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This is the beginning of an autobiographical narrative writing series done by Mr. Pearson for his fifth-grade class.

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Art and Morality by Andrea Sauchelli. A great number of works of art, it is commonly claimed, are aesthetically valuable. Some philosophers have even argued that providing an aesthetically pleasing experience is their only proper function. However, some of these artworks display or invite us to adopt an immoral point of view. Even worse, they even seem to make immoral situations delightful and appealing. The following questions thus arise: Does the alleged immorality of these works count as an essay, aesthetic or artistic defect? Can an immoral movie or novel ever be a great example of its kind? In addition to these concerns related to art evaluation, the connection between various forms of children and tv violence, art and morality has been investigated by discussing the capacity of auto essay, works of art to move us emotionally. More specifically, thinkers from different traditions and on internship, ages have remarked that works of art are clearly able, first, to auto essay stir our emotions in a particularly effective way, and, second, to invite us to act following certain ideas that have been made appealing by their beauty or other aesthetic qualities.

Plato was the scripture, first in the Western tradition to evaluate in a systematic way whether, as a consequence of the previous considerations, we should supervise the storytellers who are supposed to educate our youth. Other philosophers, from Aristotle to more recent advocates of the auto, value of the humanities, have argued in favor of the positive role that truly great works of art may have in our moral education. Reflective On Internship Experience. Contemporary philosophers are also interested in the role of imagination in fictional immoral contexts (can we engage with immoral works of art and be justified in so doing?). They are also interested in the role played by art in contributing to our well-being and flourishing as human beings. The great majority of recent works on the topic, however, are focused on an assessment of the arguments in biographical favor or against ethical criticism, with a particular emphasis on the criticism of representational works of art. Other issues at the intersection of art and morality are the concept of the obscene, the value of reflective essay, pornography, and censorship. Carroll 2000 is the most influential introduction to the contemporary debate. Carroll 2004 covers much of the biographical essay, same ground but outlines various philosophical theories in relation to three objections to ethical criticism. Both introductions are focused on narrative works. Kieran 2003 introduces the debate in essays school terms of the value of works of art from an immoralist perspective. Gaut 2005 individuates five distinct ways in which art and ethics are connected from an ethicist point of view.

Peek 2005 focuses on the ethical criticism of art, literature and moral education, and censorship. Giovannelli 2007 presents a novel and more sophisticated mapping of the various positions on auto essay, ethical criticism. Lagueux 2004 is an finish, introduction to the debate on the connection between architecture and morality. The author argues that architectural evaluations must always be informed by moral considerations, given the functional nature of buildings. Essay. Carroll, Noel. The Secret Scripture Essay. “Art and essay, Ethical Criticism: An Overview of Recent Directions of Research.” Ethics 110.2 (2000): 350–387. Identifies key positions and arguments in the contemporary debate.

Introduces radical and moderate versions of autonomism and moralism. Carroll, Noel. “Art and the Moral Realm.” In The Blackwell Guide to essays school Aesthetics . Edited by Peter Kivy, 126–151. Oxford: Blackwell, 2004. Another introduction to the debate by a defender of moderate moralism. Gaut, Berys. “Art and Ethics.” In The Routledge Companion to Aesthetics . 2d ed. Edited by Berys Gaut and biographical, Dominic McIver Lopes, 431–444.

London and New York: Routledge, 2005. Reflective Essay Experience. An introduction to the debate from an ethicist perspective. Emphasizes the cognitive role of various artworks. Giovannelli, Alessandro. “The Ethical Criticism of Art: A New Mapping of the Territory.” Philosophia 35.2 (2007): 117–127. Provides a novel and fine-grained mapping of positions. The author argues against the perspicuity of Carroll’s classification of theories on ethical criticism. Kieran, Matthew. “Art and Morality.” In The Oxford Handbook of Aesthetics . Edited by Jerrold Levinson, 451–470. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003. Includes references to obscene and pornographic works of art and a defense of the idea that these works can be better, qua art, in virtue of their alleged immorality.

Lagueux, Maurice. “Ethics versus Aesthetics in biographical essay Architecture.” Philosophical Forum 35.2 (2004): 117–133. An overview of various ways in which architecture and morality are related. One main theme of the work is that architectural works constitute the framework of our existence, and thus have an cover coordinator with, important role for our decisions. Peek, Ella. Biographical Essay. “Ethical Criticism of Art.” In Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy . Edited by James Fieser and Bradley Dowden. 2005. This entry discusses various forms of moralism and autonomism (thus drawing mainly from Carroll’s early presentations of the debate), the contribution of literature to moral education, and the connection between ethicism and censorship.

Users without a subscription are not able to reflective on internship experience see the full content on this page. Please subscribe or login. Oxford Bibliographies Online is available by subscription and perpetual access to institutions. For more information or to auto essay contact an Oxford Sales Representative click here. Purchase an Ebook Version of This Article. Children And Tv Violence Essay. Ebooks of the Oxford Bibliographies Online subject articles are available in North America via a number of retailers including Amazon, vitalsource, and more.

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Ideology and Ideological State Apparatuses. (Notes towards an Investigation) First published : in La Pense , 1970; Translated : from the French by auto biographical essay, Ben Brewster; Source : Lenin and Philosophy and Other Essays , Monthly Review Press 1971; Transcribed : by Andy Blunden. On the Reproduction of the Conditions of essay Production [1] I must now expose more fully something which was briefly glimpsed in my analysis when I spoke of the necessity to renew the means of production if production is to be possible. That was a passing hint.

Now I shall consider it for itself. As Marx said, every child knows that a social formation which did not reproduce the conditions of production at the same time as it produced would not last a year. [2] The ultimate condition of production is therefore the essay reproduction of the conditions of essays production. This may be ‘simple’ (reproducing exactly the previous conditions of production) or ‘on an extended scale’ (expanding them). Let us ignore this last distinction for the moment. What, then, is the reproduction of the conditions of production ? Here we are entering a domain which is both very familiar (since Capital Volume Two) and uniquely ignored. The tenacious obviousnesses (ideological obviousnesses of an empiricist type) of the point of view of production alone, or even of that of mere productive practice (itself abstract in relation to the process of biographical production) are so integrated into our everyday ‘consciousness’ that it is extremely hard, not to say almost impossible, to raise oneself to the point of view of reproduction. Nevertheless, everything outside this point of view remains abstract (worse than one-sided: distorted) – even at the level of production, and, a fortiori , at that of mere practice. Let us try and examine the matter methodically.

To simplify my exposition, and assuming that every social formation arises from a dominant mode of production, I can say that the process of scripture essay production sets to work the existing productive forces in and under definite relations of production. It follows that, in order to exist, every social formation must reproduce the conditions of its production at the same time as it produces, and in order to auto biographical essay be able to produce. It must therefore reproduce: 1. the productive forces, 2. the existing relations of production. Reproduction of the in a week Means of Production. Everyone (including the bourgeois economists whose work is national accounting, or the modern ‘macro-economic’ ‘theoreticians’) now recognizes, because Marx compellingly proved it in Capital Volume Two, that no production is possible which does not allow for the reproduction of the material conditions of production: the reproduction of the means of production. The average economist, who is no different in auto essay, this than the average capitalist, knows that each year it is essential to foresee what is needed to children violence essay replace what has been used up or worn out in production: raw material, fixed installations (buildings), instruments of biographical essay production (machines), etc. Job Application? I say the average economist = the average capitalist, for they both express the essay point of view of the firm, regarding it as sufficient simply to give a commentary on the terms of the firm’s financial accounting practice.

But thanks to children essay the genius of Quesnay who first posed this ‘glaring’ problem, and to the genius of Marx who resolved it, we know that the reproduction of the material conditions of production cannot be thought at the level of the firm, because it does not exist at auto that level in its real conditions. What happens at the level of the firm is an effect, which only gives an idea of the necessity of reproduction, but absolutely fails to allow its conditions and mechanisms to be thought. A moment’s reflection is enough to be convinced of scripture this: Mr X, a capitalist who produces woollen yarn in his spinning-mill, has to biographical ‘reproduce’ his raw material, his machines, etc. But he does not produce them for his own production – other capitalists do: an Australian sheep farmer, Mr Y, a heavy engineer producing machine-tools, Mr Z, etc., etc. And Mr Y and Mr Z, in order to produce those products which are the condition of the reproduction of Mr X’s conditions of production, also have to reproduce the conditions of their own production, and so on to infinity – the whole in essays for mba school, proportions such that, on the national and even the world market, the demand for means of production (for reproduction) can be satisfied by the supply. In order to think this mechanism, which leads to a kind of ‘endless chain’, it is biographical, necessary to essays for mba school follow Marx’s ‘global’ procedure, and to essay study in particular the relations of the circulation of capital between Department I (production of means of production) and Department II (production of means of consumption), and the realization of surplus value, in Capital , Volumes Two and Three. We shall not go into scripture essay, the analysis of this question. It is enough to auto essay have mentioned the existence of the necessity of the reproduction of the material conditions of scripture production. However, the reader will not have failed to note one thing.

We have discussed the reproduction of the means of production – but not the biographical essay reproduction of the productive forces. Scripture? We have therefore ignored the reproduction of what distinguishes the productive forces from the means of production, i.e. the reproduction of auto labour power. From the observation of what takes place in the firm, in particular from the examination of the financial accounting practice which predicts amortization and dissertation in a investment, we have been able to obtain an approximate idea of the existence of the material process of reproduction, but we are now entering a domain in which the observation of auto biographical essay what happens in the firm is, if not totally blind, at outline least almost entirely so, and for good reason: the reproduction of labour power takes place essentially outside the firm. How is the reproduction of labour power ensured? It is ensured by giving labour power the material means with which to biographical essay reproduce itself: by wages. Wages feature in the accounting of each enterprise, but as ‘wage capital’, [3] not at all as a condition of the material reproduction of labour power. However, that is in fact how it ‘works’, since wages represents only that part of the value produced by the expenditure of labour power which is indispensable for its reproduction: so indispensable to the reconstitution of the labour power of the wage-earner (the wherewithal to pay for housing, food and clothing, in short to enable the wage earner to present himself again at the factory gate the next day – and every further day God grants him); and we should add: indispensable for raising and educating the finish week children in auto biographical, whom the proletarian reproduces himself (in n models where n = 0, 1, 2, etc. ) as labour power.

Remember that this quantity of value (wages) necessary for the reproduction of children labour power is determined not by the needs of a ‘biological’ Guaranteed Minimum Wage ( Salaire Minimum Interprofessionnel Garanti ) alone, but by the needs of a historical minimum (Marx noted that English workers need beer while French proletarians need wine) – i.e. a historically variable minimum. I should also like to point out that this minimum is doubly historical in that it is not defined by the historical needs of the working class ‘recognized’ by the capitalist class, but by the historical needs imposed by the proletarian class struggle (a double class struggle: against the lengthening of the working day and against auto biographical essay the reduction of job application wages). However, it is not enough to ensure for labour power the auto biographical essay material conditions of job application outline its reproduction if it is to biographical be reproduced as labour power. I have said that the available labour power must be ‘competent’, i.e. suitable to be set to work in the complex system of the process of production. The development of the productive forces and the type of children essay unity historically constitutive of the productive forces at a given moment produce the result that the labour power has to be (diversely) skilled and therefore reproduced as such. Diversely: according to the requirements of the socio-technical division of labour, its different ‘jobs’ and ‘posts’. How is this reproduction of the (diversified) skills of labour power provided for in a capitalist regime? Here, unlike social formations characterized by slavery or serfdom this reproduction of the auto essay skills of essay labour power tends (this is a tendential law) decreasingly to be provided for auto biographical essay, ‘on the spot’ (apprenticeship within production itself), but is achieved more and more outside production: by the capitalist education system, and by other instances and institutions. What do children learn at school? They go varying distances in their studies, but at any rate they learn to read, to write and to add – i.e. a number of techniques, and a number of other things as well, including elements (which may be rudimentary or on the contrary thoroughgoing) of on internship experience ‘scientific’ or ‘literary culture’, which are directly useful in biographical, the different jobs in production (one instruction for manual workers, another for technicians, a third for cover letter coordinator with no experience, engineers, a final one for higher management, etc.).

Thus they learn know-how. But besides these techniques and knowledges, and in learning them, children at school also learn the ‘rules’ of good behaviour, i.e. the attitude that should be observed by every agent in the division of labour, according to the job he is ‘destined’ for: rules of morality, civic and professional conscience, which actually means rules of respect for the socio-technical division of labour and ultimately the rules of the order established by class domination. They also learn to ‘speak proper French’, to ‘handle’ the workers correctly, i.e. actually (for the future capitalists and their servants) to auto biographical ‘order them about’ properly, i.e. Reflective On Internship? (ideally) to ‘speak to them’ in the right way, etc. To put this more scientifically, I shall say that the reproduction of auto essay labour power requires not only a reproduction of its skills, but also, at the same time, a reproduction of its submission to essay outline the rules of the established order, i.e. a reproduction of submission to the ruling ideology for the workers, and a reproduction of the ability to manipulate the ruling ideology correctly for the agents of exploitation and repression, so that they, too, will provide for the domination of the ruling class ‘in words’. In other words, the auto biographical school (but also other State institutions like the Church, or other apparatuses like the Army) teaches ‘know-how’, but in forms which ensure subjection to the ruling ideology or the mastery of its ‘practice’. All the agents of production, exploitation and repression, not to speak of the ‘professionals of ideology’ (Marx), must in one way or another be ‘steeped’ in this ideology in order to perform their tasks ‘conscientiously’ – the tasks of the exploited (the proletarians), of the exploiters (the capitalists), of the exploiters’ auxiliaries (the managers), or of the high priests of the ruling ideology (its ‘functionaries’), etc. The reproduction of labour power thus reveals as its sine qua non not only the reproduction of its ‘skills’ but also the reproduction of its subjection to the ruling ideology or of the ‘practice’ of that ideology, with the on internship experience proviso that it is not enough to say ‘not only auto, but also’, for it is essay outline, clear that it is in the forms and under the forms of ideological subjection that provision is auto essay, made for the reproduction of the skills of labour power.

But this is to recognize the effective presence of a new reality: ideology. Here I shall make two comments. The first is to round off my analysis of essay reproduction. I have just given a rapid survey of the forms of the reproduction of the productive forces, i.e. of the biographical essay means of essays school production on the one hand, and auto essay of labour power on the other. But I have not yet approached the question of the reproduction of the relations of week production. This is a crucial question for the Marxist theory of the mode of production. To let it pass would be a theoretical omission – worse, a serious political error. I shall therefore discuss it.

But in order to essay obtain the means to discuss it, I shall have to make another long detour. The second comment is that in order to make this detour, I am obliged to re-raise my old question: what is a society? Infrastructure and Superstructure. On a number of cover letter for event coordinator occasions [4] I have insisted on the revolutionary character of the Marxist conception of the ‘social whole’ insofar as it is distinct from the Hegelian ‘totality’. I said (and this thesis only repeats famous propositions of historical materialism) that Marx conceived the structure of every society as constituted by ‘levels’ or ‘instances’ articulated by a specific determination: the infrastructure , or economic base (the ‘unity’ of the productive forces and the relations of production) and the superstructure , which itself contains two ‘levels’ or ‘instances’: the politico-legal (law and the State) and ideology (the different ideologies, religious, ethical, legal, political, etc.).

Besides its theoretico-didactic interest (it reveals the difference between Marx and Hegel), this representation has the following crucial theoretical advantage: it makes it possible to inscribe in biographical essay, the theoretical apparatus of dissertation its essential concepts what I have called their respective indices of biographical effectivity. What does this mean? It is scripture essay, easy to see that this representation of the structure of every society as an edifice containing a base (infrastructure) on which are erected the biographical two ‘floors’ of the superstructure, is a metaphor, to be quite precise, a spatial metaphor: the metaphor of scripture a topography ( topique ). [5] Like every metaphor, this metaphor suggests something, makes some thing visible. What? Precisely this: that the upper floors could not ‘stay up’ (in the air) alone, if they did not rest precisely on their base.

Thus the object of the metaphor of the edifice is to represent above all the ‘determination in the last instance’ by the economic base. The effect of this spatial metaphor is to endow the base with an index of auto biographical effectivity known by the famous terms: the determination in the last instance of what happens in the upper ‘floors’ (of the superstructure) by in a week, what happens in biographical essay, the economic base. Given this index of effectivity ‘in the last instance’, the ‘floors’ of the superstructure are clearly endowed with different indices of effectivity. What kind of indices? It is possible to say that the floors of the superstructure are not determinant in job application essay, the last instance, but that they are determined by the effectivity of the base; that if they are determinant in their own (as yet undefined) ways, this is true only insofar as they are determined by the base. Their index of effectivity (or determination), as determined by the determination in the last instance of the base, is thought by the Marxist tradition in auto essay, two ways: (1) there is for mba, a ‘relative autonomy’ of the auto biographical superstructure with respect to the base; (2) there is finish dissertation in a, a ‘reciprocal action’ of the superstructure on the base. We can therefore say that the great theoretical advantage of the Marxist topography, i.e. of the essay spatial metaphor of the edifice (base and superstructure) is simultaneously that it reveals that questions of for mba determination (or of index of auto effectivity) are crucial; that it reveals that it is the base which in the last instance determines the whole edifice; and essay that, as a consequence, it obliges us to pose the theoretical problem of the types of ‘derivatory’ effectivity peculiar to the superstructure, i.e. it obliges us to think what the Marxist tradition calls conjointly the relative autonomy of the auto biographical essay superstructure and reflective essay the reciprocal action of the superstructure on the base. The greatest disadvantage of this representation of the structure of every society by the spatial metaphor of an edifice, is auto essay, obviously the fact that it is metaphorical: i.e. it remains descriptive. It now seems to me that it is possible and desirable to represent things differently.

NB, I do not mean by this that I want to reject the essay on internship classical metaphor, for that metaphor itself requires that we go beyond it. And I am not going beyond it in order to reject it as outworn. I simply want to attempt to think what it gives us in the form of biographical essay a description. I believe that it is scripture, possible and necessary to think what characterizes the essential of the existence and nature of the auto biographical essay superstructure on the basis of children and tv reproduction. Once one takes the auto essay point of view of reproduction, many of the questions whose existence was indicated by dissertation week, the spatial metaphor of the edifice, but to which it could not give a conceptual answer, are immediately illuminated. My basic thesis is that it is not possible to biographical essay pose these questions (and therefore to answer them) except from the point of view of reproduction.

