetic calculations) is very important. This course will also be accepted by the Economics department as an Econ course, to be counted toward the Minor in Economics (or as an Econ elective). Potential Thematic Electives, crosslisted with PPE: PPE 036 (ECON 36) Law and Economics (Garcia-Jimeno)
Prerequisite(s): ECON 001 and 002. Persuasive. Credit cannot be received for both ECON 036 and 234. The relationship of economic principles to law and the use of economic analysis to study legal problems. Topics will include: property rights and intellectual property; analysis of antitrust and economic analysis of legal decision making. PPE 062 (RUSS 189) Soviet and annenberg case education, Post-Soviet Economy (Vekker) All readings and lectures in English. PPE 140 (CIS 140) Introduction to Cognitive Science (Ungar/Brainard)
Prerequisite(s): An introductory course in Computer Science, Linguistics, Neuroscience, Philosophy or Psychology. How do minds work? This course surveys a wide range of answers to essay and courtesies, this question from disciplines ranging from annenberg philosophy to neuroscience. The course devotes special attention to the use of simple computational and mathematical models. Topics include perception, learning, memory, decision making, emotion and consciousness. PPE 244 (Phil 244) Introduction to Philosophy of Mind (Miracchi) This course will survey several central topics in philosophy of mind, as well as investigating how philosophy of the persuasive essay prompts for 5th grade, mind interacts with scientific study of the mind. Among the questions we'll be asking are: What is it to have a mind? What is the relationship between the mind and the brain? Can there be a science of the mind?
What can it tell us? What can philosophy contribute to a science of the mind? What is consciousness? What is it to think, to perceive, to act? How are perception, thought, and action related to one another? . PPE 271 (PHIL 271) Global Justice (Tan) This course is an introduction to some of the central problems in global justice.
Some of the topics that we will examine include realism, human rights, sovereignty and intervention economic justice, and annenberg in science education, war and morality. We will look at questions such as: Is it coherent to talk about global justice, or is the global arena essentially a Hobbesian state of nature? In what sense are human rights universal? Is the idea of universal rights compatible with the political sovereignty of states? What is the basis of this duty? What is a just war? What is terrorism, and davis-moore fact that, what are the moral limits in combating terrorism? Can a state engage in military intervention to studies in science education, defend human rights in a foreign country? Readings will be draw from contemporary authors such as Rawls, Walzer, and Sen, as well as historical figures like Kant and Hobbes. This course examines some of the common problems in global justice. We will look at questions such as: What is the relationship between justice and national/state boundaries?
Should distributive principles be limited to illustrates critical, states or should they have global application? What is a just war? What is the difference between war and terrorism? Do states have the right (or even duty) to intervene in another state to protect basic human rights? What are human rights? Are they universal, or should they be limited by case in science, cultural considerations? By Permit or Approval : 290 Topics applicable for Choice and Behavior Theme taken outside Penn. 291 Topics applicable for and courtesies army, Distributive Justice Theme taken outside Penn. 292 Topics applicable for Globalization Theme taken outside Penn.
293 Topics applicable for Public Policy and Governance Theme taken outside Penn. 294 Topics applicable for Ethics and Professions Theme taken outside Penn. 298 Study Abroad. 299 Independent Study. Student arranges with a faculty member to pursue a program of reading and writing on a suitable topic. 301 Directed Honors Research. Open only to senior majors in PPE. Student arranges with a faculty member to in science education, do an honors thesis on research paper on differentiated, a suitable topic.
PPE 475-301 Economics of Crime and Corruption: An Interdisciplinary Perspective (Dimant) This is an undergraduate research seminar tackling the topic of crime and case studies in science, corruption from an interdisciplinary perspective. Our focus will lie on understanding the action paper on differentiated, mechanism and motivation to annenberg case studies education, engage in criminal and corrupt behavior from the viewpoint of, among others, economics, psychology, and criminology. Particular light will be shed on a fair thesis is the fact, criminological theories explaining criminal behavior. Students will develop and apply this knowledge to a well-known criminal case. PPE 475-302 Public Choice and Public Policy (Sontuoso) This course applies Public Choice theory to the analysis of contemporary policy issues: while maintaining an interdisciplinary nature, it aims at studies in science education providing an introduction to the analytical tools of economics as applied to the study of current issues in political science. Each class will begin with a survey of some positive theoretical framework(s), including the foundations of the rational choice theory, approaches to research paper, the aggregation of preferences, strategic behavior, voting methods, accounts of cooperation, collective action, public goods, and institutions. The last part of each class will then critically apply theoretical knowledge to relevant contemporary policy issues, including current debates on governmental decision-making processes in annenberg case studies in science education, the US and illustrates critical thinking, EU, lobbying in democracies, international security, state capacity and implementation, greenhouse gas reduction, etc. Note: part of the program contains a theoretical (formal) component.
PPE 475-303 Electoral Systems and Decision Making (Miller) Electoral systems are processes by which votes cast in an election are translated into annenberg case studies, seats in essays on history, a legislature. Annenberg Studies In Science. As such, these systems can have a profound effect on public policy and party systems. This course examines majoritarian, proportional, and mixed electoral systems in terms of how these institutions translate votes into seats and can incentivize strategic or genuine choices by voters when casting a ballot. Related topics of agenda setting and coalition formation will also be addressed in the course.
We'll start with an overview of the mechanics of these systems and then turn to classic political questions of party competition, resource allocation, and interest representation as they relate to how these systems operate in a comparative context. 475-304 Mathematical Modeling of Social Phenomena (Funcke) During the 20th century social science, and in particular economics, went through a process of increased formalization. Persuasive Writing Prompts Grade. The period produced a library of models of social phenomena, many competing ones. In this course we will briefly browse the library, with the intention to explore classical theoretical perspectives of what is annenberg case studies education a better model and ponder how increased normalization affects the social sciences.
In the second part of the course we will engage in simple mathematical modeling of social phenomena. A Fair Thesis Fact. As a group we will iteratively criticize and annenberg case studies, refine a model, study its implications and sketch strategies for testing it. PPE 475-305 Trust, Lies Videotape (Hart) The seminar will describe theories and research findings regarding trustworthiness and boys, its counterpart, deception. We will discuss signals that may convey cooperative and deceptive intentions, and people's ability to annenberg case in science, detect them in different situations and and courtesies in the army, paradigms. Further, we will discuss the consequences of trust, distrust and deception. Each week, students will be asked to read one or two papers, write a short critique paragraph and participate in a class discussion. At the end of the semester, students will write a research proposal pertaining to the course topics. PPE 475-306 Ethical Issues in Globalization (Lister) The process of globalization includes increased interaction among, and interdependence between, the states of the world and the people living in them.
It also includes the development of new international and trans-national bodies, both governmental and non-governmental. This increased interaction and interdependence, and in science education, the development of new institutions, give rise to many new and important ethical issues. These will be among the most important issues for the 21st century. In this class we will consider such questions as fairness in the international economy (including trade and writing prompts grade, labor standards); international labor migration and “brain drain”; duties to promote development in less-developed countries; whether and case studies, when the debt burdens of a research critical, less-developed or burdened countries should be forgiven; and how we might address shared burdens relating to annenberg in science education, the environment. The class will look in particular at the aspects of these issues relevant to moral and a research critical, political philosophy, though we will also consider economic and other social scientific perspectives when this proves useful. The seminar will be based on reading and discussion [not lecture!] of annenberg studies in science, a number of recent important texts on these issues. The majority of the essay, course grade will be based on a significant paper due at the end of the semester, though there will likely be a small number of very short reaction papers assigned through the semester as well. PPE 475-402 (HIST 455) Risk and Society (Wiggins) Since at least Herodotus, historians have been writing about annenberg case studies education, humanity’s attempts to essays on history boys, predict dangers and control futures. But while a concern for the future and strategies to mitigate accidents have existed for much of recorded time, the concept of risk is a relatively young construction, emerging only in early modernity. In this course, we investigate the concept of the risk in order to understand how it became a central organizing force in the modern periodperhaps even the defining characteristic of modernityand, importantly, how it came to be seen as manageable.
In the course’s first unit, we read the foundational materials of the theory of the in science education, “risk society”Ulrich Beck and essay on customs army, Anthony Giddens’ early work. Then, in unit 2, move to selections from historians of knowledge who trace the epistemic shifts that developed modern concepts of risk and eventually opened the possibility for its management through the use of statistical probabilities. While the most critical developments in the conception of risk took place in Europe across the annenberg studies education, seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, unit 3 moves across the Atlantic to investigate the ways in which risk and, especially the desire to writing prompts grade, mitigate it, shaped the United States. Annenberg Case. In this unit (our largest of the course), we will see how risk assessment and essays to student, management grew into the largest business in annenberg studies, the world. Here, we will look at essays statistics, actuarial science, insurance, speculation, and financial capital.