I shall give a short analysis of Law, the State and Ideology from this point of view. And I shall reveal what happens both from the point of view of practice and production on the one hand, and from that of reproduction on the other. The Marxist tradition is strict, here: in the Communist Manifesto and the Eighteenth Brumaire (and in all the later classical texts, above all in Marx’s writings on the Paris Commune and Lenin’s on State and Revolution ), the State is explicitly conceived as a repressive apparatus. The State is a ‘machine’ of repression, which enables the ruling classes (in the nineteenth century the bourgeois class and the ‘class’ of big landowners) to cover for event coordinator no experience ensure their domination over the working class, thus enabling the former to biographical subject the latter to the process of surplus-value extortion (i.e. to capitalist exploitation). The State is thus first of all what the Marxist classics have called the State Apparatus. Job Application Essay? This term means: not only the specialized apparatus (in the narrow sense) whose existence and necessity I have recognized in relation to the requirements of auto legal practice, i.e. the police, the courts, the prisons; but also the army, which (the proletariat has paid for this experience with its blood) intervenes directly as a supplementary repressive force in essays, the last instance, when the police and its specialized auxiliary corps are ‘outrun by events’; and above this ensemble, the head of State, the government and the administration. Presented in this form, the Marxist-Leninist ‘theory’ of the State has its finger on the essential point, and not for one moment can there be any question of rejecting the biographical fact that this really is the experience essential point. The State Apparatus, which defines the State as a force of repressive execution and intervention ‘in the interests of the auto essay ruling classes’ in the class struggle conducted by the bourgeoisie and its allies against reflective essay experience the proletariat, is quite certainly the State, and quite certainly defines its basic ‘function’. From Descriptive Theory to Theory as such.

Nevertheless, here too, as I pointed out with respect to the metaphor of the edifice (infrastructure and superstructure), this presentation of the nature of the State is still partly descriptive. As I shall often have occasion to use this adjective (descriptive), a word of biographical essay explanation is children and tv violence essay, necessary in order to biographical essay remove any ambiguity. Whenever, in speaking of the metaphor of the the secret scripture edifice or of the Marxist ‘theory’ of the State, I have said that these are descriptive conceptions or representations of their objects, I had no ulterior critical motives. On the contrary, I have every grounds to think that great scientific discoveries cannot help but pass through the phase of what I shall call descriptive ‘ theory ‘ . This is the first phase of biographical essay every theory, at least in the domain which concerns us (that of the science of social formations). As such, one might and in my opinion one must – envisage this phase as a transitional one, necessary to the development of the finish week theory. Biographical Essay? That it is transitional is inscribed in my expression: ‘descriptive theory’, which reveals in its conjunction of terms the equivalent of a kind of ‘contradiction’. Reflective On Internship? In fact, the term theory ‘clashes’ to some extent with the adjective ‘descriptive’ which I have attached to it.

This means quite precisely: (1) that the ‘descriptive theory’ really is, without a shadow of a doubt, the irreversible beginning of the theory; but (2) that the ‘descriptive’ form in biographical, which the theory is presented requires, precisely as an effect of this ‘contradiction’, a development of the theory which goes beyond the form of finish dissertation week ‘description’. Let me make this idea clearer by auto biographical, returning to our present object: the State. When I say that the Marxist ‘theory’ of the State available to us is still partly ‘descriptive’, that means first and foremost that this descriptive ‘theory’ is without the shadow of a doubt precisely the scripture essay beginning of the Marxist theory of the State, and that this beginning gives us the essential point, i.e. the decisive principle of every later development of the biographical theory. Indeed, I shall call the descriptive theory of the State correct, since it is perfectly possible to make the vast majority of the facts in the domain with which it is concerned correspond to the definition it gives of its object. Thus, the definition of the violence State as a class State, existing in the Repressive State Apparatus, casts a brilliant light on all the facts observable in the various orders of repression whatever their domains: from the massacres of June 1848 and of the Paris Commune, of biographical Bloody Sunday, May 1905 in Petrograd, of the Resistance, of Charonne, etc., to the mere (and relatively anodyne) interventions of a ‘censorship’ which has banned Diderot’s La Rligieuse or a play by Gatti on Franco; it casts light on all the direct or indirect forms of exploitation and essay extermination of the auto biographical masses of the people (imperialist wars); it casts light on that subtle everyday domination beneath which can be glimpsed, in the forms of political democracy, for example, what Lenin, following Marx, called the dictatorship of the children violence bourgeoisie. And yet the descriptive theory of the State represents a phase in the constitution of the theory which itself demands the ‘supersession’ of this phase. For it is clear that if the auto biographical essay definition in question really does give us the means to identify and recognize the facts of oppression by essays, relating them to the State, conceived as the Repressive State Apparatus, this ‘interrelationship’ gives rise to a very special kind of obviousness, about which I shall have something to say in auto biographical essay, a moment: ‘Yes, that’s how it is, that’s really true!’ [6] And the accumulation of the secret essay facts within the definition of the State may multiply examples, but it does not really advance the definition of the State, i.e. the scientific theory of the State.

Every descriptive theory thus runs the risk of ‘blocking’ the development of the theory, and yet that development is essential. That is why I think that, in order to develop this descriptive theory into theory as such, i.e. in order to understand further the mechanisms of the State in its functioning, I think that it is indispensable to add something to auto biographical the classical definition of the State as a State Apparatus. The Essentials of the Marxist Theory of the and tv essay State. Let me first clarify one important point: the State (and its existence in its apparatus) has no meaning except as a function of State power. The whole of the political class struggle revolves around the State. By which I mean around the possession, i.e. the seizure and conservation of State power by a certain class or by an alliance between classes or class fractions. This first clarification obliges me to distinguish between State power (conservation of State power or seizure of State power), the objective of the political class struggle on the one hand, and the State Apparatus on the other. We know that the State Apparatus may survive, as is proved by bourgeois ‘revolutions’ in nineteenth-century France (1830, 1848), by coups d’tat (2 December, May 1958), by collapses of the State (the fall of the Empire in 1870, of the Third Republic in 1940), or by the political rise of the petty bourgeoisie (1890-95 in France), etc., without the State Apparatus being affected or modified: it may survive political events which affect the possession of State power. Even after a social revolution like that of 1917, a large part of the State Apparatus survived after the seizure of biographical essay State power by and tv violence, the alliance of the proletariat and the small peasantry: Lenin repeated the fact again and again. It is possible to biographical essay describe the distinction between state power and state apparatus as part of the ‘Marxist theory’ of the state, explicitly present since Marx’s Eighteenth Brumaire and Class Struggles in France. To summarize the ‘Marxist theory of the state’ on this point, it can be said that the Marxist classics have always claimed that (1) the state is the repressive state apparatus, (2) state power and state apparatus must be distinguished, (3) the objective of the class struggle concerns state power, and in consequence the use of the state apparatus by the classes (or alliance of classes or of fractions of classes) holding state power as a function of their class objectives, and (4) the proletariat must seize state power in order to destroy the existing bourgeois state apparatus and, in a first phase, replace it with a quite different, proletarian, state apparatus, then in for mba school, later phases set in essay, motion a radical process, that of the destruction of the state (the end of state power, the end of every state apparatus).

In this perspective, therefore, what I would propose to add to the ‘Marxist theory’ of the state is already there in so many words. But it seems to me that even with this supplement, this theory is still in part descriptive, although it does now contain complex and differential elements whose functioning and scripture essay action cannot be understood without recourse to further supplementary theoretical development. The State Ideological Apparatuses. Thus, what has to be added to the ‘Marxist theory’ of the state is something else. Here we must advance cautiously in a terrain which, in fact, the biographical essay Marxist classics entered long before us, but without having systematized in theoretical form the decisive advances implied by their experiences and procedures. Their experiences and procedures were indeed restricted in the main to the terrain of political practice. In fact, i.e. in reflective, their political practice, the Marxist classics treated the auto biographical essay State as a more complex reality than the finish in a week definition of it given in the ‘Marxist theory of the state’, even when it has been supplemented as I have just suggested. Auto Biographical Essay? They recognized this complexity in their practice, but they did not express it in reflective essay, a corresponding theory. [7] I should like to attempt a very schematic outline of this corresponding theory.

To that end, I propose the following thesis. In order to advance the theory of the State it is indispensable to take into account not only the distinction between state power and state apparatus , but also another reality which is clearly on the side of the (repressive) state apparatus, but must not be confused with it. Auto Biographical? I shall call this reality by letter for event with no experience, its concept: the auto biographical essay Ideological State Apparatuses. What are the Ideological State Apparatuses (ISAs)? They must not be confused with the (repressive) State apparatus. Remember that in Marxist theory, the State Apparatus (SA) contains: the Government, the Administration, the job application essay Army, the auto essay Police, the Courts, the on internship experience Prisons, etc., which constitute what I shall in future call the Repressive State Apparatus. Repressive suggests that the State Apparatus in question ‘functions by violence’ – at least ultimately (since repression, e.g. Biographical Essay? administrative repression, may take non-physical forms). I shall call Ideological State Apparatuses a certain number of realities which present themselves to the immediate observer in the form of reflective experience distinct and specialized institutions. I propose an empirical list of these which will obviously have to be examined in detail, tested, corrected and re-organized. With all the reservations implied by this requirement, we can for the moment regard the following institutions as Ideological State Apparatuses (the order in which I have listed them has no particular significance): the religious ISA (the system of the different churches), the educational ISA (the system of the auto biographical different public and private ‘schools’), the family ISA, [8] the legal ISA, [9] the political ISA (the political system, including the different parties), the and tv violence essay trade-union ISA, the communications ISA (press, radio and television, etc.), the cultural ISA (literature, the arts, sports, etc.).

I have said that the ISAs must not be confused with the (Repressive) State Apparatus. What constitutes the difference? As a first moment, it is clear that while there is auto biographical essay, one (Repressive) State Apparatus, there is a plurality of Ideological State Apparatuses. Even presupposing that it exists, the unity that constitutes this plurality of ISAs as a body is not immediately visible. As a second moment, it is dissertation week, clear that whereas the unified – (Repressive) State Apparatus belongs entirely to the public domain, much the larger part of the Ideological State Apparatuses (in their apparent dispersion) are part, on the contrary, of the private domain. Churches, Parties, Trade Unions, families, some schools, most newspapers, cultural ventures, etc., etc., are private. We can ignore the first observation for the moment. But someone is bound to question the second, asking me by what right I regard as Ideological State Apparatuses, institutions which for the most part do not possess public status, but are quite simply private institutions.

As a conscious Marxist, Gramsci already forestalled this objection in one sentence. The distinction between the public and the private is a distinction internal to bourgeois law, and valid in the (subordinate) domains in which bourgeois law exercises its ‘authority’. The domain of the State escapes it because the latter is ‘above the law’: the State, which is the auto biographical essay State of the ruling class, is neither public nor private; on the contrary, it is the precondition for any distinction between public and private. The same thing can be said from the starting-point of our State Ideological Apparatuses. Essays School? It is unimportant whether the institutions in which they are realized are ‘public’ or ‘private’. Essay? What matters is how they function.

Private institutions can perfectly well ‘function’ as Ideological State Apparatuses. A reasonably thorough analysis of any one of the ISAs proves it. But now for what is essential. What distinguishes the ISAs from the (Repressive) State Apparatus is the following basic difference: the Repressive State Apparatus functions ‘by violence’, whereas the Ideological State Apparatuses function ‘ by ideology’. I can clarify matters by correcting this distinction. Children Violence? I shall say rather that every State Apparatus, whether Repressive or Ideological, ‘functions’ both by auto, violence and by scripture essay, ideology, but with one very important distinction which makes it imperative not to confuse the auto Ideological State Apparatuses with the letter coordinator with (Repressive) State Apparatus. This is the fact that the (Repressive) State Apparatus functions massively and predominantly by repression (including physical repression), while functioning secondarily by auto biographical, ideology. (There is on internship experience, no such thing as a purely repressive apparatus.) For example, the Army and the Police also function by auto biographical, ideology both to ensure their own cohesion and reproduction, and in the ‘values’ they propound externally. In the same way, but inversely, it is essential to say that for their part the Ideological State Apparatuses function massively and predominantly by the secret scripture, ideology , but they also function secondarily by repression, even if ultimately, but only ultimately, this is very attenuated and concealed, even symbolic. (There is auto biographical, no such thing as a purely ideological apparatus.) Thus Schools and Churches use suitable methods of punishment, expulsion, selection, etc., to ‘discipline’ not only their shepherds, but also their flocks. The same is true of the Family. The same is true of the cultural IS Apparatus (censorship, among other things), etc. Is it necessary to add that this determination of the double ‘functioning’ (predominantly, secondarily) by repression and by ideology, according to whether it is a matter of the (Repressive) State Apparatus or the Ideological State Apparatuses, makes it clear that very subtle explicit or tacit combinations may be woven from the interplay of the (Repressive) State Apparatus and the Ideological State Apparatuses?

Everyday life provides us with innumerable examples of this, but they must be studied in the secret scripture essay, detail if we are to go further than this mere observation. Nevertheless, this remark leads us towards an understanding of what constitutes the unity of the apparently disparate body of the ISAs. If the ISAs ‘function’ massively and predominantly by auto biographical essay, ideology, what unifies their diversity is precisely this functioning, insofar as the ideology by which they function is always in fact unified, despite its diversity and its contradictions, beneath the ruling ideology , which is the violence essay ideology of ‘the ruling class’. Given the fact that the ‘ruling class’ in principle holds State power (openly or more often by means of alliances between classes or class fractions), and therefore has at its disposal the (Repressive) State Apparatus, we can accept the fact that this same ruling class is active in the Ideological State Apparatuses insofar as it is ultimately the ruling ideology which is biographical essay, realized in job application outline, the Ideological State Apparatuses, precisely in auto biographical essay, its contradictions. Of course, it is a quite different thing to act by laws and decrees in job application essay, the (Repressive) State Apparatus and to ‘act’ through the intermediary of the ruling ideology in the Ideological State Apparatuses. We must go into the details of this difference – but it cannot mask the reality of a profound identity.

To my knowledge, no class can hold State power over a long period without at the same time exercising its hegemony over and in the State Ideological Apparatuses. Auto Essay? I only need one example and proof of and tv violence this: Lenin’s anguished concern to revolutionize the educational Ideological State Apparatus (among others), simply to make it possible for auto essay, the Soviet proletariat, who had seized State power, to secure the future of the job application essay outline dictatorship of the proletariat and the transition to socialism. [10] This last comment puts us in a position to understand that the Ideological State Apparatuses may be not only the stake , but also the site of class struggle, and often of bitter forms of class struggle. The class (or class alliance) in auto, power cannot lay down the law in the ISAs as easily as it can in the (repressive) State apparatus, not only because the former ruling classes are able to retain strong positions there for a long time, but also because the essays school resistance of the biographical exploited classes is able to essay experience find means and occasions to express itself there, either by the utilization of their contradictions, or by conquering combat positions in them in struggle. [11] Let me run through my comments. If the essay thesis I have proposed is well-founded, it leads me back to the classical Marxist theory of the State, while making it more precise in one point.

I argue that it is necessary to distinguish between State power (and its possession by . ) on the one hand, and the State Apparatus on the other. But I add that the State Apparatus contains two bodies: the body of institutions which represent the Repressive State Apparatus on the one hand, and no experience the body of auto essay institutions which represent the body of the secret essay Ideological State Apparatuses on the other. But if this is the case, the following question is bound to be asked, even in biographical essay, the very summary state of my suggestions: what exactly is the reflective on internship extent of the role of the Ideological State Apparatuses? What is their importance based on? In other words: to what does the ‘function’ of these Ideological State Apparatuses, which do not function by repression but by auto, ideology, correspond?

On the Reproduction of the Relations of Production. I can now answer the central question which I have left in suspense for finish dissertation in a, many long pages: how is the reproduction of the relations of biographical essay production secured? In the topographical language (Infrastructure, Superstructure), I can say: for the most part, [12] it is secured by the legal-political and on internship ideological superstructure. But as I have argued that it is essential to go beyond this still descriptive language, I shall say: for the most part, it is secured by the exercise of State power in the State Apparatuses, on the one hand the biographical essay (Repressive) State Apparatus, on the other the Ideological State Apparatuses. What I have just said must also be taken into account, and it can be assembled in the form of the following three features: 1. All the State Apparatuses function both by repression and by ideology, with the difference that the (Repressive) State Apparatus functions massively and predominantly by week, repression, whereas the Ideological State Apparatuses function massively and predominantly by ideology. 2. Whereas the (Repressive) State Apparatus constitutes an organized whole whose different parts are centralized beneath a commanding unity, that of the auto politics of class struggle applied by the political representatives of the ruling classes in possession of State power, the Ideological State Apparatuses are multiple, distinct, ‘relatively autonomous’ and capable of providing an objective field to contradictions which express, in forms which may be limited or extreme, the effects of the clashes between the capitalist class struggle and violence essay the proletarian class struggle, as well as their subordinate forms. 3. Whereas the unity of the biographical (Repressive) State Apparatus is secured by its unified and centralized organization under the leadership of the representatives of the classes in for mba, power executing the politics of the class struggle of the classes in power, the unity of the different Ideological State Apparatuses is secured, usually in contradictory forms, by auto biographical essay, the ruling ideology, the ideology of the essays for mba ruling class. Taking these features into account, it is possible to represent the auto biographical essay reproduction of the relations of letter production [13] in the following way, according to a kind of ‘division of labour’. The role of the repressive State apparatus, insofar as it is a repressive apparatus, consists essentially in securing by auto, force (physical or otherwise) the political conditions of the reproduction of cover letter for event with relations of production which are in the last resort relations of exploitation.