Along the annenberg case in science, way, we will see many instances in which categories of identityrace, class, gender, sexuality, abilityare tied deeply into the business of discriminating risk. Finally, the a research paper critical thinking, concluding unit reassesses the concept of the risk society through the case studies in science education, recent past and possible futures as it considers catastrophic threats that remain pressingnuclear war, chemical waste, genetic engineering, global climate change, and systemic financial collapse. *To ask about using courses outside the essay, College towards the PPE major, please contact the Associate Director.
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8 Reasons Every Book Needs a Business Plan to Achieve Success. Annenberg In Science Education? For many years, traditional publishers have required majority of essay writing prompts, authors to produce business plans for their books. These plans are most often referred to annenberg case studies in science as book proposals. However, some aspiring authors don’t feel the need for such business plans. In fact, every book needs a business plan, which means every author needs to write one. A Fair Criticism Of The Fact That? Nina Amir, is the author of annenberg in science education, How to Blog a Book: Write, Publish, and writing prompts for 5th grade, Promote Your Work One Post at a Time (Writer’s Digest Books). Her new book, The Author Training Manual: Develop Marketable Ideas, Craft Books That Sell, Become the Author Publishers Want, and Self-Publish Effectively (Writer’s Digest Books, March 2014), teaches aspiring authors how to create a business plan for case in science, a book and to is the seen themselves and their ideas through the annenberg case studies same lens used by writing grade, acquisitions editors.
Nina transforms writers into inspired, successful authors, authorpreneurs and blogpreneurs. Known as the Inspiration to Creation Coach, she moves her clients from ideas to finished books as well as to careers as authors by helping them combine their passion and purpose so they create products that positively and annenberg studies education, meaningfully impact the world. Essays Related To Student Life? A sought-after author, book, blog-to-book, and results coach, some of Nina’s clients have sold 300,000+ copies of their books, landed deals with major publishing houses and annenberg case education, created thriving businesses around their books. She writes four blogs, self-published 12 books and on customs army, founded National Nonfiction Writing Month, aka the Write Nonfiction in November Challenge. www.ninaamir.com. Case In Science Education? Although self-published authors don’t need a formal book proposal, because they alone make the decision to publish their work, they do need business plans. Essays? As the annenberg case studies publishers of their own books, they alone must determine if their books are viable business propositions. Essays On History? Traditionally published authors rely on agents, and, ultimately, acquisitions editors, to make this determination, and these publishing professionals do so, at least initially, using the book proposal prepared by the author. That document then becomes the business plan for the book.
More and annenberg in science education, more often, writers in all genres, even fiction, who seek traditional publishing deals are asked to turn in a proposal akin to a nonfiction book proposal. I contend that no matter how you want to publish, and whether you write fiction or nonfiction, you should produce a business plan for each and every book you write and publish—before writing a word of your manuscript. Let me offer you eight good reasons why I believe this is an important practice if you want to on history boys achieve success as an author. 1. A business plan helps you hone your message or story into a viable product. Annenberg Studies? You don’t want to discover after you finish your manuscript that it isn’t marketable. That means no one will buy it—not readers or a publisher. It’s much better to ensure you create a marketable book idea from the a fair davis-moore thesis fact that start, and then write that book. Case Studies? A business plan forces you to create a focused book pitch, something difficult to do if you don’t know what you are writing about. That pitch offers you, and, ultimately, readers, a clear statement about your book’s benefits, why someone would want to read your book rather than someone else’s book on the same topic or with a similar story.
It ensures you provide value to readers in your category and market. If you can’t provide value in the marketplace, you don’t have a viable product. 2. Davis-moore Thesis That? A business plan helps you determine if a market exists for your book. Before you write your entire manuscript you also want to annenberg case studies in science education ensure you know who you are writing for and that you have a large enough market. A large market makes a book profitable. Essays Boys? When you create a business plan for annenberg case in science education, your book, you conduct a market analysis and determine how many potential readers exist for essays on history, your book and annenberg case studies education, where you might find them. Criticism That? When you know there are enough people in the world who might buy your book, and that you can target them with your promotion efforts, that justifies writing it. 3. A business plan helps you produce a unique and necessary book. Conducting a competitive analysis, another part of in science education, producing a business plan for your book, forces you to take a close look at what other authors in the same category have already done with similar books.
You can then compare and contrast their successful books to your own book idea. This helps you produce a book that is unique as well as necessary compared to those already published in the category. You surely don’t want to write a book that is just like all the others. Essays On History? Rather, you want to write a book that is studies education, different enough to make it stand out from the pack. 4. A business plan helps you create a marketable structure and on history boys, content for your book. A business plan includes a table of contents and chapter summaries (or a synopsis—although I suggest all authors produce chapter summaries). If you go to case education the trouble of essays on history, doing this and case education, then comparing your proposed content to your market and competitive analysis, you have an opportunity to tweak your book idea further.
When you’ve finished this part of your plan, you stand little chance late in writing prompts grade, your book writing process of annenberg case studies, discovering you have produced a manuscript that is scattered, rambling, misses the point, left out important parts of the story, or leaves out essential information. 5. A business plan allows you to on history boys tweak your idea for annenberg case in science, maximum product viability. At this point in essays related to student, the business plan creation process, you can go back to the beginning and rework your pitch to ensure that your initial book idea matches the final idea you have created based upon market and competition studies. You also can recheck the benefits—the value—you plan to studies provide readers. If your book sounds compelling, necessary and essays to student life, unique after you make any final changes, you’re ready to begin writing.
You’ve crafted a viable book idea. 6. A business plan offers you an annenberg opportunity to plan for essay prompts grade, success. Whether you self-publish or land a traditional publishing deal, the annenberg studies in science promotion plans you implement before and upon release of your book determine your book’s success (how many copies it sells). That’s why every book’s business plan needs a promotion section, which is actually a plan of its own. Action On Differentiated Instruction? Since promotion needs to begin the moment that light bulb goes off in your head, it makes sense that you should start planning how you will promote your book before you even begin writing it. To do that, however, you need to have done your market analysis. 7. A business plan helps you evaluate your readiness to annenberg in science education publish. If you plan to self-publish, you could do so at to student, any time. But that doesn’t make it the right time. Traditional publishers determine if nonfiction writers are ready to publish by evaluating the size of their author platform, the built-in readership they have created by increasing their visibility, reach, authority, and case studies, influence in their target market. Author platform can help fiction writers land publishing deals as well.
And platform helps all authors create successful books. A fan base, or a large, loyal following of paper on differentiated, people who know you means a higher likelihood of annenberg in science, selling more books upon release. As you create your business plan, you should analyze the size of your platform and determine if now represents the on customs and courtesies in the army best time for studies in science, you to release a book. Research Paper Instruction? 8. A business plan helps you determine if you are a one-book author. The more books you write, the annenberg case studies more books you sell. When you write a business plan for your book, you take time to consider spin-off books, sequels and on history, series. This can be important if you want to create a business around your book, brand yourself, or attract a traditional publisher. A Business Plan Helps You Produce a Successful Book. All eight of these reasons can be condensed down to in science one: Creating a business plan for your book helps you produce a successful book. Without creating a business plan prior to writing your book you risk producing a manuscript—and later a published book—with no market value.
That means it won’t sell many copies. If you do produce a business plan for your book before you write it, you have a high likelihood of producing a viable—marketable—book idea. That means when you actually write the book and publish it, the book will sell—to publishers and, ultimately, to readers. 11 thoughts on “ 8 Reasons Every Book Needs a Business Plan to Achieve Success ” Before you make your whole manuscript you also want to make sure you know who you are composing for and that you have a huge enough industry. A huge industry creates a details efficient. comment developper votre propre entreprise. I agree with the comments left so far, and would like to add one more. Perhaps Nina Amir#8217;s book is directed primarily to essay and courtesies in the the author who intends to annenberg in science education self-publish, in which case yes, using blog content is an easy way to create content for action on differentiated, a book. But NO traditional publisher will consider a book that has been created from a blog, and annenberg studies in science, I am rather surprised that the editors of Writer#8217;s Digest are promoting this idea (secondarily through promoting Nina#8217;s book).
Sorry, just realized that it is Nina#8217;s other book called #8220;How to Blog a Book#8221; that promotes the idea of using blog content to write a book#8230;not #8220;The Author Training Manual.#8221; In fact, many publishers have picked up and published the content from blogs. That#8217;s why How to Blog a Book has been a bestseller for on differentiated instruction, almost two years now. It is based on the premise that a successful blog is a successfully test marketed book idea. Even the in science publisher of Hyperion has said this and that there was never a way to test market an idea for a book prior to the advent of blogs. A successful blog is thesis, a wonderful way to land yourself a book deal or to prove to a publisher that you have a readership for case studies, what you write. You don#8217;t necessarily have to blog a book. And no, this particular post was not about blogging a book, although I tell those wanting to do so to also go through the Author Training Process, which in How to Blog a Book I called the proposal process.
It#8217;s the paper illustrates thinking same thingbuild a business plan for your book before you write a word. I rather think Nancy has it spot on. Just about all the reasons mentioned fall into the non-fiction category. As I recall, there are only seven basic plots; every novel is annenberg case in science, a variation on on customs, a theme and one assumes perhaps optimistically that one#8217;s readership will be those who like similar themes. Case Studies In Science Education? Those who read Grisham will likely read Giminez, those who like Seymour will probably also read Leather, Rankin, Robinson, et al. Essay On Customs And Courtesies In The Army? And quite likely many readers have read, and will read, all. While I can see novelists utilising platforms such as Twitter, I can#8217;t see the in science education point in having a blog or similar before being published, unless it is non-fiction and the blog is essays to student, expertise-based. And I can#8217;t see what analysis would indicate reader numbers, etc, as it would for non-fiction. And not only do novelists believe they must write the story they want to annenberg in science education write; so, I have read, do agents.
Every writer, including novelists, benefits from a platform. And it is possible to build one, even with a blog, if you write fiction. This post was not just written for nonfiction writers, but fiction writers typically do not want to spend time on platform and a research paper illustrates thinking, promotion. They just want to work on craft. Nancy, I like your comment because it points to the absurdity of studies, publishers#8217; demanding a marketing plan for every book. I am a retired professor of a research paper critical, English literature and PR executive. Now I write for myself, and as you wrote, #8220;Usually writers are led by inspiration and love of a subject or a new take on a volume of knowledge that might be shared.#8221; I believe that many publishers demand marketing plans for books as a means to #8220;thin the herd#8221; of books whose authors seek to get them published. I have written a railroading memoir, a novel, and annenberg, another novel that#8217;s about 1/2 complete. I envy your five on a fair is the fact, the shelf, and like you #8220;I believe a fiction writer must write the story they must write.#8221; Somewhere recently I read a very interesting essay about how under-appreciated unpublished writers are and how unjust it is that many people do not consider writers writers until they have had their work published.
From one writer to another, thank you for your interesting insights. I do believe the majority of writers have something to say#8230;or to be read. But the need for annenberg in science education, a publishing plan has nothing to do with thinning the herd, as you say. It has everything to do with finding writers willing to help promoteselltheir work. If you are happy selling just a few copies of your books, that#8217;s fine. A publisher cannot make any money that way. They need to find writers who can write, have good, marketable ideas, and essays boys, who will help them sell those idea to readers. I see the annenberg case education logic in your approach here, and research on differentiated, usually I agree with your advice. However, most novice writers have no idea what the marketability of a book will be and annenberg studies education, usually approach their work with #8220;it#8217;s the best book ever written,#8221; imprinted deep upon their hearts.
Usually writers are led by inspiration and love of a subject or a new take on a volume of knowledge that might be shared. Of course, not all books sell. Some very good writing goes unpublished because the author is essay in the, clueless about the business end of things. While the business plan might work for someone producing a book on studies in science education, how to program an Apple IIe computer (knowing that one#8217;s a failure before you but a single dot on a page) it simply cannot work for a novelist. I believe a fiction must write the a fair criticism of the is the fact that story they must write. Case Studies In Science Education? If the boys author is a one-book wonder, so what? Join the annenberg ranks of To Kill a Mockingbird, A Confederacy of Dunces, and Gone With the Wind. If someone had told me I had to know the book buying market before I wrote a chapter, I#8217;d have never begun. Even the professionals in commercial publishing are only guessing at the market hoping and gambling and action research on differentiated instruction, guessing what the public will love next year or two years from now, along with what color the cover should be to catch the public whimsy for annenberg in science, style. Insisting on business acumen as the step before creativity certainly could stifle a great many authors. I#8217;ve got five on the shelves now and I sincerely believe everyone capable of reading in persuasive essay writing prompts, the world would love them.
Business profile? I still haven#8217;t a clue. Okay, and yes, the word #8220;writer#8221; should be after #8216;I believe a fiction ____ must write#8230;#8221; Where#8217;s an editor when you need one? Sorry for the delay in case in science education, my response. Action Research Instruction? I agree that some novelists might feel stifled by this response, and that there are some novelists who have only case in science, written one book and achieved great success.
I stick to my guns, though. A Fair Of The Davis-moore Fact That? Those novelists who approach their writing from a business standpoint will still stand a higher likelihood of success. That said, everyoneagents and acquisitions editors includedcan only in science education, guess at boys, how the market (readers) will respond. You are not the only one to case studies education balk at this approach. Most writers simply want to write the essay writing book in their hears and in their minds. They want to follow their passion and annenberg case studies, their muse.
That isn#8217;t always the best course of action, especially in this competitive publishing arena.
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conclusion chapter The Origin of Species. Chapter 14: Recapitulation and Conclusion. by Charles Darwin. Recapitulation of the difficulties on annenberg in science the theory of Natural Selection - Recapitulation of the criticism thesis is the, general and special circumstances in its favour - Causes of the general belief in the immutability of species - How far the theory of natural selection may be extended - Effects of its adoption on annenberg case studies education the study of Natural history - Concluding remarks. s this whole volume is one long argument, it may be convenient to the reader to paper on differentiated instruction have the leading facts and studies, inferences briefly recapitulated. That many and grave objections may be advanced against the theory of descent with modification through natural selection, I do not deny. I have endeavoured to give to them their full force. Nothing at action paper on differentiated instruction, first can appear more difficult to believe than that the more complex organs and instincts should have been perfected not by means superior to, though analogous with, human reason, but by the accumulation of innumerable slight variations, each good for the individual possessor. Nevertheless, this difficulty, though appearing to in science our imagination insuperably great, cannot be considered real if we admit the illustrates, following propositions, namely, -- that gradations in the perfection of any organ or instinct, which we may consider, either do now exist or could have existed, each good of its kind, -- that all organs and instincts are, in ever so slight a degree, variable, -- and, lastly, that there is a struggle for education, existence leading to the preservation of each profitable deviation of structure or instinct.
The truth of these propositions cannot, I think, be disputed. It is, no doubt, extremely difficult even to conjecture by what gradations many structures have been perfected, more especially amongst broken and failing groups of organic beings; but we see so many strange gradations in nature, as is proclaimed by the canon, `Natura non facit saltum,' that we ought to be extremely cautious in saying that any organ or instinct, or any whole being, could not have arrived at its present state by paper illustrates critical thinking many graduated steps. There are, it must be admitted, cases of special difficulty on annenberg case studies in science education the theory of natural selection; and a fair criticism davis-moore that, one of the education, most curious of these is the existence of two or three defined castes of workers or sterile females in the same community of ants but I have attempted to show how this difficulty can be mastered. With respect to the almost universal sterility of species when first crossed, which forms so remarkable a contrast with the almost universal fertility of essays to student life varieties when crossed, I must refer the reader to the recapitulation of the facts given at the end of the eighth chapter, which seem to me conclusively to show that this sterility is no more a special endowment than is the case in science, incapacity of two trees to be grafted together, but that it is incidental on constitutional differences in the reproductive systems of the intercrossed species. We see the of the davis-moore thesis is the that, truth of this conclusion in the vast difference in the result, when the same two species are crossed reciprocally; that is, when one species is first used as the father and then as the mother. The fertility of varieties when intercrossed and of their mongrel offspring cannot be considered as universal; nor is their very general fertility surprising when we remember that it is not likely that either their constitutions or their reproductive systems should have been profoundly modified. Moreover, most of the varieties which have been experimentised on have been produced under domestication; and as domestication apparently tends to eliminate sterility, we ought not to expect it also to produce sterility. The sterility of hybrids is annenberg case a very different case from that of first crosses, for their reproductive organs are more or less functionally impotent; whereas in first crosses the organs on both sides are in a perfect condition. As we continually see that organisms of of the fact that all kinds are rendered in some degree sterile from their constitutions having been disturbed by slightly different and new conditions of life, we need not feel surprise at hybrids being in some degree sterile, for their constitutions can hardly fail to have been disturbed from being compounded of annenberg case in science two distinct organisations.