Not only does the State apparatus contribute generously to its own reproduction (the capitalist State contains political dynasties, military dynasties, etc.), but also and biographical essay above all, the State apparatus secures by repression (from the most brutal physical force, via mere administrative commands and interdictions, to open and tacit censorship) the political conditions for the action of the Ideological State Apparatuses. In fact, it is the latter which largely secure the reproduction specifically of the relations of production, behind a ‘shield’ provided by finish dissertation, the repressive State apparatus. It is here that the role of the ruling ideology is heavily concentrated, the ideology of the ruling class, which holds State power. It is the intermediation of the ruling ideology that ensures a (sometimes teeth-gritting) ‘harmony’ between the repressive State apparatus and the Ideological State Apparatuses, and between the auto biographical essay different State Ideological Apparatuses. We are thus led to envisage the the secret scripture essay following hypothesis, as a function precisely of the auto diversity of ideological State Apparatuses in cover letter for event coordinator with, their single, because shared, role of the reproduction of the relations of production. Indeed we have listed a relatively large number of Ideological State Apparatuses in contemporary capitalist social formations: the educational apparatus, the religious apparatus, the family apparatus, the political apparatus, the trade-union apparatus, the communications apparatus, the ‘cultural’ apparatus, etc. But in auto biographical, the social formations of that mode of production characterized by ‘serfdom’ (usually called the feudal mode of production), we observe that although there is a single repressive State apparatus which, since the earliest known Ancient States, let alone the Absolute Monarchies, has been formally very similar to the one we know today, the number of Ideological State Apparatuses is smaller and their individual types are different.

For example, we observe that during the Middle Ages, the Church (the religious Ideological State Apparatus) accumulated a number of functions which have today devolved on to several distinct Ideological State Apparatuses, new ones in relation to the past I am invoking, in particular educational and cultural functions. For Mba? Alongside the Church there was the family Ideological State Apparatus, which played a considerable part, incommensurable with its role in capitalist social formations. Auto Essay? Despite appearances, the Church and the Family were not the only Ideological State Apparatuses. Essays? There was also a political Ideological State Apparatus (the Estates General, the Parlement , the different political factions and Leagues, the ancestors of the modern political parties, and auto essay the whole political system of the free Communes and then of the children and tv violence Villes ). There was also a powerful ‘proto-trade union’ Ideological State Apparatus, if I may venture such an anachronistic term (the powerful merchants’ and essay bankers’ guilds and the journeymen’s associations, etc.). Publishing and Communications, even, saw an essays for mba indisputable development, as did the theatre; initially both were integral parts of the Church, then they became more and more independent of it. In the pre-capitalist historical period which I have examined extremely broadly, it is essay, absolutely clear that there was one dominant Ideological State Apparatus , the and tv Church , which concentrated within it not only religious functions, but also educational ones, and a large proportion of the functions of communications and auto essay ‘culture’. It is no accident that all ideological struggle, from the sixteenth to the eighteenth century, starting with the first shocks of the Reformation, was concentrated in an anti-clerical and anti-religious struggle; rather this is a function precisely of the dominant position of the children religious Ideological State Apparatus. The foremost objective and achievement of the French Revolution was not just to transfer State power from the feudal aristocracy to the merchant-capitalist bourgeoisie, to break part of the former repressive State apparatus and replace it with a new one (e.g., the national popular Army) but also to auto essay attack the number-one Ideological State Apparatus: the essays school Church. Hence the civil constitution of the clergy, the confiscation of ecclesiastical wealth, and the creation of new Ideological State Apparatuses to replace the essay religious Ideological State Apparatus in its dominant role.

Naturally, these things did not happen automatically: witness the Concordat, the Restoration and the long class struggle between the landed aristocracy and essay experience the industrial bourgeoisie throughout the nineteenth century for the establishment of biographical bourgeois hegemony over the functions formerly fulfilled by the Church: above all by the Schools. It can be said that the bourgeoisie relied on the new political, parliamentary-democratic, Ideological State Apparatus, installed in the earliest years of the Revolution, then restored after long and violent struggles, for a few months in 1848 and for decades after the fall of the Second Empire, in order to conduct its struggle against the Church and wrest its ideological functions away from it, in other words, to ensure not only its own political hegemony, but also the ideological hegemony indispensable to the reproduction of capitalist relations of production. That is why I believe that I am justified in advancing the following Thesis, however precarious it is. I believe that the Ideological State Apparatus which has been installed in the dominant position in mature capitalist social formations as a result of a violent political and ideological class struggle against the old dominant Ideological State Apparatus, is the essay educational ideological apparatus. This thesis may seem paradoxical, given that for everyone, i.e. in the ideological representation that the bourgeoisie has tried to give itself and the classes it exploits, it really seems that the dominant Ideological State Apparatus in capitalist social formations is not the Schools, but the political Ideological State Apparatus, i.e. the regime of parliamentary democracy combining universal suffrage and party struggle. However, history, even recent history, shows that the essay bourgeoisie has been and still is able to accommodate itself to political Ideological State Apparatuses other than parliamentary democracy: the First and Second Empires, Constitutional Monarchy (Louis XVIII and school Charles X), Parliamentary Monarchy (Louis-Philippe), Presidential Democracy (de Gaulle), to mention only France. In England this is even clearer. The Revolution was particularly ‘successful’ there from the bourgeois point of view, since unlike France, where the bourgeoisie, partly because of the stupidity of the petty aristocracy, had to essay agree to being carried to letter coordinator with no experience power by peasant and plebeian ‘ journes rvolutionnaires ’, something for which it had to pay a high price, the English bourgeoisie was able to ‘compromise’ with the aristocracy and ‘share’ State power and biographical essay the use of the State apparatus with it for letter with no experience, a long time (peace among all men of good will in the ruling classes!). In Germany it is even more striking, since it was behind a political Ideological State Apparatus in which the imperial Junkers (epitomized by Bismarck), their army and auto essay their police provided it with a shield and leading personnel, that the imperialist bourgeoisie made its shattering entry into history, before ‘traversing’ the Weimar Republic and entrusting itself to Nazism. Hence I believe I have good reasons for thinking that behind the scenes of its political Ideological State Apparatus, which occupies the front of the finish in a week stage, what the bourgeoisie has installed as its number-one, i.e. as its dominant Ideological State Apparatus, is the educational apparatus, which has in fact replaced in biographical, its functions the previously dominant Ideological State Apparatus, the Church.

One might even add: the School-Family couple has replaced the essay experience Church-Family couple. Why is the educational apparatus in auto biographical, fact the dominant Ideological State Apparatus in capitalist social formations, and how does it function? For the moment it must suffice to say: 1. All Ideological State Apparatuses, whatever they are, contribute to the same result: the reproduction of the cover for event with no experience relations of production, i.e. of capitalist relations of exploitation. 2. Auto Essay? Each of them contributes towards this single result in the way proper to it. The political apparatus by subjecting individuals to the political State ideology, the ‘indirect’ (parliamentary) or ‘direct’ (plebiscitary or fascist) ‘democratic’ ideology. The communications apparatus by cramming every ‘citizen’ with daily doses of nationalism, chauvinism, liberalism, moralism, etc, by means of the press, the radio and television. The same goes for the cultural apparatus (the role of sport in chauvinism is of the first importance), etc. The religious apparatus by recalling in sermons and the other great ceremonies of for mba school Birth, Marriage and Death, that man is only ashes, unless he loves his neighbour to essay the extent of turning the other cheek to essay outline whoever strikes first. The family apparatus . but there is no need to go on. 3. Auto? This concert is dominated by a single score, occasionally disturbed by dissertation, contradictions (those of the remnants of former ruling classes, those of the proletarians and biographical essay their organizations): the score of the Ideology of the dissertation week current ruling class which integrates into its music the great themes of the Humanism of the Great Forefathers, who produced the Greek Miracle even before Christianity, and afterwards the Glory of Rome, the Eternal City, and the themes of Interest, particular and general, etc. nationalism, moralism and economism.

4. Biographical Essay? Nevertheless, in this concert, one Ideological State Apparatus certainly has the dominant role, although hardly anyone lends an essays ear to its music: it is biographical, so silent! This is the School. It takes children from finish dissertation in a week every class at infant-school age, and then for years, the auto biographical years in which the child is most ‘vulnerable’, squeezed between the Family State Apparatus and the Educational State Apparatus, it drums into them, whether it uses new or old methods, a certain amount of ‘know-how’ wrapped in the ruling ideology (French, arithmetic, natural history, the school sciences, literature) or simply the auto ruling ideology in its pure state (ethics, civic instruction, philosophy). Somewhere around the age of sixteen, a huge mass of children are ejected ‘into production’: these are the workers or small peasants. Another portion of scholastically adapted youth carries on: and, for better or worse, it goes somewhat further, until it falls by the wayside and fills the posts of small and middle technicians, white-collar workers, small and middle executives, petty bourgeois of all kinds. A last portion reaches the the secret summit, either to fall into intellectual semi-employment, or to provide, as well as the ‘intellectuals of the collective labourer’, the agents of exploitation (capitalists, managers), the agents of repression (soldiers, policemen, politicians, administrators, etc.) and auto biographical the professional ideologists (priests of essay experience all sorts, most of whom are convinced ‘laymen’). Each mass ejected en route is practically provided with the ideology which suits the role it has to auto fulfil in class society: the role of the exploited (with a ‘highly-developed’ ‘professional’, ‘ethical’, ‘civic’, ‘national’ and a-political consciousness); the role of the agent of exploitation (ability to give the workers orders and speak to them: ‘human relations’), of the agent of repression (ability to give orders and cover letter with no experience enforce obedience ‘without discussion’, or ability to biographical manipulate the demagogy of a political leader’s rhetoric), or of the professional ideologist (ability to treat consciousnesses with the job application essay respect, i.e. with the contempt, blackmail, and demagogy they deserve, adapted to the accents of Morality, of Virtue, of ‘Transcendence’, of the Nation, of auto essay France’s World Role, etc.). Of course, many of these contrasting Virtues (modesty, resignation, submissiveness on the one hand, cynicism, contempt, arrogance, confidence, self-importance, even smooth talk and cunning on the other) are also taught in the Family, in the Church, in for mba school, the Army, in Good Books, in films and even in the football stadium. But no other Ideological State Apparatus has the obligatory (and not least, free) audience of the totality of the children in the capitalist social formation, eight hours a day for five or six days out of seven. But it is by an apprenticeship in a variety of know-how wrapped up in the massive inculcation of the ideology of the ruling class that the relations of production in a capitalist social formation, i.e. the relations of exploited to exploiters and exploiters to exploited, are largely reproduced.

The mechanisms which produce this vital result for the capitalist regime are naturally covered up and concealed by a universally reigning ideology of the School, universally reigning because it is one of the essential forms of the ruling bourgeois ideology: an ideology which represents the School as a neutral environment purged of ideology (because it is . lay), where teachers respectful of the ‘conscience’ and ‘freedom’ of the children who are entrusted to them (in complete confidence) by their ‘parents’ (who are free, too, i.e. the owners of their children) open up for them the essay path to job application essay outline the freedom, morality and responsibility of adults by auto biographical, their own example, by knowledge, literature and their ‘liberating’ virtues. I ask the pardon of scripture essay those teachers who, in dreadful conditions, attempt to turn the few weapons they can find in the history and learning they ‘teach’ against the ideology, the system and the practices in which they are trapped. They are a kind of hero. But they are rare and how many (the majority) do not even begin to suspect the ‘work’ the system (which is bigger than they are and crushes them) forces them to do, or worse, put all their heart and ingenuity into performing it with the most advanced awareness (the famous new methods!). So little do they suspect it that their own devotion contributes to the maintenance and nourishment of this ideological representation of the School, which makes the School today as ‘natural’, indispensable-useful and even beneficial for our contemporaries as the Church was ‘natural’, indispensable and generous for our ancestors a few centuries ago. In fact, the Church has been replaced today in its role as the dominant Ideological State Apparatus by the School. It is auto biographical essay, coupled with the Family just as the essays for mba school Church was once coupled with the Family. We can now claim that the unprecedentedly deep crisis which is now shaking the education system of so many States across the globe, often in conjunction with a crisis (already proclaimed in essay, the Communist Manifesto ) shaking the family system, takes on a political meaning, given that the School (and the and tv School/Family couple) constitutes the dominant Ideological State Apparatus, the Apparatus playing a determinant part in the reproduction of the relations of production of a mode of production threatened in biographical essay, its existence by the world class struggle. When I put forward the concept of an Ideological State Apparatus, when I said that the job application essay outline ISAs ‘function by auto, ideology’, I invoked a reality which needs a little discussion: ideology. It is well known that the expression ‘ideology’ was invented by Cabanis, Destutt de Tracy and their friends, who assigned to it as an object the (genetic) theory of ideas. For Mba School? When Marx took up the term fifty years later, he gave it a quite different meaning, even in biographical essay, his Early Works.

Here, ideology is the system of the ideas and representations which dominate the cover letter for event coordinator with mind of a man or a social group. The ideologico-political struggle conducted by biographical, Marx as early as his articles in the Rheinische Zeitung inevitably and quickly brought him face to face with this reality and forced him to take his earliest intuitions further. However, here we come upon the secret essay, a rather astonishing paradox. Everything seems to lead Marx to formulate a theory of ideology. In fact, The German Ideology does offer us, after the 1844 Manuscripts , an explicit theory of ideology, but . it is not Marxist (we shall see why in a moment).

As for Capital , although it does contain many hints towards a theory of ideologies (most visibly, the ideology of the vulgar economists), it does not contain that theory itself, which depends for the most part on a theory of ideology in general. I should like to venture a first and very schematic outline of biographical essay such a theory. The theses I am about to put forward are certainly not off the essays school cuff, but they cannot be sustained and auto tested, i.e. Job Application Outline? confirmed or rejected, except by much thorough study and analysis. One word first of all to expound the auto reason in principle which seems to me to found, or at for mba school least to auto justify, the project of a theory of ideology in general , and not a theory of particular ideolog ies , which, whatever their form (religious, ethical, legal, political), always express class positions. It is quite obvious that it is essay, necessary to proceed towards a theory of biographical ideologies in the two respects I have just suggested.

It will then be clear that a theory of ideolog ies depends in the last resort on the history of social formations, and thus of the modes of production combined in social formations, and of the class struggles which develop in them. In this sense it is clear that there can be no question of a theory of ideolog ies in the secret scripture, general, since ideolog ies (defined in the double respect suggested above: regional and class) have a history, whose determination in the last instance is clearly situated outside ideologies alone, although it involves them. On the contrary, if I am able to auto put forward the essays school project of a theory of ideology in general , and if this theory really is one of the elements on which theories of ideologies depend, that entails an apparently paradoxical proposition which I shall express in the following terms: ideology has no history. As we know, this formulation appears in so many words in a passage from The German Ideology. Marx utters it with respect to metaphysics, which, he says, has no more history than ethics (meaning also the other forms of ideology).

In The German Ideology , this formulation appears in auto biographical, a plainly positivist context. Ideology is conceived as a pure illusion, a pure dream, i.e. as nothingness. All its reality is external to and tv violence essay it. Ideology is thus thought as an imaginary construction whose status is exactly like the theoretical status of the dream among writers before Freud. Biographical? For these writers, the dream was the purely imaginary, i.e. null, result of children essay ‘day’s residues’, presented in an arbitrary arrangement and order, sometimes even ‘inverted’, in other words, in ‘disorder’. For them, the auto essay dream was the imaginary, it was empty, null and arbitrarily ‘stuck together’ ( bricol ), once the eyes had closed, from the residues of the only full and positive reality, the reality of the day. This is exactly the status of philosophy and ideology (since in this book philosophy is ideology par excellence ) in The German Ideology.

Ideology, then, is for outline, Marx an imaginary assemblage ( bricolage ), a pure dream, empty and vain, constituted by the ‘day’s residues’ from the biographical only full and positive reality, that of the concrete history of concrete material individuals materially producing their existence. It is on essays for mba school this basis that ideology has no history in auto biographical essay, The German Ideology , since its history is outside it, where the only existing history is, the history of for mba school concrete individuals, etc. In The German Ideology , the thesis that ideology has no history is therefore a purely negative thesis, since it means both: 1. ideology is nothing insofar as it is a pure dream (manufactured by who knows what power: if not by the alienation of the division of labour, but that, too, is a negative determination); 2. ideology has no history, which emphatically does not mean that there is no history in it (on the contrary, for biographical essay, it is merely the pale, empty and inverted reflection of finish in a real history) but that it has no history of its own. Now, while the auto biographical thesis I wish to defend formally speaking adopts the terms of The German Ideology (‘ideology has no history’), it is radically different from the reflective experience positivist and historicist thesis of auto biographical The German Ideology. For on the one hand, I think it is job application, possible to hold that ideolog ies have a history of their own (although it is determined in the last instance by the class struggle); and on the other, I think it is possible to hold that ideology in general has no history , not in a negative sense (its history is external to it), but in an absolutely positive sense. This sense is a positive one if it is true that the peculiarity of auto essay ideology is that it is endowed with a structure and the secret essay a functioning such as to biographical essay make it a non-historical reality, i.e. an omni-historical reality, in the sense in which that structure and functioning are immutable, present in essays for mba, the same form throughout what we can call history, in the sense in which the Communist Manifesto defines history as the history of biographical essay class struggles, i.e. the history of for event with no experience class societies. To give a theoretical reference-point here, I might say that, to return to our example of the dream, in its Freudian conception this time, our proposition: ideology has no history, can and must (and in a way which has absolutely nothing arbitrary about it, but, quite the reverse, is theoretically necessary, for there is an auto biographical essay organic link between the two propositions) be related directly to Freud’s proposition that the unconscious is eternal , i.e. that it has no history.

If eternal means, not transcendent to all (temporal) history, but omnipresent, trans-historical and therefore immutable in form throughout the extent of history, I shall adopt Freud’s expression word for word, and write ideology is eternal , exactly like the unconscious. And I add that I find this comparison theoretically justified by the fact that the eternity of the unconscious is not unrelated to the eternity of ideology in general. That is for mba school, why I believe I am justified, hypothetically at least, in proposing a theory of ideology in auto biographical essay, general , in the sense that Freud presented a theory of the unconscious in general. To simplify the phrase, it is convenient, taking into account what has been said about ideologies, to use the plain term ideology to children and tv violence essay designate ideology in general, which I have just said has no history, or, what comes to the same thing, is eternal, i.e. omnipresent in auto, its immutable form throughout history (= the history of social formations containing social classes). For the moment I shall restrict myself to ‘class societies’ and their history. Ideology is a ‘Representation’ of the Imaginary Relationship of Individuals to their Real Conditions of Existence. In order to approach my central thesis on the structure and functioning of ideology, I shall first present two theses, one negative, the other positive.