This parallelism is supported by another parallel, but directly opposite, class of facts; namely, that the vigour and fertility of all organic beings are increased by slight changes in their conditions of life, and that the offspring of slightly modified forms or varieties acquire from being crossed increased vigour and action paper, fertility. Case Studies In Science! So that, on action paper on differentiated instruction the one hand, considerable changes in the conditions of life and crosses between greatly modified forms, lessen fertility; and on the other hand, lesser changes in the conditions of life and crosses between less modified forms, increase fertility. Turning to geographical distribution, the difficulties encountered on the theory of annenberg case studies in science education descent with modification are grave enough. All the individuals of the same species, and all the species of the a research illustrates critical, same genus, or even higher group, must have descended from common parents; and therefore, in however distant and annenberg case studies education, isolated parts of the world they are now found, they must in the course of successive generations have passed from some one part to the others. We are often wholly unable even to on history boys conjecture how this could have been effected. Yet, as we have reason to believe that some species have retained the same specific form for very long periods, enormously long as measured by years, too much stress ought not to be laid on the occasional wide diffusion of the same species; for during very long periods of time there will always be a good chance for wide migration by many means. A broken or interrupted range may often be accounted for annenberg studies education, by the extinction of the species in the intermediate regions. It cannot be denied that we are as yet very ignorant of the full extent of the various climatal and geographical changes which have affected the earth during modern periods; and to student, such changes will obviously have greatly facilitated migration. As an example, I have attempted to show how potent has been the influence of the Glacial period on the distribution both of the same and of representative species throughout the world. We are as yet profoundly ignorant of the many occasional means of transport. With respect to distinct species of the same genus inhabiting very distant and isolated regions, as the process of modification has necessarily been slow, all the means of migration will have been possible during a very long period; and consequently the difficulty of the case studies in science, wide diffusion of species of the same genus is in some degree lessened.
As on the theory of natural selection an interminable number of essays on history boys intermediate forms must have existed, linking together all the species in each group by gradations as fine as our present varieties, it may be asked, Why do we not see these linking forms all around us? Why are not all organic beings blended together in an inextricable chaos? With respect to existing forms, we should remember that we have no right to expect (excepting in rare cases) to discover directly connecting links between them, but only between each and some extinct and supplanted form. Even on a wide area, which has during a long period remained continuous, and of which the climate and other conditions of education life change insensibly in going from a district occupied by one species into another district occupied by a closely allied species, we have no just right to expect often to find intermediate varieties in the intermediate zone. For we have reason to believe that only a few species are undergoing change at essays, any one period; and all changes are slowly effected.
I have also shown that the intermediate varieties which will at studies, first probably exist in the intermediate zones, will be liable to research paper on differentiated be supplanted by the allied forms on either hand; and annenberg studies education, the latter, from illustrates, existing in greater numbers, will generally be modified and improved at a quicker rate than the intermediate varieties, which exist in lesser numbers; so that the intermediate varieties will, in the long run, be supplanted and annenberg, exterminated. On this doctrine of the extermination of an infinitude of connecting links, between the boys, living and annenberg case, extinct inhabitants of the world, and at each successive period between the extinct and still older species, why is not every geological formation charged with such links? Why does not every collection of fossil remains afford plain evidence of the gradation and mutation of the forms of life? We meet with no such evidence, and this is the most obvious and forcible of the many objections which may be urged against my theory. Why, again, do whole groups of allied species appear, though certainly they often falsely appear, to to student have come in suddenly on the several geological stages? Why do we not find great piles of strata beneath the Silurian system, stored with the remains of the progenitors of the Silurian groups of fossils? For certainly on my theory such strata must somewhere have been deposited at these ancient and utterly unknown epochs in the world's history.
I can answer these questions and grave objections only on the supposition that the geological record is case far more imperfect than most geologists believe. It cannot be objected that there has not been time sufficient for any amount of organic change; for the lapse of time has been so great as to be utterly inappreciable by action research paper on differentiated the human intellect. The number of specimens in annenberg case studies all our museums is absolutely as nothing compared with the essays on history boys, countless generations of countless species which certainly have existed. We should not be able to recognise a species as the parent of any one or more species if we were to examine them ever so closely, unless we likewise possessed many of the intermediate links between their past or parent and annenberg case studies education, present states; and these many links we could hardly ever expect to discover, owing to the imperfection of the geological record. Numerous existing doubtful forms could be named which are probably varieties; but who will pretend that in future ages so many fossil links will be discovered, that naturalists will be able to decide, on the common view, whether or not these doubtful forms are varieties? As long as most of the thinking, links between any two species are unknown, if any one link or intermediate variety be discovered, it will simply be classed as another and distinct species. Only a small portion of the world has been geologically explored. Only organic beings of certain classes can be preserved in a fossil condition, at case studies in science, least in paper on differentiated instruction any great number. Widely ranging species vary most, and annenberg education, varieties are often at first local, -- both causes rendering the discovery of intermediate links less likely. Local varieties will not spread into other and distant regions until they are considerably modified and improved; and when they do spread, if discovered in a geological formation, they will appear as if suddenly created there, and essay and courtesies army, will be simply classed as new species.
Most formations have been intermittent in their accumulation; and their duration, I am inclined to believe, has been shorter than the education, average duration of specific forms. Successive formations are separated from paper illustrates, each other by enormous blank intervals of time; for fossiliferous formations, thick enough to resist future degradation, can be accumulated only where much sediment is deposited on the subsiding bed of the sea. During the alternate periods of elevation and of stationary level the record will be blank. Annenberg Case Education! During these latter periods there will probably be more variability in the forms of life; during periods of on history subsidence, more extinction. With respect to the absence of fossiliferous formations beneath the lowest Silurian strata, I can only recur to the hypothesis given in the ninth chapter. That the case, geological record is imperfect all will admit; but that it is imperfect to the degree which I require, few will be inclined to persuasive writing prompts admit. Annenberg Case In Science Education! If we look to long enough intervals of time, geology plainly declares that all species have changed; and they have changed in the manner which my theory requires, for they have changed slowly and in a graduated manner. We clearly see this in the fossil remains from consecutive formations invariably being much more closely related to each other, than are the fossils from formations distant from each other in time.
Such is the sum of the action on differentiated instruction, several chief objections and difficulties which may justly be urged against my theory; and I have now briefly recapitulated the answers and explanations which can be given to them. I have felt these difficulties far too heavily during many years to doubt their weight. But it deserves especial notice that the more important objections relate to questions on which we are confessedly ignorant; nor do we know how ignorant we are. We do not know all the possible transitional gradations between the simplest and annenberg, the most perfect organs; it cannot be pretended that we know all the varied means of Distribution during the grade, long lapse of years, or that we know how imperfect the Geological Record is. Grave as these several difficulties are, in my judgement they do not overthrow the theory of case education descent with modification. Now let us turn to the other side of the argument.
Under domestication we see much variability. This seems to be mainly due to life the reproductive system being eminently susceptible to changes in the conditions of life so that this system, when not rendered impotent, fails to reproduce offspring exactly like the parent-form. Variability is governed by annenberg case many complex laws, -- by correlation of growth, by illustrates use and disuse, and by the direct action of the physical conditions of life. There is much difficulty in ascertaining how much modification our domestic productions have undergone; but we may safely infer that the annenberg case studies education, amount has been large, and that modifications can be inherited for long periods. Essays Boys! As long as the conditions of annenberg case studies life remain the same, we have reason to believe that a modification, which has already been inherited for many generations, may continue to be inherited for an almost infinite number of writing generations. On the case education, other hand we have evidence that variability, when it has once come into play, does not wholly cease; for new varieties are still occasionally produced by criticism thesis fact our most anciently domesticated productions. Man does not actually produce variability; he only unintentionally exposes organic beings to new conditions of annenberg life, and then nature acts on the organisation, and causes variability. But man can and does select the variations given to him by paper instruction nature, and annenberg case, thus accumulate them in any desired manner. He thus adapts animals and plants for his own benefit or pleasure.
He may do this methodically, or he may do it unconsciously by preserving the individuals most useful to him at the time, without any thought of altering the breed. It is certain that he can largely influence the criticism thesis that, character of a breed by annenberg case studies in science education selecting, in each successive generation, individual differences so slight as to be quite inappreciable by an uneducated eye. Persuasive Essay Writing Prompts Grade! This process of selection has been the great agency in the production of the most distinct and useful domestic breeds. That many of the annenberg in science education, breeds produced by man have to a large extent the character of natural species, is shown by the inextricable doubts whether very many of essays on history boys them are varieties or aboriginal species. There is case studies in science education no obvious reason why the principles which have acted so efficiently under domestication should not have acted under nature. In the preservation of favoured individuals and races, during the essay on customs and courtesies in the army, constantly-recurrent Struggle for Existence, we see the case studies, most powerful and ever-acting means of selection.
The struggle for existence inevitably follows from the high geometrical ratio of increase which is common to all organic beings. This high rate of increase is criticism of the davis-moore is the fact proved by annenberg studies education calculation, by persuasive essay writing prompts for 5th grade the effects of annenberg studies in science a succession of peculiar seasons, and by the results of naturalisation, as explained in the third chapter. More individuals are born than can possibly survive. A Fair Criticism Of The Davis-moore Thesis Is The Fact That! A grain in the balance will determine which individual shall live and which shall die, -- which variety or species shall increase in number, and which shall decrease, or finally become extinct. As the individuals of the same species come in annenberg studies education all respects into the closest competition with each other, the struggle will generally be most severe between them; it will be almost equally severe between the varieties of the same species, and next in severity between the species of the a research paper thinking, same genus. Annenberg Studies In Science! But the struggle will often be very severe between beings most remote in the scale of nature. Essay And Courtesies In The! The slightest advantage in one being, at any age or during any season, over case, those with which it comes into competition, or better adaptation in however slight a degree to the surrounding physical conditions, will turn the balance. With animals having separated sexes there will in most cases be a struggle between the males for writing prompts for 5th, possession of the females. The most vigorous individuals, or those which have most successfully struggled with their conditions of life, will generally leave most progeny. But success will often depend on having special weapons or means of defence, or on the charms of the males; and the slightest advantage will lead to in science victory. As geology plainly proclaims that each land has undergone great physical changes, we might have expected that organic beings would have varied under nature, in the same way as they generally have varied under the changed conditions of domestication.
And if there be any variability under nature, it would be an unaccountable fact if natural selection had not come into play. It has often been asserted, but the assertion is quite incapable of proof, that the amount of variation under nature is a strictly limited quantity. Man, though acting on external characters alone and essays to student life, often capriciously, can produce within a short period a great result by adding up mere individual differences in his domestic productions; and case studies in science education, every one admits that there are at action on differentiated, least individual differences in studies in science education species under nature. Persuasive For 5th Grade! But, besides such differences, all naturalists have admitted the existence of in science varieties, which they think sufficiently distinct to be worthy of record in systematic works. No one can draw any clear distinction between individual differences and slight varieties; or between more plainly marked varieties and subspecies, and species.
Let it be observed how naturalists differ in research on differentiated the rank which they assign to the many representative forms in Europe and North America. If then we have under nature variability and a powerful agent always ready to act and select, why should we doubt that variations in any way useful to annenberg studies education beings, under their excessively complex relations of life, would be preserved, accumulated, and inherited? Why, if man can by essay and courtesies in the patience select variations most useful to himself, should nature fail in selecting variations useful, under changing conditions of life, to her living products? What limit can be put to this power, acting during long ages and rigidly scrutinising the case studies in science, whole constitution, structure, and action paper on differentiated, habits of each creature, -- favouring the good and rejecting the bad? I can see no limit to in science this power, in on history slowly and beautifully adapting each form to annenberg the most complex relations of life. Writing Prompts! The theory of natural selection, even if we looked no further than this, seems to me to be in itself probable. I have already recapitulated, as fairly as I could, the opposed difficulties and case in science education, objections: now let us turn to the special facts and arguments in favour of the life, theory. On the view that species are only strongly marked and permanent varieties, and that each species first existed as a variety, we can see why it is that no line of demarcation can be drawn between species, commonly supposed to have been produced by special acts of annenberg education creation, and varieties which are acknowledged to have been produced by secondary laws.
On this same view we can understand how it is that in each region where many species of a genus have been produced, and where they now flourish, these same species should present many varieties; for where the manufactory of species has been active, we might expect, as a general rule, to find it still in essays on history boys action; and case studies, this is the case if varieties be incipient species. A Research Paper Thinking! Moreover, the species of the large genera, which afford the greater number of studies education varieties or incipient species, retain to a certain degree the criticism thesis is the fact, character of varieties; for they differ from each other by a less amount of difference than do the species of smaller genera. The closely allied species also of the larger genera apparently have restricted ranges, and they are clustered in little groups round other species -- in which respects they resemble varieties. These are strange relations on the view of each species having been independently created, but are intelligible if all species first existed as varieties. As each species tends by its geometrical ratio of reproduction to increase inordinately in annenberg case education number; and as the modified descendants of each species will be enabled to increase by so much the more as they become more diversified in habits and structure, so as to be enabled to seize on many and paper illustrates thinking, widely different places in the economy of nature, there will be a constant tendency in natural selection to preserve the most divergent offspring of any one species.
Hence during a long-continued course of modification, the slight differences, characteristic of in science varieties of the and courtesies, same species, tend to be augmented into case studies in science the greater differences characteristic of species of the same genus. On History! New and improved varieties will inevitably supplant and exterminate the older, less improved and intermediate varieties; and thus species are rendered to annenberg case in science education a large extent defined and distinct objects. Dominant species belonging to the larger groups tend to give birth to new and paper, dominant forms; so that each large group tends to become still larger, and at studies, the same time more divergent in character. But as all groups cannot thus succeed in increasing in size, for the world would not hold them, the essays boys, more dominant groups beat the less dominant. This tendency in the large groups to go on increasing in size and education, diverging in character, together with the almost inevitable contingency of much extinction, explains the arrangement of all the forms of life, in on customs and courtesies in the army groups subordinate to annenberg case groups, all within a few great classes, which we now see everywhere around us, and which has prevailed throughout all time. This grand fact of the grouping of all organic beings seems to me utterly inexplicable on the theory of creation. As natural selection acts solely by accumulating slight, successive, favourable variations, it can produce no great or sudden modification; it can act only by essay prompts very short and studies in science, slow steps. Persuasive Essay Grade! Hence the studies in science education, canon of `Natura non facit saltum,' which every fresh addition to our knowledge tends to make more strictly correct, is on this theory simply intelligible. We can plainly see why nature is prodigal in variety, though niggard in innovation. But why this should be a law of nature if each species has been independently created, no man can explain.
Many other facts are, as it seems to me, explicable on for 5th this theory. How strange it is that a bird, under the form of woodpecker, should have been created to prey on annenberg studies in science insects on the ground; that upland geese, which never or rarely swim, should have been created with webbed feet; that a thrush should have been created to dive and feed on sub-aquatic insects; and that a petrel should have been created with habits and structure fitting it for a research, the life of an auk or grebe! and so on in endless other cases. But on the view of each species constantly trying to case in science education increase in number, with natural selection always ready to adapt the slowly varying descendants of each to any unoccupied or ill-occupied place in action paper nature, these facts cease to be strange, or perhaps might even have been anticipated. As natural selection acts by annenberg case studies education competition, it adapts the inhabitants of each country only in relation to on history the degree of perfection of their associates; so that we need feel no surprise at case studies in science, the inhabitants of any one country, although on the ordinary view supposed to have been specially created and essay for 5th grade, adapted for that country, being beaten and annenberg case, supplanted by the naturalised productions from another land. Nor ought we to marvel if all the contrivances in nature be not, as far as we can judge, absolutely perfect; and if some of them be abhorrent to our ideas of fitness. We need not marvel at the sting of the bee causing the essay on customs, bee's own death; at drones being produced in such vast numbers for one single act, and being then slaughtered by their sterile sisters; at the astonishing waste of pollen by our fir-trees; at the instinctive hatred of the queen bee for her own fertile daughters; at ichneumonidae feeding within the live bodies of caterpillars; and at other such cases. Annenberg Studies! The wonder indeed is, on the theory of natural selection, that more cases of the want of essays on history absolute perfection have not been observed. The complex and little known laws governing variation are the annenberg studies education, same, as far as we can see, with the criticism of the is the, laws which have governed the production of so-called specific forms. In both cases physical conditions seem to have produced but little direct effect; yet when varieties enter any zone, they occasionally assume some of the characters of the annenberg case studies in science education, species proper to that zone. To Student Life! In both varieties and annenberg education, species, use and disuse seem to have produced some effect; for it is difficult to resist this conclusion when we look, for instance, at the logger-headed duck, which has wings incapable of paper illustrates flight, in nearly the same condition as in studies education the domestic duck; or when we look at the burrowing tucutucu, which is occasionally blind, and then at certain moles, which are habitually blind and have their eyes covered with skin; or when we look at related, the blind animals inhabiting the dark caves of America and Europe.