The first concerns the object which is ‘represented’ in the imaginary form of ideology, the second concerns the materiality of ideology. Thesis I. Ideology represents the imaginary relationship of individuals to cover letter coordinator with their real conditions of existence. We commonly call religious ideology, ethical ideology, legal ideology, political ideology, etc., so many ‘world outlooks’. Of course, assuming that we do not live one of these ideologies as the truth (e.g. ‘believe’ in God, Duty, Justice, etc. ), we admit that the ideology we are discussing from a critical point of biographical essay view, examining it as the ethnologist examines the myths of a ‘primitive society’, that these ‘world outlooks’ are largely imaginary, i.e. do not ‘correspond to reality’. However, while admitting that they do not correspond to reality, i.e. that they constitute an illusion, we admit that they do make allusion to reality, and that they need only be ‘interpreted’ to discover the violence reality of the world behind their imaginary representation of that world (ideology = illusion/allusion ). There are different types of interpretation, the auto most famous of which are the mechanistic type, current in the eighteenth century (God is the imaginary representation of the real King), and the ‘ hermeneutic ‘ interpretation, inaugurated by for mba, the earliest Church Fathers, and revived by Feuerbach and the theologico-philosophical school which descends from him, e.g. the theologian Barth (to Feuerbach, for biographical, example, God is the essence of real Man). The essential point is that on condition that we interpret the outline imaginary transposition (and inversion) of ideology we arrive at the conclusion that in ideology ‘men represent their real conditions of existence to themselves in an imaginary form’. Unfortunately, this interpretation leaves one small problem unsettled: why do men ‘need’ this imaginary transposition of their real conditions of existence in order to ‘represent to themselves’ their real conditions of existence? The first answer (that of the auto essay eighteenth century) proposes a simple solution: Priests or Despots are responsible.

They ‘forged’ the Beautiful Lies so that, in the belief that they were obeying God, men would in fact obey the Priests and Despots, who are usually in alliance in their imposture, the Priests acting in the interests of the cover coordinator with no experience Despots or vice versa , according to the political positions of the ‘theoreticians’ concerned. There is therefore a cause for the imaginary transposition of the real conditions of existence: that cause is the existence of a small number of cynical men who base their domination and exploitation of the ‘people’ on a falsified representation of the auto world which they have imagined in order to enslave other minds by dominating their imaginations. The second answer (that of children and tv violence essay Feuerbach, taken over word for word by Marx in his Early Works) is more ‘profound’, i.e. Auto Biographical? just as false. It, too, seeks and finds a cause for the imaginary transposition and distortion of men’s real conditions of existence, in short, for the alienation in children violence essay, the imaginary of the representation of men’s conditions of existence. This cause is no longer Priests or Despots, nor their active imagination and the passive imagination of their victims. This cause is the material alienation which reigns in the conditions of existence of men themselves. This is how, in The Jewish Question and elsewhere, Marx defends the Feuerbachian idea that men make themselves an alienated (= imaginary) representation of their conditions of existence because these conditions of existence are themselves alienating (in the 1844 Manuscripts : because these conditions are dominated by the essence of alienated society – ‘ alienated labour ’). All these interpretations thus take literally the thesis which they presuppose, and on essay which they depend, i.e. that what is reflected in the imaginary representation of the world found in an ideology is the essay on internship conditions of existence of men, i.e. Auto? their real world. Now I can return to a thesis which I have already advanced: it is not their real conditions of and tv existence, their real world, that ‘men’ ‘represent to themselves’ in auto essay, ideology, but above all it is their relation to those conditions of existence which is represented to them there. It is this relation which is at the centre of every ideological, i.e. For Mba School? imaginary, representation of the real world. It is this relation that contains the ‘cause’ which has to auto biographical essay explain the imaginary distortion of the ideological representation of the essays real world.

Or rather, to leave aside the language of causality it is necessary to auto biographical advance the thesis that it is the coordinator imaginary nature of this relation which underlies all the imaginary distortion that we can observe (if we do not live in its truth) in all ideology. To speak in a Marxist language, if it is true that the representation of the real conditions of existence of the individuals occupying the posts of agents of production, exploitation, repression, ideologization and scientific practice, does in auto, the last analysis arise from the relations of production, and cover for event no experience from relations deriving from the relations of essay production, we can say the following: all ideology represents in its necessarily imaginary distortion not the violence existing relations of production (and the other relations that derive from them), but above all the (imaginary) relationship of individuals to auto biographical essay the relations of production and the relations that derive from them. What is represented in ideology is therefore not the system of the real relations which govern the existence of individuals, but the imaginary relation of those individuals to the real relations in which they live. If this is the case, the question of the ‘cause’ of the imaginary distortion of the real relations in ideology disappears and must be replaced by for event coordinator, a different question: why is the representation given to individuals of their (individual) relation to auto essay the social relations which govern their conditions of job application essay existence and essay their collective and individual life necessarily an imaginary relation? And what is the reflective essay nature of this imaginariness? Posed in this way, the question explodes the solution by a ‘clique’ [14] , by a group of individuals (Priests or Despots) who are the authors of the great ideological mystification, just as it explodes the solution by the alienated character of the real world.

We shall see why later in my exposition. For the moment I shall go no further. Thesis II: Ideology has a material existence. I have already touched on this thesis by saying that the ‘ideas’ or ‘representations’, etc., which seem to make up ideology do not have an ideal ( idale or idelle ) or spiritual existence, but a material existence. I even suggested that the ideal ( idale , idelle ) and spiritual existence of ‘ideas’ arises exclusively in an ideology of the biographical ‘idea’ and of ideology, and let me add, in an ideology of what seems to in a have ‘founded’ this conception since the emergence of the auto biographical sciences, i.e. what the practicians of the sciences represent to themselves in their spontaneous ideology as ‘ideas’, true or false. Of course, presented in affirmative form, this thesis is unproven. I simply ask that the reader be favourably disposed towards it, say, in the name of materialism. A long series of arguments would be necessary to prove it. This hypothetical thesis of the not spiritual but material existence of ‘ideas’ or other ‘representations’ is children and tv, indeed necessary if we are to advance in our analysis of the nature of auto ideology. Or rather, it is merely useful to us in letter for event, order the better to reveal what every at all serious analysis of any ideology will immediately and empirically show to every observer, however critical.

While discussing the auto biographical essay Ideological State Apparatuses and their practices, I said that each of them was the realization of an ideology (the unity of these different regional ideologies – religious, ethical, legal, political, aesthetic, etc. Children And Tv? – being assured by their subjection to the ruling ideology). I now return to biographical this thesis: an ideology always exists in the secret essay, an apparatus, and its practice, or practices. This existence is material. Of course, the material existence of the ideology in an apparatus and its practices does not have the same modality as the material existence of a paving-stone or a rifle. But, at the risk of being taken for a Neo-Aristotelian (NB Marx had a very high regard for Aristotle), I shall say that ‘matter is discussed in many senses’, or rather that it exists in different modalities, all rooted in the last instance in ‘physical’ matter. Having said this, let me move straight on and see what happens to the ‘individuals’ who live in auto essay, ideology, i.e. in a determinate (religious, ethical, etc.) representation of the dissertation in a week world whose imaginary distortion depends on their imaginary relation to their conditions of existence, in other words, in biographical, the last instance, to the relations of production and to class relations (ideology = an imaginary relation to real relations). I shall say that this imaginary relation is itself endowed with a material existence.

Now I observe the finish dissertation in a week following. An individual believes in essay, God, or Duty, or Justice, etc. This belief derives (for everyone, i.e. for all those who live in an ideological representation of ideology, which reduces ideology to ideas endowed by definition with a spiritual existence) from the ideas of the individual concerned, i.e. from him as a subject with a consciousness which contains the reflective essay on internship experience ideas of his belief. In this way, i.e. by biographical essay, means of the absolutely ideological ‘conceptual’ device ( dispositif ) thus set up (a subject endowed with a consciousness in which he freely forms or freely recognizes ideas in which he believes), the (material) attitude of the scripture essay subject concerned naturally follows. The individual in question behaves in biographical essay, such and such a way, adopts such and such a practical attitude, and, what is more, participates in scripture essay, certain regular practices which are those of the ideological apparatus on which ‘depend’ the ideas which he has in all consciousness freely chosen as a subject. If he believes in God, he goes to biographical Church to attend Mass, kneels, prays, confesses, does penance (once it was material in essay on internship, the ordinary sense of the term) and naturally repents and so on. If he believes in Duty, he will have the corresponding attitudes, inscribed in ritual practices ‘according to auto the correct principles’. If he believes in cover for event with, Justice, he will submit unconditionally to the rules of the biographical Law, and may even protest when they are violated, sign petitions, take part in a demonstration, etc. Throughout this schema we observe that the ideological representation of ideology is finish in a week, itself forced to recognize that every ‘subject’ endowed with a ‘consciousness’ and believing in the ‘ideas’ that his ‘consciousness’ inspires in him and freely accepts, must ‘ act according to his ideas’, must therefore inscribe his own ideas as a free subject in the actions of his material practice.

If he does not do so, ‘that is wicked’. Indeed, if he does not do what he ought to do as a function of what he believes, it is because he does something else, which, still as a function of the same idealist scheme, implies that he has other ideas in his head as well as those he proclaims, and that he acts according to these other ideas, as a man who is either ‘inconsistent’ (‘no one is willingly evil’) or cynical, or perverse. In every case, the ideology of ideology thus recognizes, despite its imaginary distortion, that the ‘ideas’ of auto biographical a human subject exist in his actions, or ought to exist in his actions, and if that is not the case, it lends him other ideas corresponding to the actions (however perverse) that he does perform. This ideology talks of actions: I shall talk of finish dissertation week actions inserted into practices. And I shall point out that these practices are governed by the rituals in which these practices are inscribed, within the biographical material existence of an ideological apparatus , be it only job application essay, a small part of that apparatus: a small mass in a small church, a funeral, a minor match at a sports’ club, a school day, a political party meeting, etc. Besides, we are indebted to Pascal’s defensive ‘dialectic’ for the wonderful formula which will enable us to invert the order of the auto notional schema of ideology. Pascal says more or less: ‘Kneel down, move your lips in prayer, and you will believe.’ He thus scandalously inverts the order of things, bringing, like Christ, not peace but strife, and in addition something hardly Christian (for woe to the secret scripture essay him who brings scandal into the world!) – scandal itself.

A fortunate scandal which makes him stick with Jansenist defiance to a language that directly names the reality. I will be allowed to leave Pascal to the arguments of his ideological struggle with the religious Ideological State Apparatus of his day. And I shall be expected to use a more directly Marxist vocabulary, if that is possible, for we are advancing in still poorly explored domains. I shall therefore say that, where only a single subject (such and such an biographical essay individual) is concerned, the existence of the ideas of his belief is material in that his ideas are his material actions inserted into the secret scripture, material practices governed by material rituals which are themselves defined by the material ideological apparatus from auto biographical essay which derive the job application essay ideas of biographical that subject. Naturally, the four inscriptions of the adjective ‘material’ in my proposition must be affected by different modalities: the essays materialities of a displacement for going to mass, of kneeling down, of the gesture of the sign of the cross, or of the mea culpa , of a sentence, of a prayer, of an act of contrition, of a penitence, of a gaze, of a hand-shake, of an external verbal discourse or an ‘internal’ verbal discourse (consciousness), are not one and the same materiality. I shall leave on one side the problem of a theory of the differences between the biographical essay modalities of materiality. It remains that in this inverted presentation of things, we are not dealing with an ‘inversion’ at all, since it is clear that certain notions have purely and simply disappeared from our presentation, whereas others on cover with the contrary survive, and new terms appear. Disappeared: the term ideas. Survive: the terms subject , consciousness , belief , actions.

Appear: the terms practices , rituals , ideological apparatus. It is therefore not an inversion or overturning (except in biographical, the sense in which one might say a government or a glass is overturned), but a reshuffle (of a non-ministerial type), a rather strange reshuffle, since we obtain the following result. Ideas have disappeared as such (insofar as they are endowed with an ideal or spiritual existence), to the precise extent that it has emerged that their existence is inscribed in the actions of practices governed by rituals defined in the last instance by an ideological apparatus. It therefore appears that the subject acts insofar as he is acted by the following system (set out in children and tv essay, the order of its real determination): ideology existing in a material ideological apparatus, prescribing material practices governed by a material ritual, which practices exist in the material actions of a subject acting in auto biographical essay, all consciousness according to his belief. But this very presentation reveals that we have retained the following notions: subject, consciousness, belief, actions. Essays School? From this series I shall immediately extract the biographical essay decisive central term on which everything else depends: the notion of the subject. And I shall immediately set down two conjoint theses: 1. there is no practice except by and in an ideology; 2. there is no ideology except by the subject and for subjects. I can now come to cover with no experience my central thesis. Ideology Interpellates Individuals as Subjects.

This thesis is simply a matter of making my last proposition explicit: there is no ideology except by the subject and for auto biographical essay, subjects. Meaning, there is no ideology except for concrete subjects, and this destination for ideology is only made possible by the subject: meaning, by the category of the subject and its functioning. By this I mean that, even if it only scripture, appears under this name (the subject) with the rise of biographical essay bourgeois ideology, above all with the rise of scripture legal ideology, [15] the category of the subject (which may function under other names: e.g., as the biographical soul in Plato, as God, etc.) is the constitutive category of all ideology, whatever its determination (regional or class) and cover whatever its historical date – since ideology has no history. I say: the category of the subject is constitutive of all ideology, but at the same time and immediately I add that the category of the subject is only constitutive of all ideology insofar as all ideology has the auto biographical essay function ( which defines it ) of scripture essay ‘ constituting ‘ concrete individuals as subjects. In the interaction of this double constitution exists the functioning of all ideology, ideology being nothing but its functioning in the material forms of existence of that functioning. In order to grasp what follows, it is essential to realize that both he who is auto, writing these lines and the reader who reads them are themselves subjects, and children violence therefore ideological subjects (a tautological proposition), i.e. Essay? that the author and the reader of these lines both live ‘spontaneously’ or ‘naturally’ in ideology in the sense in which I have said that ‘man is an ideological animal by violence essay, nature’.

That the auto author, insofar as he writes the essay lines of a discourse which claims to be scientific, is essay, completely absent as a ‘subject’ from ‘his’ scientific discourse (for all scientific discourse is by definition a subject-less discourse, there is no ‘Subject of cover letter for event coordinator science’ except in an ideology of science) is a different question which I shall leave on one side for the moment. As St Paul admirably put it, it is in the ‘Logos’, meaning in biographical essay, ideology, that we ‘live, move and have our being’. It follows that, for you and for me, the category of the subject is a primary ‘obviousness’ (obviousnesses are always primary): it is clear that you and reflective I are subjects (free, ethical, etc. ). Like all obviousnesses, including those that make a word ‘name a thing’ or ‘have a meaning’ (therefore including the obviousness of the ‘transparency’ of language), the ‘obviousness’ that you and I are subjects – and that that does not cause any problems – is an ideological effect, the elementary ideological effect. [16] It is indeed a peculiarity of ideology that it imposes (without appearing to do so, since these are ‘obviousnesses’) obviousnesses as obviousnesses, which we cannot fail to recognize and before which we have the inevitable and essay natural reaction of crying out for mba school (aloud or in the ‘still, small voice of conscience’): ‘That’s obvious! That’s right! That’s true!’ At work in this reaction is the ideological recognition function which is one of the two functions of auto essay ideology as such (its inverse being the function of misrecognition – mconnaissance ). To take a highly ‘concrete’ example, we all have friends who, when they knock on our door and we ask, through the door, the question ‘Who’s there?’, answer (since ‘it’s obvious’) ‘It’s me’. And we recognize that ‘it is him’, or ‘her’. We open the door, and ‘it’s true, it really was she who was there’.

To take another example, when we recognize somebody of our (previous) acquaintance ( (re) - connaissance ) in the street, we show him that we have recognized him (and have recognized that he has recognized us) by saying to him ‘Hello, my friend’, and shaking his hand (a material ritual practice of ideological recognition in everyday life – in France, at least; elsewhere, there are other rituals). In this preliminary remark and these concrete illustrations, I only wish to point out that you and I are always already subjects, and as such constantly practice the rituals of ideological recognition, which guarantee for us that we are indeed concrete, individual, distinguishable and (naturally) irreplaceable subjects. The writing I am currently executing and the reading you are currently [17] performing are also in this respect rituals of ideological recognition, including the ‘obviousness’ with which the ‘truth’ or ‘error’ of my reflections may impose itself on you. But to recognize that we are subjects and that we function in the practical rituals of the most elementary everyday life (the hand-shake, the fact of calling you by your name, the fact of knowing, even if I do not know what it is, that you ‘have’ a name of cover for event no experience your own, which means that you are recognized as a unique subject, etc.) – this recognition only gives us the ‘consciousness’ of our incessant (eternal) practice of ideological recognition – its consciousness, i.e. Auto Biographical? its recognition – but in no sense does it give us the (scientific) knowledge of the mechanism of this recognition. Now it is this knowledge that we have to reach, if you will, while speaking in ideology, and from within ideology we have to cover letter coordinator outline a discourse which tries to break with ideology, in order to dare to auto essay be the beginning of a scientific (i.e. subject-less) discourse on ideology. Thus in order to cover letter for event coordinator with no experience represent why the auto biographical category of the ‘subject’ is constitutive of cover ideology, which only auto biographical essay, exists by constituting concrete subjects as subjects, I shall employ a special mode of exposition: ‘concrete’ enough to be recognized, but abstract enough to be thinkable and thought, giving rise to finish dissertation a knowledge. As a first formulation I shall say: all ideology hails or interpellates concrete individuals as concrete subjects , by the functioning of the category of the subject. This is a proposition which entails that we distinguish for the moment between concrete individuals on the one hand and concrete subjects on the other, although at this level concrete subjects only exist insofar as they are supported by a concrete individual. I shall then suggest that ideology ‘acts’ or ‘functions’ in such a way that it ‘recruits’ subjects among the auto biographical essay individuals (it recruits them all), or ‘transforms’ the individuals into subjects (it transforms them all) by that very precise operation which I have called interpellation or hailing, and which can be imagined along the lines of the most commonplace everyday police (or other) hailing: ‘Hey, you there!’ [18] Assuming that the theoretical scene I have imagined takes place in the street, the children essay hailed individual will turn round. By this mere one-hundred-and-eighty-degree physical conversion, he becomes a subject.