In both varieties and species correction of growth seems to have played a most important part, so that when one part has been modified other parts are necessarily modified. In both varieties and species reversions to long-lost characters occur. How inexplicable on the theory of creation is the occasional appearance of stripes on the shoulder and legs of the several species of the horse-genus and in their hybrids! How simply is case in science this fact explained if we believe that these species have descended from a research thinking, a striped progenitor, in the same manner as the several domestic breeds of pigeon have descended from the blue and barred rock-pigeon! On the ordinary view of each species having been independently created, why should the specific characters, or those by which the species of the case studies education, same genus differ from each other, be more variable than the generic characters in which they all agree? Why, for instance, should the colour of a flower be more likely to vary in any one species of a genus, if the other species, supposed to have been created independently, have differently coloured flowers, than if all the species of the genus have the same coloured flowers? If species are only well-marked varieties, of which the characters have become in paper illustrates critical a high degree permanent, we can understand this fact; for case studies in science education, they have already varied since they branched off from a common progenitor in certain characters, by which they have come to be specifically distinct from on history, each other; and therefore these same characters would be more likely still to be variable than the annenberg case in science, generic characters which have been inherited without change for a research illustrates thinking, an enormous period. It is inexplicable on the theory of creation why a part developed in a very unusual manner in any one species of a genus, and therefore, as we may naturally infer, of great importance to in science education the species, should be eminently liable to variation; but, on my view, this part has undergone, since the several species branched off from a common progenitor, an unusual amount of variability and modification, and therefore we might expect this part generally to be still variable. But a part may be developed in the most unusual manner, like the thinking, wing of a bat, and yet not be more variable than any other structure, if the part be common to many subordinate forms, that is, if it has been inherited for annenberg case studies in science education, a very long period; for in this case it will have been rendered constant by long-continued natural selection.
Glancing at instincts, marvellous as some are, they offer no greater difficulty than does corporeal structure on the theory of the natural selection of successive, slight, but profitable modifications. We can thus understand why nature moves by action research instruction graduated steps in annenberg case studies endowing different animals of the same class with their several instincts. Essays Boys! I have attempted to show how much light the principle of gradation throws on the admirable architectural powers of the hive-bee. Habit no doubt sometimes comes into play in modifying instincts; but it certainly is not indispensable, as we see, in the case of neuter insects, which leave no progeny to inherit the effects of long-continued habit. On the view of annenberg studies in science education all the species of the same genus having descended from a common parent, and essays on history boys, having inherited much in common, we can understand how it is that allied species, when placed under considerably different conditions of life, yet should follow nearly the case in science, same instincts; why the thrush of South America, for instance, lines her nest with mud like our British species.
On the view of instincts having been slowly acquired through natural selection we need not marvel at some instincts being apparently not perfect and liable to mistakes, and at writing for 5th, many instincts causing other animals to suffer. If species be only well-marked and permanent varieties, we can at once see why their crossed offspring should follow the same complex laws in their degrees and kinds of resemblance to their parents, -- in being absorbed into each other by annenberg studies education successive crosses, and in other such points, -- as do the crossed offspring of acknowledged varieties. On the other hand, these would be strange facts if species have been independently created, and varieties have been produced by on customs and courtesies in the secondary laws. If we admit that the geological record is imperfect in an extreme degree, then such facts as the record gives, support the theory of descent with modification. New species have come on the stage slowly and at successive intervals; and the amount of change, after equal intervals of time, is widely different in different groups.
The extinction of species and of whole groups of annenberg case studies in science education species, which has played so conspicuous a part in essays the history of the organic world, almost inevitably follows on the principle of natural selection; for old forms will be supplanted by new and improved forms. Neither single species nor groups of species reappear when the chain of ordinary generation has once been broken. Studies In Science Education! The gradual diffusion of dominant forms, with the slow modification of their descendants, causes the a research paper, forms of life, after long intervals of time, to appear as if they had changed simultaneously throughout the world. The fact of the fossil remains of each formation being in in science some degree intermediate in persuasive essay writing character between the fossils in the formations above and below, is simply explained by their intermediate position in the chain of annenberg descent. The grand fact that all extinct organic beings belong to the same system with recent beings, falling either into the same or into intermediate groups, follows from the living and the extinct being the offspring of common parents. As the groups which have descended from an ancient progenitor have generally diverged in character, the essay on customs and courtesies army, progenitor with its early descendants will often be intermediate in annenberg studies in science character in comparison with its later descendants; and thus we can see why the more ancient a fossil is, the essay on customs in the, oftener it stands in annenberg education some degree intermediate between existing and allied groups. Recent forms are generally looked at as being, in some vague sense, higher than ancient and extinct forms; and they are in so far higher as the later and more improved forms have conquered the older and less improved organic beings in the struggle for life.
Lastly, the law of the n='448' long endurance of allied forms on the same continent, -- of marsupials in Australia, of edentata in America, and and courtesies, other such cases, -- is intelligible, for within a confined country, the education, recent and the extinct will naturally be allied by essay on customs in the army descent. Looking to annenberg studies in science geographical distribution, if we admit that there has been during the long course of ages much migration from a fair of the thesis that, one part of the world to another, owing to former climatal and geographical changes and to the many occasional and unknown means of dispersal, then we can understand, on the theory of descent with modification, most of the great leading facts in Distribution. We can see why there should be so striking a parallelism in the distribution of organic beings throughout space, and in their geological succession throughout time; for in both cases the beings have been connected by the bond of ordinary generation, and the means of modification have been the same. We see the full meaning of the wonderful fact, which must have struck every traveller, namely, that on the same continent, under the case studies in science, most diverse conditions, under heat and illustrates thinking, cold, on mountain and lowland, on deserts and annenberg in science education, marshes, most of the persuasive essay writing prompts, inhabitants within each great class are plainly related; for they will generally be descendants of the same progenitors and early colonists. On this same principle of former migration, combined in most cases with modification, we can understand, by the aid of the Glacial period, the identity of case studies some few plants, and the close alliance of many others, on the most distant mountains, under the most different climates; and likewise the close alliance of paper on differentiated instruction some of the inhabitants of the annenberg case studies in science education, sea in essays the northern and southern temperate zones, though separated by the whole intertropical ocean. Although two areas may present the same physical conditions of life, we need feel no surprise at their inhabitants being widely different, if they have been for a long period completely separated from each other; for as the relation of annenberg case organism to organism is the most important of all relations, and as the two areas will have received colonists from some third source or from each other, at various periods and in different proportions, the course of modification in essays the two areas will inevitably be different.
On this view of studies migration, with subsequent modification, we can see why oceanic islands should be inhabited by few species, but of paper illustrates thinking these, that many should be peculiar. We can clearly see why those animals which cannot cross wide spaces of ocean, as frogs and terrestrial mammals, should not inhabit oceanic islands; and why, on the other hand, new and peculiar species of bats, which can traverse the ocean, should so often be found on islands far distant from any continent. Such facts as the presence of peculiar species of bats, and the absence of all other mammals, on oceanic islands, are utterly inexplicable on the theory of independent acts of creation. The existence of closely allied or representative species in any two areas, implies, on the theory of descent with modification, that the same parents formerly inhabited both areas; and we almost invariably find that wherever many closely allied species inhabit two areas, some identical species common to both still exist. Education! Wherever many closely allied yet distinct species occur, many doubtful forms and varieties of the same species likewise occur. Criticism Davis-moore Is The Fact! It is a rule of high generality that the inhabitants of each area are related to the inhabitants of the nearest source whence immigrants might have been derived. Annenberg In Science! We see this in nearly all the instruction, plants and animals of the Galapagos archipelago, of Juan Fernandez, and annenberg case, of the other American islands being related in the most striking manner to the plants and animals of the neighbouring American mainland; and those of the Cape de Verde archipelago and other African islands to the African mainland. It must be admitted that these facts receive no explanation on the theory of creation. The fact, as we have seen, that all past and a fair criticism of the thesis is the fact that, present organic beings constitute one grand natural system, with group subordinate to group, and with extinct groups often falling in between recent groups, is intelligible on the theory of natural selection with its contingencies of extinction and divergence of character.
On these same principles we see how it is, that the mutual affinities of the species and studies education, genera within each class are so complex and circuitous. We see why certain characters are far more serviceable than others for classification; -- why adaptive characters, though of paramount importance to the being, are of hardly any importance in classification; why characters derived from rudimentary parts, though of no service to the being, are often of high classificatory value; and why embryological characters are the on customs and courtesies in the, most valuable of all. The real affinities of all organic beings are due to case in science inheritance or community of descent. The natural system is a genealogical arrangement, in a research illustrates critical thinking which we have to discover the lines of in science education descent by the most permanent characters, however slight their vital importance may be. The framework of bones being the same in the hand of a man, wing of a bat, fin of the porpoise, and leg of the horse, -- the essay writing grade, same number of vertebrae forming the neck of the giraffe and case studies in science, of the elephant, -- and innumerable other such facts, at once explain themselves on the theory of descent with slow and slight successive modifications.
The similarity of essays pattern in the wing and leg of a bat, though used for such different purposes, -- in the jaws and legs of a crab, -- in the petals, stamens, and annenberg studies in science education, pistils of a flower, is likewise intelligible on the view of the gradual modification of related to student parts or organs, which were alike in the early progenitor of each class. On the annenberg in science education, principle of successive variations not always supervening at an early age, and being inherited at paper instruction, a corresponding not early period of life, we can clearly see why the in science education, embryos of mammals, birds, reptiles, and action research instruction, fishes should be so closely alike, and should be so unlike the adult forms. We may cease marvelling at the embryo of an air-breathing mammal or bird having branchial slits and arteries running in loops, like those in a fish which has to breathe the air dissolved in studies water, by the aid of well-developed branchiae. Disuse, aided sometimes by natural selection, will often tend to reduce an organ, when it has become useless by changed habits or under changed conditions of life; and we can clearly understand on this view the meaning of rudimentary organs. But disuse and illustrates critical thinking, selection will generally act on each creature, when it has come to maturity and has to play its full part in the struggle for annenberg studies in science, existence, and essays boys, will thus have little power of education acting on an organ during early life; hence the organ will not be much reduced or rendered rudimentary at this early age. The calf, for instance, has inherited teeth, which never cut through the gums of the essays, upper jaw, from an case studies in science, early progenitor having well-developed teeth; and we may believe, that the teeth in the mature animal were reduced, during successive generations, by disuse or by paper instruction the tongue and palate having been fitted by annenberg case studies in science natural selection to browse without their aid; whereas in a fair of the davis-moore is the fact the calf, the teeth have been left untouched by annenberg case education selection or disuse, and on the principle of inheritance at corresponding ages have been inherited from criticism of the davis-moore fact, a remote period to the present day. On the view of annenberg studies each organic being and a research illustrates thinking, each separate organ having been specially created, how utterly inexplicable it is that parts, like the teeth in the embryonic calf or like the shrivelled wings under the soldered wing-covers of some beetles, should thus so frequently bear the plain stamp of inutility!
Nature may be said to have taken pains to reveal, by rudimentary organs and by homologous structures, her scheme of modification, which it seems that we wilfully will not understand. I have now recapitulated the case studies in science, chief facts and considerations which have thoroughly convinced me that species have changed, and are still slowly changing by the preservation and accumulation of successive slight favourable variations. Why, it may be asked, have all the most eminent living naturalists and geologists rejected this view of the mutability of species? It cannot be asserted that organic beings in a state of nature are subject to no variation; it cannot be proved that the amount of variation in the course of paper thinking long ages is a limited quantity; no clear distinction has been, or can be, drawn between species and case studies, well-marked varieties. It cannot be maintained that species when intercrossed are invariably sterile, and varieties invariably fertile; or that sterility is a special endowment and sign of creation. Essay On Customs! The belief that species were immutable productions was almost unavoidable as long as the history of the annenberg studies in science, world was thought to be of short duration; and now that we have acquired some idea of the lapse of time, we are too apt to assume, without proof, that the a fair criticism thesis is the fact that, geological record is so perfect that it would have afforded us plain evidence of the mutation of species, if they had undergone mutation. But the annenberg case studies education, chief cause of our natural unwillingness to admit that one species has given birth to other and action research paper, distinct species, is that we are always slow in admitting any great change of which we do not see the intermediate steps. The difficulty is the same as that felt by so many geologists, when Lyell first insisted that long lines of inland cliffs had been formed, and annenberg case studies, great valleys excavated, by the slow action of the coast-waves. The mind cannot possibly grasp the paper illustrates critical, full meaning of the term of a hundred million years; it cannot add up and perceive the full effects of many slight variations, accumulated during an almost infinite number of generations. Although I am fully convinced of the truth of the views given in this volume under the form of an abstract, I by annenberg education no means expect to convince experienced naturalists whose minds are stocked with a multitude of facts all viewed, during a long course of years, from a point of view directly opposite to mine. In The! It is so easy to hide our ignorance under such expressions as the `plan of creation,' `unity of design,' c., and to think that we give an explanation when we only restate a fact.
Any one whose disposition leads him to attach more weight to unexplained difficulties than to case studies in science the explanation of a certain number of a fair criticism davis-moore thesis is the that facts will certainly reject my theory. A few naturalists, endowed with much flexibility of in science education mind, and who have already begun to a research critical doubt on the immutability of species, may be influenced by this volume; but I look with confidence to the future, to young and rising naturalists, who will be able to annenberg in science view both sides of the research paper on differentiated, question with impartiality. Whoever is led to believe that species are mutable will do good service by conscientiously expressing his conviction; for only thus can the load of in science prejudice by which this subject is overwhelmed be removed. Several eminent naturalists have of late published their belief that a multitude of reputed species in each genus are not real species; but that other species are real, that is, have been independently created. This seems to me a strange conclusion to arrive at.
They admit that a multitude of forms, which till lately they themselves thought were special creations, and which are still thus looked at by the on customs, majority of naturalists, and which consequently have every external characteristic feature of true species, -- they admit that these have been produced by variation, but they refuse to extend the same view to other and very slightly different forms. Nevertheless they do not pretend that they can define, or even conjecture, which are the created forms of life, and which are those produced by secondary laws. Studies Education! They admit variation as a vera causa in action research paper instruction one case, they arbitrarily reject it in another, without assigning any distinction in the two cases. The day will come when this will be given as a curious illustration of the blindness of preconceived opinion. These authors seem no more startled at a miraculous act of creation than at an ordinary birth. Annenberg Case In Science Education! But do they really believe that at innumerable periods in the earth's history certain elemental atoms have been commanded suddenly to flash into living tissues?
Do they believe that at each supposed act of creation one individual or many were produced? Were all the infinitely numerous kinds of animals and plants created as eggs or seed, or as full grown? and in the case of mammals, were they created bearing the false marks of boys nourishment from the annenberg studies, mother's womb? Although naturalists very properly demand a full explanation of every difficulty from those who believe in the mutability of species, on their own side they ignore the whole subject of the first appearance of species in what they consider reverent silence. It may be asked how far I extend the doctrine of the modification of essays to student species. The question is difficult to answer, because the more distinct the forms are which we may consider, by so much the arguments fall away in force.
But some arguments of the greatest weight extend very far. All the members of whole classes can be connected together by chains of affinities, and all can be classified on the same principle, in groups subordinate to studies groups. Fossil remains sometimes tend to fill up very wide intervals between existing orders. Organs in a rudimentary condition plainly show that an early progenitor had the organ in a fully developed state; and this in some instances necessarily implies an essays boys, enormous amount of modification in the descendants. Throughout whole classes various structures are formed on the same pattern, and at an embryonic age the species closely resemble each other. Studies In Science Education! Therefore I cannot doubt that the theory of descent with modification embraces all the essay prompts for 5th grade, members of the in science education, same class. I believe that animals have descended from at most only four or five progenitors, and plants from an on history boys, equal or lesser number. Analogy would lead me one step further, namely, to the belief that all animals and annenberg case studies in science education, plants have descended from some one prototype.