Why? Because he has recognized that the hail was ‘really’ addressed to him, and that ‘it was really him who was hailed’ (and not someone else). Experience shows that the biographical practical telecommunication of hailings is such that they hardly ever miss their man: verbal call or whistle, the one hailed always recognizes that it is for mba, really him who is being hailed. And yet it is a strange phenomenon, and one which cannot be explained solely by biographical essay, ‘guilt feelings’, despite the large numbers who ‘have something on essay their consciences’. Naturally for the convenience and auto clarity of my little theoretical theatre I have had to job application outline present things in the form of a sequence, with a before and an after, and thus in the form of a temporal succession. There are individuals walking along. Somewhere (usually behind them) the auto biographical hail rings out: ‘Hey, you there!’ One individual (nine times out of ten it is the right one) turns round, believing/suspecting/knowing that it is for him, i.e. recognizing that ‘it really is he’ who is meant by the hailing. But in reality these things happen without any succession. Essay Outline? The existence of ideology and biographical essay the hailing or interpellation of individuals as subjects are one and letter with the same thing. I might add: what thus seems to take place outside ideology (to be precise, in the street), in auto, reality takes place in ideology.

What really takes place in ideology seems therefore to take place outside it. For Mba School? That is why those who are in auto essay, ideology believe themselves by definition outside ideology: one of the effects of ideology is the practical denegation of the ideological character of ideology by essay experience, ideology: ideology never says, ‘I am ideological’. It is necessary to be outside ideology, i.e. in scientific knowledge, to be able to say: I am in auto biographical, ideology (a quite exceptional case) or (the general case): I was in ideology. As is well known, the accusation of being in ideology only applies to others, never to oneself (unless one is really a Spinozist or a Marxist, which, in for mba school, this matter, is to be exactly the same thing). Auto Biographical? Which amounts to saying that ideology has no outside (for itself), but at the same time that it is nothing but outside (for science and reality). Spinoza explained this completely two centuries before Marx, who practised it but without explaining it in detail. But let us leave this point, although it is heavy with consequences, consequences which are not just theoretical, but also directly political, since, for example, the whole theory of criticism and essay outline self-criticism, the golden rule of the Marxist-Leninist practice of the class struggle, depends on it. Thus ideology hails or interpellates individuals as subjects. As ideology is biographical essay, eternal, I must now suppress the finish dissertation in a week temporal form in which I have presented the functioning of ideology, and say: ideology has always-already interpellated individuals as subjects, which amounts to making it clear that individuals are always-already interpellated by auto, ideology as subjects, which necessarily leads us to one last proposition: individuals are always-already subjects. Hence individuals are ‘abstract’ with respect to the subjects which they always already are.

This proposition might seem paradoxical. That an individual is always-already a subject, even before he is born, is nevertheless the plain reality, accessible to everyone and not a paradox at all. Freud shows that individuals are always ‘abstract’ with respect to the subjects they always-already are, simply by letter for event, noting the ideological ritual that surrounds the auto expectation of essays a ‘birth’, that ‘happy event’. Everyone knows how much and in auto, what way an children and tv unborn child is expected. Which amounts to saying, very prosaically, if we agree to drop the ‘sentiments’, i.e. the forms of family ideology (paternal/maternal conjugal/fraternal) in which the unborn child is expected: it is auto essay, certain in advance that it will bear its Father’s Name, and cover letter for event no experience will therefore have an biographical identity and be irreplaceable. Before its birth, the finish week child is therefore always-already a subject, appointed as a subject in and by the specific familial ideological configuration in which it is ‘expected’ once it has been conceived.

I hardly need add that this familial ideological configuration is, in auto biographical essay, its uniqueness, highly structured, and that it is in this implacable and more or less ‘pathological’ (presupposing that any meaning can be assigned to that term) structure that the former subject to-be will have to ‘find’ ‘its’ place, i.e. ‘become’ the sexual subject (boy or girl) which it already is in advance. It is the secret, clear that this ideological constraint and biographical pre-appointment, and all the rituals of rearing and then education in the family, have some relationship with what Freud studied in the forms of the pre-genital and essay genital ‘stages’ of essay sexuality, i.e. in the ‘grip’ of what Freud registered by its effects as being the unconscious. But let us leave this point, too, on one side. Let me go one step further. Reflective Essay Experience? What I shall now turn my attention to is the way the ‘actors’ in this mise en scne [setting] of interpellation, and their respective roles, are reflected in the very structure of all ideology. An Example: The Christian Religious Ideology. As the formal structure of all ideology is always the same, I shall restrict my analysis to a single example, one accessible to everyone, that of religious ideology, with the proviso that the same demonstration can be produced for ethical, legal, political, aesthetic ideology, etc.

Let us therefore consider the Christian religious ideology. I shall use a rhetorical figure and ‘make it speak’, i.e. Auto? collect into a fictional discourse what it ‘says’ not only in essays school, its two Testaments, its Theologians, Sermons, but also in its practices, its rituals, its ceremonies and its sacraments. The Christian religious ideology says something like this: It says: I address myself to you, a human individual called Peter (every individual is auto, called by his name, in the passive sense, it is never he who provides his own name), in order to tell you that God exists and that you are answer able to reflective on internship experience Him. It adds: God addresses himself to you through my voice (Scripture having collected the Word of God, Tradition having transmitted it, Papal Infallibility fixing it for ever on auto ‘nice’ points). It says: this is who you are: you are Peter!

This is your origin, you were created by God for all eternity, although you were born in the 1920th year of Our Lord! This is your place in the world! This is what you must do! By these means, if you observe the ‘law of love’ you will be saved, you, Peter, and will become part of the Glorious Body of Christ! Etc. Now this is quite a familiar and banal discourse, but at the same time quite a surprising one. Surprising because if we consider that religious ideology is indeed addressed to individuals, [19] in order to ‘transform them into subjects’, by essay, interpellating the individual, Peter, in order to make him a subject, free to obey or disobey the auto essay appeal, i.e. Cover Letter? God’s commandments; if it calls these individuals by their names, thus recognizing that they are always-already interpellated as subjects with a personal identity (to the extent that Pascal’s Christ says: ‘It is for you that I have shed this drop of my blood!’); if it interpellates them in auto, such a way that the subject responds: ‘ Yes , it really is me! ’ if it obtains from them the recognition that they really do occupy the place it designates for dissertation week, them as theirs in essay, the world, a fixed residence: ‘It really is me, I am here, a worker, a boss or a soldier!’ in essays for mba, this vale of tears; if it obtains from them the recognition of a destination (eternal life or damnation) according to biographical essay the respect or contempt they show to ‘God’s Commandments’, Law become Love; – if everything does happen in this way (in the practices of the well-known rituals of baptism, confirmation, communion, confession and extreme unction, etc. In A? . ), we should note that all this ‘procedure’ to set up Christian religious subjects is dominated by a strange phenomenon: the fact that there can only be such a multitude of possible religious subjects on the absolute condition that there is auto essay, a Unique, Absolute, Other Subject , i.e.

God. It is convenient to designate this new and remarkable Subject by writing Subject with a capital S to distinguish it from essays for mba ordinary subjects, with a small s. It then emerges that the interpellation of individuals as subjects presupposes the ‘existence’ of a Unique and central Other Subject, in whose Name the religious ideology interpellates all individuals as subjects. All this is clearly [20] written in what is auto essay, rightly called the Scriptures. ‘And it came to pass at dissertation in a week that time that God the auto biographical essay Lord (Yahweh) spoke to Moses in the cloud. And the Lord cried to scripture Moses, “Moses!” And Moses replied “It is (really) I! I am Moses thy servant, speak and I shall listen!” And the biographical essay Lord spoke to on internship experience Moses and said to him, “ I am that I am ’. God thus defines himself as the Subject par excellence , he who is auto biographical essay, through himself and for himself (‘I am that I am’), and essay on internship experience he who interpellates his subject, the individual subjected to him by his very interpellation, i.e. the individual named Moses. And Moses, interpellated-called by his Name, having recognized that it ‘really’ was he who was called by God, recognizes that he is a subject, a subject of God, a subject subjected to God, a subject through the Subject and subjected to the Subject. The proof: he obeys him, and makes his people obey God’s Commandments. God is thus the Subject, and Moses and essay the innumerable subjects of God’s people, the Subject’s interlocutors-interpellates: his mirrors , his reflections. Essay? Were not men made in the image of God?

As all theological reflection proves, whereas He ‘could’ perfectly well have done without men, God needs them, the Subject needs the subjects, just as men need God, the biographical subjects need the Subject. Better: God needs men, the great Subject needs subjects, even in the terrible inversion of his image in them (when the subjects wallow in debauchery, i.e. sin). Better: God duplicates himself and sends his Son to the Earth, as a mere subject ‘forsaken’ by finish in a, him (the long complaint of the Garden of Olives which ends in the Crucifixion), subject but Subject, man but God, to do what prepares the way for the final Redemption, the Resurrection of Christ. God thus needs to ‘make himself’ a man, the Subject needs to become a subject, as if to show empirically, visibly to the eye, tangibly to biographical essay the hands (see St. Job Application Essay? Thomas) of the subjects, that, if they are subjects, subjected to biographical essay the Subject, that is solely in order that finally, on Judgement Day, they will re-enter the Lord’s Bosom, like Christ, i.e. Essays For Mba School? re-enter the auto essay Subject. Letter Coordinator With No Experience? [21] Let us decipher into theoretical language this wonderful necessity for the duplication of the Subject into subjects and of the Subject itself into a subject-Subject. We observe that the structure of all ideology, interpellating individuals as subjects in the name of auto a Unique and Absolute Subject is speculary , i.e. a mirror-structure, and doubly speculary: this mirror duplication is constitutive of ideology and ensures its functioning. Which means that all ideology is centred , that the Absolute Subject occupies the unique place of the Centre, and interpellates around it the infinity of individuals into subjects in a double mirror-connexion such that it subjects the subjects to the Subject, while giving them in the Subject in which each subject can contemplate its own image (present and future) the guarantee that this really concerns them and Him, and that since everything takes place in the Family (the Holy Family: the Family is in essence Holy), ‘God will recognize his own in it’, i.e. those who have recognized God, and have recognized themselves in Him, will be saved.

Let me summarize what we have discovered about ideology in general. The duplicate mirror-structure of on internship ideology ensures simultaneously: 1. the interpellation of essay ‘individuals’ as subjects; 2. And Tv Essay? their subjection to the Subject; 3. the mutual recognition of subjects and Subject, the subjects’ recognition of each other, and biographical finally the subject’s recognition of himself; [22]

4. the finish absolute guarantee that everything really is so, and auto biographical essay that on condition that the subjects recognize what they are and behave accordingly, everything will be all right: Amen – ‘ So be it ’. Result: caught in this quadruple system of interpellation as subjects, of subjection to the Subject, of universal recognition and in a week of absolute guarantee, the subjects ‘work’, they ‘work by themselves’ in the vast majority of cases, with the exception of the ‘bad subjects’ who on occasion provoke the intervention of one of the detachments of the (Repressive) State Apparatus. But the vast majority of (good) subjects work all right ‘all by themselves’, i.e. by ideology (whose concrete forms are realized in the Ideological State Apparatuses). They are inserted into practices governed by the rituals of the ISAs. They ‘recognize’ the auto existing state of affairs ( das Bestehende ), that ‘it really is true that it is so and not otherwise’, and that they must be obedient to God, to their conscience, to the priest, to de Gaulle, to the boss, to children and tv violence essay the engineer, that thou shalt ‘love thy neighbour as thyself’, etc. Essay? Their concrete, material behaviour is simply the inscription in life of the admirable words of the prayer: ‘ Amen – So be it ’. Yes, the finish dissertation subjects ‘work by themselves’. The whole mystery of this effect lies in the first two moments of the auto quadruple system I have just discussed, or, if you prefer, in the ambiguity of the term subject.

In the ordinary use of the term, subject in fact means: (1) a free subjectivity, a centre of initiatives, author of and responsible for its actions; (2) a subjected being, who submits to a higher authority, and is therefore stripped of all freedom except that of freely accepting his submission. Job Application Essay? This last note gives us the meaning of this ambiguity, which is merely a reflection of the auto essay effect which produces it: the essay individual is interpellated as a ( free) subject in order that he shall submit freely to auto essay the commandments of the Subject , i.e. in order that he shall ( freely) accept his subjection , i.e. in order that he shall make the gestures and reflective on internship actions of his subjection ‘all by himself’. There are no subjects except by and for their subjection. That is auto biographical essay, why they ‘work all by themselves’. ‘ So be it! . ’ This phrase which registers the effect to be obtained proves that it is not ‘naturally’ so (‘naturally’: outside the prayer, i.e. outside the ideological intervention). This phrase proves that it has to be so if things are to be what they must be, and let us let the words slip: if the reproduction of the relations of production is to be assured, even in the processes of production and circulation, every day, in the ‘consciousness’, i.e. in the attitudes of the for event coordinator with individual-subjects occupying the posts which the socio-technical division of labour assigns to them in production, exploitation, repression, ideologization, scientific practice, etc. Indeed, what is really in question in auto essay, this mechanism of the mirror recognition of the Subject and of the reflective essay experience individuals interpellated as subjects, and of the guarantee given by essay, the Subject to the subjects if they freely accept their subjection to the Subject’s ‘commandments’? The reality in question in this mechanism, the reality which is necessarily ignored ( mconnue ) in the very forms of recognition (ideology = misrecognition/ignorance) is job application essay, indeed, in the last resort, the reproduction of the relations of production and of the relations deriving from them.

P.S. If these few schematic theses allow me to illuminate certain aspects of the functioning of the Superstructure and its mode of intervention in the Infrastructure, they are obviously abstract and necessarily leave several important problems unanswered, which should be mentioned: 1. The problem of the total process of the realization of the reproduction of the relations of essay production. As an element of this process, the ISAs contribute to this reproduction. But the point of view of their contribution alone is still an abstract one. It is only within the processes of production and children violence circulation that this reproduction is realized. It is realized by the mechanisms of those processes, in biographical essay, which the training of the workers is finish dissertation in a, ‘completed’, their posts assigned them, etc.

It is in the internal mechanisms of these processes that the auto biographical essay effect of the different ideologies is felt (above all the effect of legal-ethical ideology). But this point of view is still an letter for event coordinator abstract one. For in a class society the relations of production are relations of exploitation, and therefore relations between antagonistic classes. The reproduction of the relations of production, the ultimate aim of the ruling class, cannot therefore be a merely technical operation training and distributing individuals for the different posts in the ‘technical division’ of labour. In fact there is no ‘technical division’ of labour except in the ideology of the ruling class: every ‘technical’ division, every ‘technical’ organization of auto biographical essay labour is the form and mask of a social (= class) division and organization of labour. The reproduction of the relations of production can therefore only be a class undertaking. It is essays for mba, realized through a class struggle which counterposes the auto ruling class and the exploited class. The total process of the realization of the reproduction of the relations of essays for mba school production is therefore still abstract, insofar as it has not adopted the point of view of this class struggle. To adopt the point of view of reproduction is auto essay, therefore in the last instance, to finish dissertation in a week adopt the point of view of the class struggle. 2. The problem of the class nature of the ideolog ies existing in biographical essay, a social formation.

The ‘mechanism’ of ideology in general is one thing. We have seen that it can be reduced to a few principles expressed in a few words (as ‘poor’ as those which, according to Marx, define production in general , or in Freud, define the unconscious in general ). If there is letter coordinator with, any truth in it, this mechanism must be abstract with respect to every real ideological formation. I have suggested that the ideologies were realized in auto essay, institutions, in their rituals and job application their practices, in the ISAs. We have seen that on auto biographical essay this basis they contribute to that form of class struggle, vital for the ruling class, the reproduction of the relations of cover no experience production. But the auto biographical essay point of essays school view itself however real, is still an abstract one. In fact, the State and its Apparatuses only have meaning from the essay point of view of the class struggle, as an finish dissertation apparatus of class struggle ensuring class oppression and guaranteeing the conditions of exploitation and its reproduction. But there is no class struggle without antagonistic classes. Whoever says class struggle of the ruling class says resistance, revolt and class struggle of the ruled class. That is why the ISAs are not the realization of ideology in essay, general , nor even the conflict-free realization of the ideology of the ruling class. The ideology of the finish week ruling class does not become the auto essay ruling ideology by the grace of God, nor even by virtue of the reflective on internship seizure of State power alone. It is by the installation of the ISAs in which this ideology is realized and realizes itself that it becomes the ruling ideology.

But this installation is not achieved all by auto biographical essay, itself; on the contrary, it is the stake in a very bitter and continuous class struggle: first against the former ruling classes and outline their positions in the old and auto new ISAs, then against the exploited class. But this point of view of the class struggle in the ISAs is still an abstract one. In fact, the class struggle in the ISAs is indeed an aspect of the class struggle, sometimes an violence essay important and symptomatic one: e.g. the anti-religious struggle in the eighteenth century, or the ‘crisis’ of the educational ISA in every capitalist country today. But the class struggles in the ISAs is only one aspect of a class struggle which goes beyond the auto ISAs. The ideology that a class in power makes the ruling ideology in its ISAs is indeed ‘realized’ in those ISAs, but it goes beyond them, for it comes from elsewhere. Similarly, the ideology that a ruled class manages to defend in reflective essay experience, and against such ISAs goes beyond them, for it comes from elsewhere. It is only from the point of auto essay view of the classes, i.e. The Secret? of the class struggle, that it is possible to explain the ideolog ies existing in a social formation. Not only is it from this starting-point that it is possible to explain the biographical essay realization of the ruling ideology in the ISAs and of the forms of class struggle for children and tv, which the ISAs are the seat and the stake. But it is also and above all from this starting-point that it is possible to understand the provenance of the essay ideologies which are realized in the ISAs and confront one another there. For if it is letter for event coordinator, true that the auto essay ISAs represent the essays school form in which the ideology of the ruling class must necessarily be realized, and the form in which the ideology of the auto essay ruled class must necessarily be measured and and tv essay confronted, ideologies are not ‘born’ in auto, the ISAs but from the social classes at grips in the class struggle: from their conditions of school existence, their practices, their experience of the struggle, etc. 1. This text is biographical essay, made up of two extracts from an ongoing study.

The sub-title ‘Notes towards an Investigation’ is the author’s own. The ideas expounded should not be regarded as more than the introduction to a discussion. 2. Marx to for event with no experience Kugelmann, 11 July 1868, Selected Correspondence, Moscow, 1955, p. 209. 3. Marx gave it its scientific concept: variable capital. 4. Essay? In For Marx and Reading Capital , 1965 (English editions 1969 and 1970 respectively). 5. The Secret? Topography from the Greek topos: place. A topography represents in a definite space the auto respective sites occupied by several realities: thus the economic is at the bottom (the base), the superstructure above it. 6. See p. 158 below, On Ideology. 7. To my knowledge, Gramsci is the only one who went any distance in the road I am taking. He had the ‘remarkable’ idea that the State could not be reduced to the (Repressive) State Apparatus, but included, as he put it, a certain number of institutions from ‘ civil society ’: the Church, the Schools, the trade unions, etc.

Unfortunately, Gramsci did not systematize his institutions, which remained in the state of acute but fragmentary notes (cf. Gramsci, Selections from the on internship experience Prison Notebooks , International Publishers, 1971, pp. 12, 259, 260-3; see also the letter to Tatiana Schucht, 7 September 1931, in Lettre del Carcere , Einaudi, 1968, p. 479. English-language translation in preparation. 8. The family obviously has other ‘functions’ than that of an ISA. It intervenes in the reproduction of labour power. Auto Essay? In different modes of production it is the unit of production and/or the unit of consumption. 9. The ‘Law’ belongs both to the (Repressive) State Apparatus and to the system of the ISAs.

10. In a pathetic text written in 1937, Krupskaya relates the history of Lenin’s desperate efforts and what she regards as his failure. 11. Scripture? What I have said in these few brief words about the class struggle in the ISAs is obviously far from exhausting the question of the class struggle. To approach this question, two principles must be borne in mind: The first principle was formulated by Marx in the Preface to A Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy: ‘In considering such transformations [a social revolution] a distinction should always be made between the material transformation of the economic conditions of production, which can be determined with the precision of auto biographical essay natural science, and the legal, political, religious, aesthetic or philosophic – in short, ideological forms in which men become conscious of this conflict and fight it out.’ The class struggle is thus expressed and exercised in ideological forms, thus also in the ideological forms of the ISAs. But the class struggle extends far beyond these forms, and it is because it extends beyond them that the struggle of the exploited classes may also be exercised in the forms of the ISAs, and thus turn the weapon of ideology against the classes in power. This by virtue of the second principle : the class struggle extends beyond the ISAs because it is letter coordinator with no experience, rooted elsewhere than in ideology, in the Infrastructure, in the relations of auto biographical production, which are relations of exploitation and constitute the base for class relations.

12. For the most part. For the relations of production are first reproduced by the materiality of the processes of production and circulation. But it should not be forgotten that ideological relations are immediately present in these same processes. 13. For that part of reproduction to which the Repressive State Apparatus and the Ideological State Apparatus contribute. 14. I use this very modern term deliberately. For even in Communist circles, unfortunately, it is a commonplace to ‘explain’ some political deviation (left or right opportunism) by reflective essay on internship experience, the action of a ‘clique’. 15.

Which borrowed the legal category of ‘subject in law’ to auto essay make an job application essay outline ideological notion: man is by nature a subject. 16. Linguists and those who appeal to linguistics for various purposes often run up against difficulties which arise because they ignore the biographical action of the ideological effects in all discourses – including even scientific discourses. 17. Essay? NB: this double ‘currently’ is one more proof of the fact that ideology is ‘eternal’, since these two ‘currentlys’ are separated by an indefinite interval; I am writing these lines on auto biographical 6 April 1969, you may read them at any subsequent time. 18. Essay On Internship Experience? Hailing as an everyday practice subject to a precise ritual takes a quite ‘special’ form in the policeman’s practice of ‘hailing’ which concerns the hailing of ‘suspects’.

19. Auto Essay? Although we know that the individual is always already a subject, we go on using this term, convenient because of the contrasting effect it produces. 20. Reflective On Internship? I am quoting in a combined way, not to the letter but ‘in spirit and truth’. 21.

The dogma of the Trinity is precisely the biographical essay theory of the duplication of the Subject (the Father) into a subject (the Son) and of their mirror-connexion (the Holy Spirit). 22. Hegel is essay outline, (unknowingly) an admirable ‘theoretician’ of auto biographical essay ideology insofar as he is a ‘theoretician’ of Universal Recognition who unfortunately ends up in essay experience, the ideology of Absolute Knowledge. Feuerbach is an auto biographical astonishing ‘theoretician’ of the mirror connexion, who unfortunately ends up in the ideology of the Human Essence. To find the material with which to construct a theory of the guarantee, we must turn to Spinoza.

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Autobiographical Essay - Athabasca University

100 Short Story (or Novel) Writing Prompts. I love to write creative writing prompts. For over seven years, I have been coming up with new ideas every week for auto, The Write Prompts . Here, I do the same, only these are all starter or continue on writing prompts. They are a great way to get the juices flowing when you do not know where to cover for event coordinator with, start. They are what I would call the auto biographical essay first line or in some cases, the first paragraph of a potential story or novel.

You, the writer, simply write or type the prompt at the top of your page and continue writing with your own words until you finish the reflective essay on internship story. If you finish the thoughts listed below, you will have written 100 short stories (or novels, if you are so inspired). Biographical Essay! Rather than picking and choosing, I recommend you give yourself the essays for mba challenge of working through each one. Have fun! The gist is simple: Get a piece of auto biographical paper (or open up a fresh project in your word processor) and copy a prompt. After the ellipsis, keep writing whatever comes into your head. With No Experience! (Be sure to highlight the writing prompt in some way so you know you started with a prompt when you review the piece in the future.) Doug stuck his hand in the box and immediately pulled it out. Ow, he said. He licked the side of his index finger as if it had honey on it. (Continue to write about who Doug is, where he is, and what is in the box. ) Gabriel clenched his teeth feeling the porcelain slide. He took a deep breath, relaxed his jaw. You have two choices, he said, you can leave on your feet or on a gurney. (Continue to write about who Gabriel is and auto essay who he is the secret scripture essay talking to.) I love you, she whispered into her pink cell phone.

Nothing but music and the rustle of auto paper returned what she thought was an open and for event no experience honest expression. Did you hear me? she paused. I said I love you. Auto! (Continue to write about who she is and who she is talking to. ) I don't know how I am going to get home. Essays School! Worse yet, I am alone and have to. Finding yourself between two men who are at odds with one another is auto essay a bit complicated but when one is job application essay outline thirty-two and the other is eight years old it, can be downright. Daniel Morgan knew the kiss would ruin everything but he just couldn't stop himself from leaning over after Beth Myers said she had always had a crush on him. What can be more exciting than working with spuds? My fathered asked me after graduation. I had just finished telling him I wanted to auto essay, go to college.

It was obvious he was perplexed. He never went to college, his father never went to college, and his grandfather never did either. Most of the family never went to high school. I didn't know what I wanted to do with my life. All I knew was I didn't want to be a potato farmer. Mrs Ellis, our school's only guidance counselor who was also the school's only English teacher, had me believing that a year in college would help me decide on a better option… no, not a better option, just different. And I wanted something different. Beyond. I had a conference call in five minutes. The Secret Scripture Essay! Marcy had my meeting papers laid out along with some fresh pens, Post-its, and a note pad all ready for me. At least until I walked in and spilled my Starbuck's down my white blouse and biographical essay all over my desk, papers, and keyboard.

Who would have thought that a grande covered so much horizontal space. Cover Letter Coordinator With No Experience! This was my moment to shine and. The water is essay always calm when I go out at reflective experience, 4 a.m. The whole world reflects back at me and auto biographical essay it doesn't care; unlike the average woman who looks at her reflection and always finds something to on internship experience, pick apart. The air seems coolest at this time and you would think it would be quiet but the birds are always up chattering away as if to say, Where have you been, did you sleep in?

We have been up working for an hour already! I would get lost in the beauty of nature were it not for the subtle plunk of my oar hitting the water. It is during this (not so) quiet time that I am able to. It was no wonder when Mark Jelly swerved off the end of McKinley road last March. Auto Biographical Essay! Driving 25 mph, I could not see more than a few inches in reflective essay on internship, front of me. Special lighting was erected after Mark died but for auto biographical essay, some reason some one or some thing kept damaging it until eventually the city stopped repairing it. Finish Dissertation! Until the next time someone plummeted to their death and hopefully that someone was not going to be me tonight. I had to get through to. I know it is cliche to auto biographical essay, say he smiled with his eyes; but, he did smile with his eyes.

Unfortunately the reflective essay rest of him was saying. Many things get the essay hair on the back of my neck up, but nothing more so than. Cover Letter For Event Coordinator No Experience! 45 minutes ago my cover was blown. I'd been under for. Biographical! I always thought that if you forgot all the cover letter bad things that happened to you that it was inevitable that you would forget all the good things, too.

I never thought that focusing so much on the bad things would attract. The harder she scratched away at her forearm, the quicker the flesh fell away. From outside the containment unit, Dr. Auto Biographical! Elana Miles and experience Dr. Mark Rustenburg watched on dismay as the. He was lying face down on biographical, the raft. At first we thought he was sleeping, using the inflated side of the raft as a pillow and one hand hanging over, grazing the essay experience water's edge. But then. Risking one's life to save a kitten's was not something I ever thought I would do. I don't even like cats. But there I was climbing up a tree next to an apartment building with smoke and flames coming out the top.

All to rescue the orange kitten sitting in the third story window, meowing. Auto Essay! It didn't seem to be in any particular distress, but the building had been evacuated and no one knew who was in that apartment and no one was allowed back in. Hence the outline climbing of the tree with the crowbar in my back pocket. My intention: break the window, stuff the cat in my jacket, and auto essay shimmy back down the tree. Kittens are not cooperative when windows have been smashed and strangers are trying to grab them. But that didn't stop me from making the. Essay! The family camp. Flies, heat, dust, and essay a dock leading to cool blue heaven.

Dad could always be found in his collapsible aluminum chair with a fishing pole in one hand and a Budweiser in the other. Mom would be in the kitchen chopping a continuous supply of watermelon or making sandwiches. And Jefferson and job application outline I were usually. Essay! I sat in essays school, the taxi fidgeting the tulle under my gown and thinking I'd rather be at home in my flannel pajamas instead of going to. Marcus could hear the horn sound in auto biographical, the distance, a sign he was getting closer to the island. Soon he would be face to face with the father he left behind ten years ago. Every day since he left, he had made a mental list of all the things he wanted to say when he returned, but now only one thing came to mind. He would.

The pen is the tongue of the reflective essay on internship mind. Miguel de Cervantes. I come from auto essay, a long line of animal healers— almost four generations. I say almost because I haven't decided if this is job application a family tradition I want to keep alive. Don't get me wrong, I love animals and my heart weeps every time I have to wrap a broken wing or mend a leg that has been mangled in a trap.

It's dedicating my life and my future children's lives that I have a problem with. Next week I'm supposed to go away to veterinarian school but. It's hard to describe the sound of ripping flesh. Essay! Even more difficult is the sound the flesh makes when a vampire makes first bite. You wouldn't think your sense of hearing would be paramount when you are being attacked but I guess that is for event coordinator with no experience just one of the ways the body separates itself from the pain.

I never expected to biographical, survive but. Derrick held up his glass of wine and looked across the table at his brother Donny, then to and tv violence essay, Donny’s wife Gia. Biographical Essay! “We’re here to celebrate. Violence! I knew he was being patronizing but I was still glad that he showed up, that someone I trusted was within an arm’s length of biographical me. I didn’t reach out for children violence, him, I just looked at my blood-painted hands and arms as he droned on about the risks of being a homicide detective. His words faded into the background as my own thoughts filled my mind. If only I had been a few minutes. When you are as rich as I am, it is easy to live an essay, adventurous life. Just yesterday I took off in the company jet and school went. The first time I learned to auto biographical essay, use a hula hoop was.

She could hear the shower water running when she came in the front door. And Tv! “That’s strange,” she said. She dropped her keys in the lead crystal dish on top of the buffet and headed upstairs. The bathroom door was ajar a few inches and steam was billowing out. As her fingers reached out to push the door open, the small hairs on the back of her neck stood to attention. Essay! But it was too late, the masculine hand was already on finish dissertation week, her. I hate surprises. No, I really do hate surprises. The last time someone surprised me I nearly. John and I had been trying to biographical, have a baby for finish in a week, four years by the time Joshua Chimer came into our lives.

We never talked about adopting and we definitely never thought we would have to make good on our god parent vows to friends we hadn’t seen… well, in a long time. But as we stood there looking into the five-year-old’s bright blue eyes, we knew it was. “I really wanted to see you again,” said Rebecca. Auto Essay! She repeatedly twirled a strand of her long auburn hair tightly around her right forefinger until the tip blushed, then released it. Finish Dissertation In A! “I was afraid you didn’t want to see me because of auto essay what happened on our date.” Her mind flashed back to. Nancy Richard's arms were full of essays school bags by the time she reached the front door. She didn’t go out auto, much anymore.

She had fallen in love with her new condo. For the last three weeks she had relished decorating every square inch of it, pampering every room with sweet scents and lavish decor. When she finally unlocked the door, she was mortified to find. My name is Miranda Harkness and for four hours a day, I work as an online computer tech helping inexperienced users navigate their systems. I get paid well enough to cover the basics, which is all anybody ever really needs. My real job comes when the sun goes down.

Unfortunately, vampire hunting doesn’t pay well. At least not until now. For the first ten years of my life, I always imagined myself a princess. Then in the eleventh grade Bobby Monroe called me a hag and I realized I wasn’t a princess after all. The Secret! It’s amazing how quickly someone can defeat your dream with the utterance of one word. Twenty years later, I cringe whenever I hear it and am immediately brought back to that rainy afternoon when my love for myself diminished. That’s why when I opened up my mail and essay found an invitation to my high school reunion, I. Every Sunday morning, Gwen liked to cover coordinator with, go for biographical, long walks on the trail behind her house. Most of the essays for mba time she would pass one or two people and they would nod greetings or exchange a brief sentence or two about the weather. Overall they never made an auto biographical essay, impression on her and vice versa.

That was until the first Monday in finish dissertation in a, August when, after a long day of typing catalog descriptions, she looked up from her supper to the nightly news and saw the face of a man she had passed the day before. She turned up the volume in time to hear. Parents don’t realize the essay damage their occasional slight remarks cause. It is not their fault, really. Sometimes they just don’t realize they have forgotten to turn their internal filter on. If they do realize what they have said, they make the mistake of assuming that little ones won’t remember or that the dissertation in a words they string together won’t make an impression. One time when I was six years old, my mother gave me a gentle but loving poke in the belly and said, “You’re getting chubby.” By the time I was thirteen, I was pinching the same belly and saying to my reflection, “You’re getting fat.” When I was eight years old my father said. Working for auto biographical essay, the John Montgomery Agency was my life. Essay On Internship! When I say it was my life, I really mean it.

I worked twelve hours a day, brought work home with me, and always took work with me on auto essay, vacation (whenever I was forced to take one). I had no friends, and for event no experience my family had pretty much given up on the idea of ever seeing me again. Then a funny thing happened. Biographical Essay! I grew up in for event with, the little town known as Norwood, Virginia. Biographical! It was so small the local doctor was also the undertaker, the vet, and a florist… ok, his wife was the and tv florist, but when he wasn’t performing his other three professions, he was by her side in the town’s only flower shop, Lily of the Valley, cutting flowers and making deliveries.

When Ann Margaret disappeared one Sunday afternoon in June, no one ever thought that Dr. Mandguard had. When they inspected Lesley Olson’s passport, she never expected they would. The day I became a judge was one of the auto biographical essay most relevant days of my life. I took an oath that valued our legal system and in a I believed it to the core of my being. The day I started taking the law into my own hands, with no regard to the system whatsoever, was the day I truly felt. From behind a lacy curtain she watched as four riders galloped toward the house. Her husband had sent her inside when he heard the hooves in biographical essay, the distance. She had no idea who they were, but from the.

A writer doesn't solve problems. He allows them to emerge. My name is in a week Kyle Deerborne. I am an architect from California, living in New Mexico. I’m thirty-four years old, single but looking. Two days ago I killed someone and I haven’t been able to. Nick Woolley lived a haphazard life from the day he was born, mostly due to no fault of his own, but by the time he was seventeen he had. Rose Egglin sat in the 1979 Mustang Indy Pace with the engine running. It wasn’t environmentally friendly, but she wanted to be sure she could fall in line behind him when he came out of the store. It was a reliable car despite its age. Rose had been trailing a client’s husband for three days.

She hoped that today was the day he. Essay! Damon pressed the the secret scripture essay thumb and forefinger of his right hand into the inner corners of his closed eyes, hoping to provide some relief from the pain that throbbed there. His doctor had given him a new medication to try, phito-something-no-one-could-spell, but it didn’t seem to be touching it. Any longer and he’d have to. On Friday, November 13, 2009, I vowed I’d never kiss Mitch Moore again. On Saturday, November 14, 2009, I had my body and lips pressed up against. Thanks to Star Trek, I grew up thinking space was the final frontier, when in reality it was really.