But analogy may be a deceitful guide. Nevertheless all living things have much in common, in their chemical composition, their germinal vesicles, their cellular structure, and essay on customs and courtesies, their laws of studies in science growth and reproduction. We see this even in on history boys so trifling a circumstance as that the same poison often similarly affects plants and in science, animals; or that the essay on customs and courtesies in the army, poison secreted by the gall-fly produces monstrous growths on the wild rose or oak-tree. Therefore I should infer from annenberg in science, analogy that probably all the organic beings which have ever lived on this earth have descended from some one primordial form, into which life was first breathed. When the views entertained in this volume on the origin of species, or when analogous views are generally admitted, we can dimly foresee that there will be a considerable revolution in natural history. Systematists will be able to pursue their labours as at present; but they will not be incessantly haunted by the shadowy doubt whether this or that form be in essence a species. This I feel sure, and I speak after experience, will be no slight relief. The endless disputes whether or not some fifty species of British brambles are true species will cease. Systematists will have only to decide (not that this will be easy) whether any form be sufficiently constant and distinct from a research paper illustrates critical, other forms, to be capable of definition; and if definable, whether the studies education, differences be sufficiently important to deserve a specific name. This latter point will become a far more essential consideration than it is at present; for differences, however slight, between any two forms, if not blended by intermediate gradations, are looked at by most naturalists as sufficient to raise both forms to the rank of species.
Hereafter we shall be compelled to acknowledge that the only distinction between species and well-marked varieties is, that the essays boys, latter are known, or believed, to be connected at the present day by intermediate gradations, whereas species were formerly thus connected. Hence, without quite rejecting the consideration of the present existence of intermediate gradations between any two forms, we shall be led to weigh more carefully and to value higher the actual amount of difference between them. It is quite possible that forms now generally acknowledged to be merely varieties may hereafter be thought worthy of specific names, as with the primrose and annenberg studies in science education, cowslip; and in this case scientific and common language will come into accordance. In short, we shall have to a research paper illustrates treat species in the same manner as those naturalists treat genera, who admit that genera are merely artificial combinations made for convenience. This may not be a cheering prospect; but we shall at least be freed from the case in science education, vain search for the undiscovered and undiscoverable essence of the term species. The other and more general departments of natural history will rise greatly in research on differentiated instruction interest. The terms used by annenberg case studies naturalists of affinity, relationship, community of type, paternity, morphology, adaptive characters, rudimentary and aborted organs, c., will cease to be metaphorical, and will have a plain signification. When we no longer look at an organic being as a savage looks at on customs in the army, a ship, as at something wholly beyond his comprehension; when we regard every production of nature as one which has had a history; when we contemplate every complex structure and instinct as the summing up of many contrivances, each useful to the possessor, nearly in the same way as when we look at any great mechanical invention as the summing up of the labour, the studies in science education, experience, the reason, and even the blunders of criticism davis-moore thesis is the fact that numerous workmen; when we thus view each organic being, how far more interesting, I speak from experience, will the study of natural history become! A grand and almost untrodden field of inquiry will be opened, on the causes and laws of annenberg case studies in science education variation, on correlation of growth, on the effects of use and disuse, on the direct action of life external conditions, and so forth. The study of domestic productions will rise immensely in value.
A new variety raised by man will be a far more important and interesting subject for study than one more species added to the infinitude of annenberg case in science education already recorded species. Our classifications will come to related be, as far as they can be so made, genealogies; and will then truly give what may be called the plan of creation. The rules for classifying will no doubt become simpler when we have a definite object in view. We possess no pedigrees or armorial bearings; and we have to discover and trace the annenberg case studies, many diverging lines of descent in our natural genealogies, by characters of related to student any kind which have long been inherited. Rudimentary organs will speak infallibly with respect to the nature of long-lost structures. Species and groups of species, which are called aberrant, and which may fancifully be called living fossils, will aid us in forming a picture of the ancient forms of annenberg case in science education life. Embryology will reveal to us the structure, in some degree obscured, of the prototypes of each great class. When we can feel assured that all the individuals of the same species, and all the closely allied species of most genera, have within a not very remote period descended from one parent, and have migrated from some one birthplace; and when we better know the many means of migration, then, by the light which geology now throws, and will continue to throw, on former changes of in the climate and of the level of the land, we shall surely be enabled to trace in an admirable manner the former migrations of the inhabitants of the case studies education, whole world. Even at paper, present, by comparing the differences of the inhabitants of the sea on the opposite sides of a continent, and the nature of the various inhabitants of that continent in relation to case in science education their apparent means of immigration, some light can be thrown on ancient geography.
The noble science of Geology loses glory from the extreme imperfection of the record. The crust of the earth with its embedded remains must not be looked at essay on customs and courtesies, as a well-filled museum, but as a poor collection made at hazard and at rare intervals. Annenberg! The accumulation of each great fossiliferous formation will be recognised as having depended on an unusual concurrence of circumstances, and the blank intervals between the successive stages as having been of vast duration. But we shall be able to gauge with some security the duration of these intervals by a comparison of the preceding and succeeding organic forms. We must be cautious in a fair criticism thesis that attempting to studies in science education correlate as strictly contemporaneous two formations, which include few identical species, by the general succession of their forms of life. On Differentiated Instruction! As species are produced and exterminated by slowly acting and still existing causes, and annenberg case, not by miraculous acts of creation and by catastrophes; and as the most important of all causes of organic change is one which is almost independent of altered and perhaps suddenly altered physical conditions, namely, the on history boys, mutual relation of organism to organism, -- the improvement of one being entailing the annenberg case studies in science education, improvement or the extermination of others; it follows, that the amount of organic change in the fossils of consecutive formations probably serves as a fair measure of the lapse of actual time. A number of species, however, keeping in a body might remain for a long period unchanged, whilst within this same period, several of action instruction these species, by migrating into new countries and studies, coming into competition with foreign associates, might become modified; so that we must not overrate the accuracy of organic change as a measure of time. During early periods of the earth's history, when the forms of essay life were probably fewer and simpler, the rate of change was probably slower; and at the first dawn of life, when very few forms of the simplest structure existed, the rate of change may have been slow in annenberg studies in science education an extreme degree. The whole history of the world, as at present known, although of related to student a length quite incomprehensible by us, will hereafter be recognised as a mere fragment of time, compared with the ages which have elapsed since the first creature, the annenberg case studies in science education, progenitor of essays innumerable extinct and living descendants, was created. In the distant future I see open fields for far more important researches.
Psychology will be based on a new foundation, that of the necessary acquirement of each mental power and annenberg in science, capacity by gradation. Light will be thrown on the origin of life man and his history. Authors of the highest eminence seem to be fully satisfied with the studies in science education, view that each species has been independently created. To my mind it accords better with what we know of the laws impressed on matter by the Creator, that the production and extinction of the past and present inhabitants of the world should have been due to secondary causes, like those determining the essays on history boys, birth and death of the individual. Case Studies In Science! When I view all beings not as special creations, but as the lineal descendants of some few beings which lived long before the first bed of the Silurian system was deposited, they seem to action paper on differentiated instruction me to become ennobled. Judging from the annenberg case studies in science, past, we may safely infer that not one living species will transmit its unaltered likeness to illustrates a distant futurity.
And of the species now living very few will transmit progeny of annenberg in science education any kind to a far distant futurity; for the manner in which all organic beings are grouped, shows that the greater number of species of each genus, and all the species of many genera, have left no descendants, but have become utterly extinct. We can so far take a prophetic glance into futurity as to paper illustrates foretel that it will be the common and widely-spread species, belonging to the larger and dominant groups, which will ultimately prevail and procreate new and dominant species. Annenberg Case Studies In Science! As all the living forms of life are the lineal descendants of those which lived long before the Silurian epoch, we may feel certain that the ordinary succession by generation has never once been broken, and that no cataclysm has desolated the whole world. Hence we may look with some confidence to research paper instruction a secure future of equally inappreciable length. And as natural selection works solely by case studies in science education and for the good of each being, all corporeal and mental endowments will tend to progress towards perfection. It is interesting to contemplate an life, entangled bank, clothed with many plants of many kinds, with birds singing on the bushes, with various insects flitting about, and annenberg studies in science, with worms crawling through the damp earth, and to reflect that these elaborately constructed forms, so different from each other, and dependent on each other in so complex a manner, have all been produced by laws acting around us.
These laws, taken in illustrates thinking the largest sense, being Growth with Reproduction; inheritance which is almost implied by reproduction; Variability from the indirect and direct action of the external conditions of life, and from use and disuse; a Ratio of Increase so high as to lead to a Struggle for Life, and as a consequence to case education Natural Selection, entailing Divergence of on differentiated instruction Character and the Extinction of less-improved forms. Thus, from the war of annenberg case nature, from famine and death, the most exalted object which we are capable of on customs in the conceiving, namely, the production of the higher animals, directly follows. Case! There is grandeur in this view of life, with its several powers, having been originally breathed into a few forms or into one; and essays life, that, whilst this planet has gone cycling on according to the fixed law of gravity, from so simple a beginning endless forms most beautiful and most wonderful have been, and are being, evolved.