It was twenty minutes before Dr. Monique Resler had to deliver her presentation on the positive aspects of auto biographical genetic research to a room full of potential sponsors with pens in one hand and checkbooks in the other. She was nervous and experiencing the cover letter coordinator no experience whole sweaty palm response but at essay, the moment, she was more concerned with being late. As she pulled up to finish, the light at biographical, Marque and Fifth. The Secret Scripture Essay! “You have got to be kidding me.”. “He actually compared your hair to a poodle?”. “Yeah, I was a bit surprised, too.”. “So, what did you say?”. “I didn’t say anything. I got up and. No one appreciates fairy godmothers. I give, give, give and do I even get a thank you in return? That’s right, no. Well, now it’s my turn. I’m going to be my own fairy godmother and the first thing I’m going to take care of is. I can still see her standing near the biographical shore, a giant tropical print towel tied under her armpits and her feet buried in scripture, the sand.

It was the end of summer and. Thunderstorms really wig me out. Not heebie-jeebies like, I’m talking about the shakes and hyperventilating and everything in between. I used to pass out on a regular basis in grade school and high school. I swear, we lived in the thunderstorm capital of the world. You would think my parents would have. Ever since I was five, I have always liked to surround myself with my favorite things. Back then it was ribbons and patent leather shoes.

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I met Court down by Rayborn’s swimming hole. He splashed me on purpose and I got mad at him on purpose. He laughed, and I flipped my wet hair and swam away. I didn’t think he would. Essay! He was standing in the center of the dimly lit back room. In the distance, he could hear a train beating the rails. Auto Biographical Essay! On the other side of an abused oak desk sat Mr. Simms, sucking back his cigar. When it came down to it, all Jake could ask was “Why. The news anchor's voice continued to crack, A lethal virus has been released in essays for mba school, Las Vegas. At the moment we know of four stages.

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At first glance, there is auto biographical a simple beauty to and tv violence, it and how the auto biographical essay red contrasts with the white linoleum. Reflective Essay On Internship! It doesn't immediately register that what you're looking at is actually blood. Slowly, a stiffness builds up in auto biographical essay, your body as your mind begins to essays school, realize that the beauty is actually life's essence. Then, what was a simple beauty becomes repulsion. Seeing Marcus laid out auto, with a meter-wide red polka dot under him wasn't beautiful.

It was downright hysterical. Not hysterical as in funny, hysterical as in I can't control my reaction. I remember looking at reflective experience, Denise who stared back at biographical essay, me dumbfounded and. I always wanted to be a creator. I didn't know what I wanted to create. I just wanted to create. So when I saw the little blue plus sign, I knew I had found my. Derek and I were like two weather fronts that collided in the night.

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I'm a winner. Essay! He was definitely a loser. I should have felt guilty but I didn't. Even if people had known the truth behind how I won, I don't think I would have cared. The important thing was they didn't and I was the one going to New York on an all expense paid trip. Essay Outline! Sure it was a business trip, but. The center aisle of the train was filled with people standing elbow to elbow. The man in biographical essay, front of essay me smelt of cigarettes and roasted chicken. Individually, that would have been alright, but every few minutes it would mix with wafts of cheap perfume from who knows where. Essay! A man in a black suit to my right kept touching my arse with the back of his hand.

Accidentally? I hoped so, but I was glad I had decided against the short skirt. Fifteen more minutes and job application essay outline I would. My sister Sally and I always had such fun when we were kids. We were less than a year apart in age so it was almost like we were twins. We even went out of auto essay our way to look like twins, dressing and wearing our hair the same. It wasn't until mom and children and tv essay dad decided to call it quits that a shift in our family dynamics somehow changed what I thought was an auto, inseparable connection.

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He caressed each bullet in the palm of his hand before slipping it into its chamber. He had done this dozens of times before but somehow tonight it felt poetic. Four. Five. Six. Auto Biographical! When the last chamber was loaded, he looked across the room to the menacing man he had tied to a chair.

Would today lead him to the salvation he. When we signed up, volunteered really, we never expected it to dissertation, be more than a six month term. Essay! Three years later, we are still battling over who. Sandra Arbuckle took a controlled breath before she tentatively lowered her hand into reflective essay on internship experience the murky. Auto Biographical! The day we decided to clone an extinct animal was the day life as we knew it was changed forever. Even with all that genetic information we had at our fingertips, nothing prepared us for.

He wasn't abusive when we fell in love. I guess we all change in relationships, don't we? I never would've thought that ten years later I'd be arrested for murder, but here I was being fingerprinted and questioned under harsh lights. The truth is. It was raining cats and dogs. Seriously, the wallpaper in Emily's room was raining cats and dogs.

But I didn't hold it against her. Reflective Essay On Internship! She was my best friend and I could always. For my mother, sweat stains on essay, silk was a catastrophe. For me, the earth would have to crack open and a giant. It all started with a rash on my.

Sylvie! Sylvie! Damn it, where are you child? I peeked through the planks of the porch stairs at Aunt Hinie's uneven stockings. Her worn shoes disappeared from view and I heard the porch door squeak and slam. I'd get the and tv violence strap later but I just wasn't ready to. There are three important rules you should live by if you want to biographical essay, survive in this world. First, always look over your shoulder. Second, never trust anyone.

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In fact, I've never been scared a day in my life. You wouldn't think. He could feel its prickly tendrils poking through the thin cotton of his denim pockets. He wanted to biographical essay, remove it but was afraid. The sweet scent of gardenias mingled with beer made me want to retch. I fought the urge as they looked in my direction. Were they looking at me? Or was it my wild imagination taking over again? One of the men nodded in my direction.

Yep, they were looking at me. Cover No Experience! Of course it could be something as harmless as. June was never particularly exciting in our neighborhood. Not until the summer Rachel and Owen moved in next store. It was. She kept picking at it. First her index finger to gain entry. Followed by all of auto them.

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Her eyes followed the line of shiny tools arranged strategically from left to right on the secret scripture, the wooden table in front of her. The tips of her fingers wandered over the handles, as if trying to auto, decide which one. Dusk was long gone and the cafe was quiet except for a middle-aged man sitting near the children door who. Biographical! Gossip can either make or break a woman's career. Unfortunately, there is a fine line between good gossip and outline bad gossip. The trick is auto biographical essay being able to manipulate both in your favor.

I had become a master gossip manipulator by the time I was 23 but by the time I was 27, things had gone haywire. It all started when I picked up. I was waiting at the bus stop, sucking back an Iced Capp, the first time I saw Mr. Coordinator With No Experience! Tall Dark and Handsome among the auto biographical other construction workers. This is pretty much what I do every day on finish dissertation, the way to work. The only difference today was that one of the guys fell from the scaffolding. He fell like a rag doll except his body didn't make a rag doll noise when it hit the pavement. Mr. Auto Biographical Essay! Tall Dark and Handsome was the first to reach the body. For some reason he looked across the street at essays for mba, me and mouthed. Biographical! Sex is not the only thing that happens in airplane bathrooms.

Of course there are the reflective essay on internship obvious other bodily functions, but I am talking about the other things no one talks about. The primping, the flushing of contraband, and for me, pre-flight panic attacks. Every time I board a plane I stuff my bag in the overhead compartment above my seat then make a beeline for the bathroom, where I hyperventilate until someone bangs on the door or I pass out. Ok, I only auto biographical essay passed out once, but it is always a possibility. Job Application Essay! On the flight back from biographical essay, Phoenix I was especially. In all my twenty-five years I had never been so confused as I was at that moment. Not quite the reaction a man hopes to see in a woman's face when he professes his love but what is a girl to think when the guy she grew up with and thought she knew suddenly talks about letter for event, love when he should be.

I hate clowns. But mostly I hate people who make me explain why I hate clowns and auto biographical the look on their faces when I. Job Application Essay Outline! I used to be a friendly child. I would think nothing of auto biographical stopping to chat with neighbors on the way home from school or from the store. Children And Tv Essay! It is amazing how one incident with one person can change your perspective. When the nameless old man from down the street reached over his fence and grabbed my wrist like a snake snatching its prey, I remember feeling sick to my stomach and the intense satisfaction in his eyes as he. There is nothing more uncomfortable than when you are driving down a deserted stretch of biographical highway with a full bladder. Guys have it easy. Children And Tv Violence Essay! They can pull over anywhere, discreetly pull it out, and go. Women, women have to make a production of untying, zipping, pulling, and who knows what else.

Not to mention we have to worry about some freak jumping out auto biographical essay, of the for mba bushes. But I couldn't hold it anymore. In hindsight, I should have just peed my pants and kept going but how could I know. Maxie's deft fingers pulled at the hair wire sewn into biographical essay the tweed jacket. Now that she had the information she needed it had to be removed before. The worst part of an unhealthy relationship is not the essays for mba years of stagnation, it is auto biographical essay following through with your decision to essays, end it. And in a long term relationship, it is not only the couple who are affected. The shared friends, the extended family, they all end up bruised.

The day I ended it with Mike, I. Essay! One of my favorite authors is Stephen King. The funny thing about this is job application outline that the first book I ever read of his was On Writing , a blend of autobiography and writing advice. Biographical Essay! This book turned me on to The Stand , a very large book I managed to read in four days (normally, I am a very slow reader). From then on, I have been hooked. If you are not a fan of the horror genre, I still recommend not skipping his writing book. My imagination makes me human and makes me a fool; it gives me all the world and exiles me from it. Ursula K. The Secret Scripture! Le Guin. PLEASE NOTE: You are free to use these writing prompts within your creative writing, but please do not post them on your website or elsewhere— provide a link to this page instead. Many thanks. Flash Fiction, the essay Shortest Stories in Creative Writing. by C. A. Chancellor 6. Essay! 10 Persuasive Writing Prompts for 3rd Graders. by Brian Rock 3. 101 Writing Prompts and Ideas: Fiction Non-Fiction. by Christin Sander 41.

How to auto biographical essay, Describe Yourself - 180 Words for Your Positive Qualities. by finish in a Susana S 363. 100 Cause and auto essay Effect Essay Topics. by Virginia Kearney 37. 100 Science Topics for Research Papers. by Virginia Kearney 109. What do you think? What works for children, you? I love to read and write. Auto Essay! I do it all the time but the I just started is making a chapter book. Is it okay if we use the prompt in our creative writing story and post it on a website such as wattpad but, leave a link to the secret scripture, this website giving credit for auto essay, the idea?

Oh and awsome prompts going to do so much writing. Essays! Wow this site literraly saved my life for the finals (exams tmrw) cant wait too write my short story now. I went to the book store to biographical, find dozens of on internship experience these books with story starters, but all of them had price tags of auto essay $25 and up, for 20 stories. Finding some for free was great! THESE IDEAS ARE THE BEST! I love to write so this was really useful. I did the first one and this is what I came up with though I changed it up a bit: Jim stuck his hand in the box and cover letter with immediately pulled it out. Ow! he cried. He licked the auto essay side of his index finger as if it had honey on it. Miranda looks up from her book concerned. Cover Letter For Event Coordinator No Experience! “ What happened Jim?” she asks walking over auto biographical essay, next to the secret, Jim. “ Something in that box bit me.” complains Jim still rubbing the side of his index finger. “ Bit you?” says Miranda quite shocked.

Jim looks at his index finger that was now red. Essay! “ Yes, bit me.” mummers Jim lost in thought. The story that takes place in Norwood, Virginia sounds like a story, I had started writing years ago. I never published it though. Like the prompt is really similar. ChocoholicAlert 13 months ago.

Love these prompts. Children! Will use if there is nada in biographical, the brain. Any good protagonist names? Preferably teen names? Artemis Winters 13 months ago. Some pretty awesome prompts right there! Sometimes I find it useful if you read your favourite book/watch your favourite movie to get inspo. Outline! SOOO MANY IDEAS.

Awesome prompts! Can you reccommend any cool names for teenaged protagonists? I am NEVER good with names. White Fang 13 months ago. Some really good prompts. Auto! I always fallback onto a few failsafes to start a story: beginning of the secret scripture school year/term/holidays, camping (recreational or educational), a cruise or a family holiday. Biographical! And what are some cool girl's names? I ALWAYS use either Alicia or Artemis. Walt Hussain Obama 14 months ago.

When I opened my eyes, I found myself sitting on a stool in finish dissertation in a week, an empty bar. There was a drink in front of me that I didn’t remember ordering. I shielded away from the lights above me, wincing as my eyes refused to adjust. Pain rippled across my chest. I couldn’t breathe A man sat down next to me, the biographical essay smell of smoke clinging to his leather jacket. He rapped the wooden table. “A scotch on the rocks, one third ice.” I glanced over at him, meeting his steady gaze. He smiled at me. “Name’s Thanatos.” I could feel the temperature in the room dropping, one degree at a time.

Shivering, I told him my name. My breath clouded in the air. I fought to keep my eyes open, and pain again worked its way through my chest. I closed my eyes, trying to ignore the voices calling I opened my eyes. A thin bartender brought his drink over, eyes hollow and no experience cheeks gaunt.

I wanted to auto essay, talk to him, but something about and tv essay, his posture warned me against biographical it. Essay On Internship! He ever so quickly glanced at auto biographical, me before hurrying away. Finish! “Are you ready?” asked Thanatos, swirling his drink with his left hand. The ice cubes hugged the outer edge of the cup, clinking together noisily. He leaned back against the counter, and again he met my gaze. Auto Essay! “Yes, or no?” I swallowed, frozen in my seat. “I don’t understand. What are we ” My breath caught in cover letter no experience, my throat. I couldn’t breathe Thanatos gently touched my shoulder, and auto the weight on my chest disappeared.

My breath came back, and I felt the pain dissolve away. For a brief moment, a smile flickered across his face. He looked much older than I originally had thought, the the secret essay stubble on his chin more grey than black. “My dear girl,” he began, pausing to sip at his drink. “Are you ready to die?” I understood my situation then. The pain, the inability to breath, the voices calling to auto, me. “I’m dead,” I whispered, putting a hand to reflective essay on internship, my stomach. “Someone shot me.” “Yes,” he agreed. “It is quite unfortunate. You have my condolences, and all that.” “Then who are you?” My voice shook. He let out a breath, not quite a sigh, and stared at his amber-colored scotch. “From the beautifully infinite set of days I have existed in this universe, I have learned one thing, and one thing only; we fear endings.” I folded my arms, resting them on the scratched bar counter, and waited for him to continue. “I’m no more powerful than you. Who am I to play God? I am no creator. Auto Biographical Essay! I am merely a side effect.” “Of life, my dear.

I am a side effect of awareness, of the universe wanting an audience, of human nature.” He said this with his eyes resolutely fixed on the lights above us. “If the tale of humanity is an epic poem filled with glowing hope, then the essays for mba school universe is an untold tragedy which has no end.” “You never answered my question,” I said. “Who are you?” He crookedly smiled, and I doubted he would give me a straight answer. “I have been given many names, though I doubt I have a true name. I do not believe I was born, or even created. Essay! I simply am.” He leaned in closer to essay outline, me, setting the drink down. “My name is Death.” I could feel him gauging my reaction. “I hate to say it, but I was expecting a little more cloak and dagger and a little less alcohol. Though I’m not objecting. Auto Essay! This is a nice change.” I took a sip of coordinator my drink and raised an eyebrow at him.

He threw back his head and auto biographical laughed, shoulders shaking. Letter Coordinator With No Experience! “I like you,” said Death, fighting to keep his face straight. Biographical Essay! He stood, downing the rest of his drink. “Truly, I do. But don’t let me keep you. Places to go, people to see, right?” I didn’t know how to respond. “Until the next time, darling,” he said, giving me a wink. Death raised his arms. Job Application Essay! The lights flickered, rattling in their fixtures. On the wall behind him, I saw the shadow of dark wings unfurling.

He reached forwards, his leather jacket becoming a cloak of darkness, draping over his shoulders, and touched his hand to my forehead. Essay! Ice ran through my veins as I felt the bullet wound on my abdomen reappear, blood dripping down my chest. Finish In A Week! Then I was gone. Credits to Witt.Stanton. You have no idea how much this saved me. :) I was so happy when I found this site, I even combined some. Thanks for these!

I might use one if I get stuck. Kurt Frazier Sr 2 years ago from Mobile Al. Thanks for all of the resources. I will take your challenge of auto biographical using all of these prompts for a writing project on job application, my blog. The category will list the biographical name of your article here as well as a link in children and tv, the post to it also.

Moe Wood 2 years ago from Eastern Ontario. I am glad you are finding them inspiring. Not that I am aware of. Auto! These are so inspiring! I am taking just five minutes each morning to continue one of these (chosen at random the essay night before, so I've had time to sleep on it) and usually don't want to stop - I sneak back later in essay, the day and add a little more or flesh out background details.

I would love to be able to see how other people have chosen to continue the same prompts I have used - is the secret essay it possible to essay, find anything of this nature? Thank you so much. School! I used the last one and got a 98% You saved my life. Auto! Moe Wood 3 years ago from violence, Eastern Ontario. @stephie-braley: But of course! stephie-braley 3 years ago. Can I combine writing prompts? Hello and thanks. lots of prompts. thanks for sharing. I am hoping I can use some of these prompts in my writing on my Blog. Essay! Moe Wood 3 years ago from Eastern Ontario. Essay! @meherzaidi: Thank you! Moe Wood 3 years ago from auto biographical essay, Eastern Ontario. @brittabucketlist: Thanks for stopping by. Happy writing! brittabucketlist 3 years ago.

Great Lens! Thank you for sharing :) Very helpful post.In great detail. Job Application Essay Outline! Moe Wood 3 years ago from Eastern Ontario. @Eszabella: Hi Eszabella, yes you may post the writing you create using my prompts. Thanks you for asking and for auto, linking. Have a great challenge! Hi! I was wondering if I could use these prompts to challenge myself with writing. I would like to post whatever I happen to come up with every day, using one prompt per day, on for mba, Wattpad.com. However, I wanted to ask your permission first. I would credit you and this website.

So, may I use these prompts on wattpad? Thanks so much. This is superb! Really provocative! More than enough here to stimulate even the biographical most blocked writer. Thanks, BigGirlBlue. Dissertation In A Week! I enjoyed pausing over a number of these, considering where they might take me.

Marilyn McKay 3 years ago from auto biographical, North East, Victoria, Australia. I like this lens, your prompts are sparking thought, this I thank you for. Treasures By Brenda 3 years ago from Canada. Wow, this is quite a list of cover with no experience story prompts! Great lens. Auto Essay! Thank you. Host of great ideas! Thanks! Samuel Wright 3 years ago from Bakersfield, Ca.

Thanks for this. something to whet the pump. Nice to have things like this when you have moments of for event writers block. TheCozyDinosaur 3 years ago. This is really impressive. I wish I had your creative juices! MoreThanAMama 4 years ago.

Great prompts! I'm bookmarking this page for future reference. Great tips and I love the auto biographical essay quote from Jeffery A Carver. School! Thanks! Writing prompts are basically pump primers, it seems. I know of an author, Harlan Ellison, who would sit in the window of a book store and crank out stories using this method.

steadytracker lm 4 years ago. A great short story can be born from just about essay, any experience. Essay On Internship! Thanks for auto essay, sharing such a wonderful lens with us. Thanks, I'm sure these will help some other folks in the secret scripture essay, myself in my creative writing class. I'll pass on the URL. thank you for this. @PromptWriter: Thanks so much. You really helped me. I had an auto essay, extreme case of writers block, but thanks to you it's gone. You have created an awesome lens. I can see you have put in a lot of work.

Thanks for it. I found it very helpful as I am new to cover letter for event coordinator no experience, writing amp; you have come with some excellent ideas that I guess can help me get more creative. Moe Wood 4 years ago from Eastern Ontario. @anonymous: Yes you can use these in your stories. BUT after you let the story rest a bit I suggest going back and changing the prompt text to your own -- rewrite a new start if you use it for the opening line as you don't want to submit a story somewhere and biographical have someone else with the same beginning. These are just prompts to get you going and what you write after that is all you. Can we use these in our stories? At least the ideas? Wow these are some incredible writing prompts. Thank you so much for being an inspiration for for mba, aspiring writers and auto essay providing a template of sorts on where to the secret, start.

Your lens where writing is concerned are truly a joy to essay, read. Doc_Holliday 4 years ago. Thanks for a great list. The Secret Scripture Essay! I have a number of ideas from these already, after a quick read. Good exercises to use in a writing group, or if you are really stuck for ideas. Biographical Essay! Wow ! That's truly helping me now. Great suggestions - I love seeing where a prompt takes me! Hi! Great Reads and writing prompts. The Secret Essay! Thanks. Auto Essay! Great lens and great prompt suggestions!

Hehe, most of my short stories stay in my head but now you've made me think about writing those actually down. Anyway, thanks for the great inspiration. ;) @Lensmaster. Holy cow! A place to write prompts for scripture essay, stories and auto novels!! Now I know what to do with those four bank boxes of ideas I've saved over time! Thanks for this Lens! I have never had trouble with creative writing (yet), and never knew that there was such a thing as prompt or books teaching how to letter coordinator no experience, write prompts. Incredible!

Thank you for your lens, the biographical prompts here are very interesting. Crumbs, that's a lot of prompts. I'll start from the top. :-) Mary Norton 4 years ago from essays school, Ontario, Canada. Auto Biographical Essay! Prompts do help and thank you for your suggestions. These are truly great. After reading The Write Prompt I was browsing your other lenses and found this excellent article. Great work.

In short story writing, conceiving good plot may not be as difficult as penning first line/para and your article is scripture essay good way to biographical, master the start. Essay! Thank you. Biographical Essay! Awesome lens, thanks! Moe Wood 4 years ago from Eastern Ontario. Finish! @Dandelia23: Happy writing! :D. Great writing prompts to use as little writing challenges or to just unlock my mind. Bookmarked. What a great lens idea.

It's really helping me get past my writer's block. Moe Wood 4 years ago from auto biographical, Eastern Ontario. @anonymous: YOU'RE WELCOME! Happy writing! I've been discouraged about not having enough story idea, but now thanks to this set of prompts, my mind is swimming with ideas. And Tv! THANK YOU SO MUCH. Moe Wood 4 years ago from Eastern Ontario. @anonymous: Yes, that would be interesting. Occasionally someone will post some of their results on my blog and it is always interesting to see what they came up with. What an interesting concept.

It would be fun to see a page of people's different stories using your prompts, or do you have one? I enjoyed the comments by Steven King regarding short stories. My writing preference is either to write journal entries that can sometimes lead to auto essay, a story, or to create short stories or novellas. I've only finish in a written one novel length book and that was through NaNo in 2007. Thank you for auto essay, sharing the video. A fantastic set of prompts! I need to return here whenever I can't find the inspiration to write. Thank you!

So many great prompts collectively making a great resource for writing exercise. I might just finish a story soon and send you.. Double likes! Renaissance Woman 5 years ago from essay, Colorado. These prompts are incredibly stimulating. Biographical! My mind is racing. Thanks for stirring my creative juices this morning. Appreciated! Thank you for the inspiration! :) This is excellent information. Thank you for a helpful lens.

You are a master. Kim 5 years ago from Yonkers, NY. Cover Letter Coordinator! added to my Creative writing 101 lens. wow, interesting lens. Auto Essay! haven't heard of it or haven't tried one. definitely gonna go back here for reference, might need some of job application essay outline it during those writer's bloc days. liked the quotes too. Love, love, love this lens - well done, you. I have bookmarked it so that I can refer to it often for writing prompts. I will happily add this lens as a related lens to my Fish Flash Fiction lens (I was over the moon to auto, be long-listed for this year's competition). This is cover letter for event with such an inspiring lens that I don't want to do my uni study now, I just want to write, but . Spiderlily321 5 years ago. Love this great lens. You have come up with some really good writing prompts and ideas.

Thank you for sharing! Interesting lens. Auto! Liked. Another great lens! Good Information . you must be Canadian. Cover For Event Coordinator No Experience! LOL . I am now using Squidoo to publish my short story The Diary of auto essay Moses Jenkins. Not my best work but does have a surprise ending. Children And Tv Violence! I was selling it for a whopping 99 cents but after I finally had enough to auto biographical, buy a cup of coffee, decided to let it go free . Cover Letter For Event Coordinator With! duh . This method of writing seems very interesting and creative. A great lens for all ages!

This seems like a very interesting method of writing that I haven't tried yet. Seems to be the perfect thing for short stories, but I wonder if anyone has ever tried to develop a novel out of one of your prompts. corinnemwestphal 6 years ago. Some of these have come in very handy on those days when I just can't get my creative juices flowing on biographical, their own. Essay On Internship Experience! Thanks very, very much! Nice lens! You gave me a great idea for my story and auto saved me from failing English so thanks! Here's the link if you want to dissertation week, read it: https://hubpages.com/literature/my-short-novel. This is a great selection of writing prompts. My fingers are itching to start typing.

Ann 6 years ago from Yorkshire, England. great lens, angel blessed and it will feature on my summer reading lens when it is updated soon. Excellent resource! Thanks for putting this one together. I will have to biographical essay, bookmark it for later. David Stone 6 years ago from New York City. Another high quality lens. Very nice and original.

Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners. Cover For Event Coordinator With No Experience! Other product and essay company names shown may be trademarks of cover for event their respective owners. HubPages ® is a registered Service Mark of HubPages, Inc. HubPages and Hubbers (authors) may earn revenue on this page based on affiliate relationships and advertisements with partners including Amazon, Google, and others. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners.

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Free Essays on Chevy Volt Macro Environment. ? Chevy Volt What does the Chevy Volt case tell you about the nature of strategic decision making at auto biographical, a large complex organization like GM? From the Chevy Volt case, we can see that GM is a large complex organization and has a lot of processes to make any decision in changing their strategic plan. initially proposed by top two managements. Due to lack of thorough analysis and plan, they could not convince other managers in order to pursue this Chevy Volt project. This implied the missing link of children and tv violence strategic leadership that should have been a transformational force. Auto Biographical! In addition, the shareholder’s wealth. Chevy Volt – An American Revolution in children Energy Independence This paper begins by analyzing the marketing environment of the GM/Chevrolet Volt and then discusses the target market for this electric extended range vehicle along with a proposed marketing strategy and recommendations. Marketing Environment . Planning for the Chevy Volt Name Institution Planning for the Chevy Volt What Does the Chevy Volt Case Tell about the Nature of Strategic Decision-making at essay, a Large Complex Organization like General Motors? Chevy Volt issues show how strategic decision-making at the leading complex company, for. Planning for the Chevy Volt (CC1) 1. For Mba School! What does the Chevy Volt case tell you about the biographical nature of strategic decision making at a large complex organization like GM?

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The Chevy Volt case tells me the nature of the strategic decision making at essays, a large complex organization like GM can be difficult and challenging due to having to auto biographical essay, convince other. price will lead to more sales, or do you think the cover for event with no experience availability of biographical other electric cars at finish in a, lower prices than the Volt will diminish the essay effect of the in a week law. une was a great month for the Chevy Volt — 2698 units of the popular plug-in hybrid sold during June, a 53.3% increase over June 2012. With no more than. What does the Chevy Volt case tell you about the nature of auto biographical essay strategic decision making at on internship experience, a large complex organization like General Motors? Strategic decision making is auto biographical essay, often met with cognitive biases that are formed around prior victories or defeats. 2. What trends in children essay the external environment favored the. subcompacts sold in California was a Prius” (Lambeau, 2013). Auto! The Prius was considered evolutionary a decade ago.

Those customers searching for essays the environment saving properties of a hybrid are leaving the nest for cheaper and newer vehicles that Ford is providing while those Prius owners whom originally. e n t s 1 Part 1: Industry Factors 5 1.1 Introduction 5 1.1.1 Objectives of the report 5 1.1.2 Brief Company Overview 5 1.2 Macro Environment of Oto Melara 7 1.2.1 Political Factors 7 1.2.2 Economic Factors 7 1.2.3 Technological Factors 9 1.2.4 Social Factors 10 1. Planning for the Chevy Volt Case General Motors is a company in deep trouble. Biographical! As car sales in North America collapsed in violence essay 2008, GM, which had already lost money in 2007, plunged deeply into auto biographical, the red. With losses estimated at $14 billion, the company was forced to go cap in hand to the government to. SLIDE NOTES Slide 1 – Macro Environment – The macro environment deals with companies outside environment yet still effects how it serves its customers. Concerning factors like culture, demographics, economic, natural, political, and technological.

Slide 2 - Micro Environment – This means what is involved. The New 2012 Chevrolet Volt .New 2012 Chevrolet Volt Over two hundred engineers and fifty designers are working on coordinator no experience, a dream vision to come true. In 2012, a car like no other vehicle ever made will be revealed to the world. The General Motors Company wanted to make a car that not only essay, sported a newer. adjoining room which contained a fake generator that was only powered by job application outline a 45- volt battery and not connected to the mains. Auto! The generator has 30 switches in 15 volt increments; each was labelled with a voltage ranging from for event coordinator no experience 15 up to 450 volts . The participant was asked to shock the learner if and when, they answered. Monitoring Micro and biographical essay Macro Environment. Business EC1008 “Portfolio” Content Introduction 3 Task A 4 1. How to essays for mba school, monitor Macro and biographical essay Mirco environment to help in reflective essay experience decision making process 4 2. Macro environment 5 3. Micro environment 6 Task B 7 What Does Market Penetration Mean? 8 Task C 9 Conclusion. within the macro and micro environments of the schedule airline in the tourism industry. The report will also focus on the trends and issues, which affect the scheduled airlines.

The report will have five sectors within in which are background to the sector, macro environment , micro environment , trends. MARKETING PLAN FOR CHEVY VOLT Posted on October 4, 2012 by admin under Uncategorized The objective of this project is to develop a marketing plan for the new “ Chevy Volt .” The purpose of this Market Planning exercise is to build a student’s exposure, familiarity and aptitude of the auto entire marketing. aggressively in emerging markets; • Continue development and implementation of GM’s advanced propulsion strategy; • Improve business results The Chevrolet Volt has been named the most influential product in the General Motors repositioning strategy by top executives because of its direct correlation to all. cars are placed on finish dissertation week, car carriers, and the miles the carriers can travel. Regulations also cover the biographical essay emissions of the vehicle and the effects on finish in a, the environment from the foundries and paint shops. Biographical Essay! However, production in other countries is not always strictly regulated. Issues or Opportunities The future.

a? Environmental Analysis a? Remote Environment a? Industry Environment a? Competitive Analysis a? Competitor's Analysis a? Operating Environment a? Political Charitable Contributions . 1) What does the Chevy Volt case tell you about the nature of the secret scripture essay strategic decision making at a large complex organization like General Motors? The Chevy Volt case tells us that the nature of strategic decision making for a large complex organization like GM must think, develop, and create a powerful strategy. Question Did GM make the right choice when they selected the Volt as opposed to putting all of auto biographical their efforts into finish dissertation, a Hydrogen fuel cell vehicle? Why? Answer Looking at the GM’s growth in recent years, they didn’t do well as far as profit is biographical essay, concern and also in introducing any new car. In business. General Motors Company Description. com/general-motors/--ID__10640--/free-co-profile.xhtml 1. Describe all the RELEVANT key trends and factors that make up the forces of the micro- environment for children and tv essay the industry/company/product: ¦ Organisation '' ¦ Suppliers '' The suppliers are an important part of auto firm global system. The. Manufacturer Model Model Year Daimler-Chrysler Dodge Ram 2005 Daimler-Chrysler Mercedes S-class 2006 Ford Escape 2005 General Motors Chevy Equinox 2006 General Motors Chevy Silverado 2005 General Motors GMC-Sierra 2005 General Motors Saturn-VUE 2005 Lexus RX Hybrid SUV 2005 Toyota Highlander 2005 . of Business Environment -B.E. On Internship! may be defined as the set of external factorssuch as economic, socio cultural, Govt. legal, demographic, which are uncontrollable in nature affect the business decisions of a firm or company. Auto! 1) Micro Environment 2) Macro Environment Micro Environment - 1) Supplier.

2015 Chevy Equinox Fuel Cell Launch Plan 100k Year 1 125k Year 2 RELEASED IN NY AND CALIFORNIA 250k Year 3 Fuel Cell Produces 93 kW of power Startup time is 2-3 seconds in all but coldest weather/ no problems in the heat Powertrain has 60% fewer parts, 90% fewer. been using for years. Essays For Mba! They use a stereotype of a certain group, gender, race, or class to market to that group of people. The first ad, an ad for a Chevy Tahoe, is advertised to the average middle class person. The ad has a guy dressed in auto essay khakis, a t-shirt, and a leather jacket. He looks like a normal.

sedan, extended range electric vehicle which will be known as the Volt , a promotional image can be seen on the report title page. Job Application Essay! Our goal is to achieve 100% customer satisfaction so our focus will be on product quality; The Chevy Volt , an advanced technology with standard equipment features. We will. banks remain high while public investments are non-productive and pose a drag on growth. The real estate sector has also stagnated and the overall macro picture is one of consistent gloom, despite efforts to biographical essay, stabilise the economy last year moderately succeeding in containing inflation and narrowing the.

?Wall Street Journal – Strategy and Gm’s Volt. ?WALL STREET JOURNAL – STRATEGY AND GM’S VOLT In an article in the Wednesday, September 15, 2008 Wall Street Journal entitled “GM Looks for BUZZ with its electric VOLT ,” John D. Cover With No Experience! Stoll explains that General Motors Corp.’s Chevrolet Volt is a battery-powered compact car scheduled to hit the market by. Explain the Dimensions of the auto essay Business Environment and Their Relevance to Hrm. dimensions of the business environment and their relevance to HRM Business environment can be best understood as the combination of internal and external factors that influence a company’s operation situation. The business environment consists of the job application essay outline operational environment or immediate, for essay most firms. Strategic Management Essentials (International edition) entire Chevy Volt project was about strategies. With No Experience! The GM members were having a lot of biographical pressure because of the situation of the company; any decision made would have influenced in a positive or negative way to the company. The case demonstrates the importance of having a good research of the macro environment. unemployment rates, national income and GDP of a nation.(wilkipedia,2007)So to put this in in the cover letter for event coordinator with simplest terms,micro means a smaller study of economics and macro means a larger study of econmomics. An influence of a microeconomic phenomenon determines a firm’s current or potential location, markets that affect.

?Case Discussion Question : Chevy Volt 1. What does the essay Chevy Volt case tell you about the nature of strategic decision making at a large complex organization like GM? In a large complex organization like GM, it is common for management to have the disagreement in for mba the direction of company future, delaying. Assessing the External Environment of Pwc Office in Cairo. Assessing the Marketing Environment of: The Company’s Microenvironment Macro environment Microenvironment: Employees: As a service organization, employees represent the most and almost the only considerable asset of auto biographical essay PwC. Hence marketing department works closely with HR under the supervision. BE ABLE TO ANALYSE HOW AN ORGANISATION IS AFFECTED BY THE MACRO-ENVIROMENT. BE ABLE TO ANALYSE HOW AN ORGANISATION IS AFFECTED BY THE MACRO -ENVIROMENT 1.1 I work in a small aspiring in Bracknell, Berkshire. The practice itself has been established since 1980s, comprising of two surgeries. Currently we have 1 dentist, 2 hygienists and 3 support staff whilst we attend to 1200. DC 20018 Jm0807a@american.edu (202)5261644 OBJECTIVE To obtain a position in children and tv violence essay finance or any other business related field that will provide an environment to biographical essay, develop new skills, refine current skills, and foster growth.

EDUCATION American University, Washington, DC BS in essays school Business Administration. ? Business Environment 1.1 Identify the purposes of biographical different types of violence organisations. Define Anglo American in terms of organisational purpose. A business can be owned by biographical essay an individual or many, there are different types of finish dissertation in a week ownership and their objectives. Most organisations big or little will aim.

into these automobiles. Some of the auto essay greatest advancements to date is the production of alternate fuels is the electric cars such as Tesla and the Chevy volt . These two are some of the most successful electric care manufactures and Tesla being the most advanced. Tesla has currently tackled its first huge.