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New york bar essay frequency

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IBM Case Study: A lesson in Social Business Transformation. Late last year, I started watching and new york bar essay frequency monitoring the qualities outstanding essay #socialbiz hashtag on Twitter. I was in the middle of writing my book and conducting in depth research of companies that were at least talking about or referring to a social business. One company seemed to dominate the conversation, IBM. I watched more closely and realized that there were literally hundreds of IBM employees collaborating with the community and adding value to the “social business” conversation. I was really impressed and wanted to learn more. Even with over 400 thousand employees, sadly I didn’t know anyone who works for IBM. And then one day, I met Dana Carr on new york bar essay Twitter and we started emailing back and forth. She was able to get me exclusive access (well, not really) with Jeff Schick, Vice President of Social Software who has been working for IBM for the last 23 years for an email interview. 1. Gorgias Essays? What is your definition of a social business? Is IBM a social business?

Please explain. Social Business is the world of bar essay, possibility that occurs when all of the outstanding essay energy and opportunities that have been generated around consumer-side models such as Facebook and Twitter are focused, and brought to bear on business challenges. The stuff that has sprung up on the consumer side is new york bar essay frequency, just the tip of the creative thinking iceberg. Bar Essay Frequency? The real mass, the real power to transform, is on the business side. This is where a social framework can create new ways to enable sales forces, new ways to discover expertise, new ways to qualities of an outstanding, understand your organization’s culture, new ways to establish brand trust with your customers, and much more. IBM is most certainly a social business and a pioneer at that.

We’re the largest consumer of social technologies, and a case study for this transformation. This goes beyond our business in social software and bar essay frequency services (IBM’s collaboration software, consulting services, analytics/social media research, conducting Jams for clients). Difference? We’re leading social business on new york all fronts – technology, policy and difference papers practice. Our social initiatives started over a decade ago and new york bar essay frequency really date back to the 1970’s when our mainframe programmers started online discussion forums on the System 370 consoles. For 15 years, IBM employees have used social software to foster collaboration among our dispersed 400,000+ person global team — long before Generation Y became fixated with social networking sites like Facebook and MySpace. Creative And Critical Thinking? In 1997, IBM recommended that its employees get out onto new york frequency, the Internet – at a time when many companies were seeking to restrict their employees’ Internet access. A few years later, in 2005, we made a strategic decision to embrace the blogosphere and to encourage IBMers to participate. Pros And Cons? In 2008, we introduced the first social computing guidelines to encompass virtual worlds and new york sharing of rich media. These guidelines aimed and continue to provide helpful, practical advice to protect both IBM’ers and IBM the gorgias essays brand. In 2008 and again in 2010 we turned to employees to re-examine our guidelines in light of ever-evolving technologies and online social tools to ensure they remain current to the needs of bar essay frequency, employees and difference essays research the company. Bar Essay? These efforts have broadened the scope of the existing guidelines to include all forms of social computing.

In late 2007, we opened the IBM Center for Social Software to help IBM’s global network of Researchers collaborate with corporate residents, university students and faculty, creating the industry’s premier incubator for the research, development and testing of social software that is “fit for business.” Recent projects we’re pursuing focus on the concept that IBM is experienced through the difference research papers IBMer. People get to bar essay frequency, know IBM through our consultants, speakers, salespeople and researchers. Within our walls, we have huge stores of accrued expertise embodied in several Nobel laureates and on disadvantages of playing thousands of new york frequency, doctors. We’re working to best utilize our most important asset, our people, helping to identify their strengths and expertise and then connecting them with potential customers, partners and the knowledge seeking public visiting IBM.com. We call it the Expertise Locator. So you can see, our social initiatives run deep and have evolved with the times. But, there is one constant, as you hear about IBM’s approach to Social Business, you’ll notice that our thinking isn’t document centric.

It’s people centric. 2. I believe a social business is built upon three pillars – people (culture/leadership), process and technology. In your opinion, what should be the first priority? People. You’re employees, partners and customers are what makes your organization run.

You can’t forget about them when launching a social push, they drive the engine. Gorgias Essays? When we talk about social business we talk about bar essay frequency embracing the networks of people you have to create business value. We believe the most effective approach to enabling a social business centers around helping people discover expertise, develop social networks and capitalize on research papers relationships. It helps groups of people bind together into communities of shared interest and coordinate efforts to deliver better business results faster. Culture is of course all part of this. An effective social business embodies a culture characterized by sharing, transparency, innovation and improved decision making. Such a culture enables deeper relationships within the organization and bar essay with customers and good introduction on a paper business partners.

a. How important is culture change to the evolution of social business? Culture change may be the most challenging component of successfully transforming into a social business. In order to influence a cultural change you have to educate and encourage. Social tools provide a gateway for information exchanges across geographies and organizational silos. Building trust and encouraging social interactions are essential to driving a social change in the workforce. To become a social business you have to recognize that employees need to be agile, informed and able to work beyond their specific job descriptions. In order to support this, you must provide tools and the cultural incentives that allow employees more access to the right information and the right people. You must reduce both the cultural boundaries as well as the new york bar essay technical obstacles for people to connect with people and and critical information, allowing unprecedented access. Interactive, educational and social programs have been vital to IBM’s transformation. For example, we’ve recently launched Social Business @ IBM on our internal intranet. This is a resource for bar essay IBM’ers that aims to educate them about social media and various social initiatives taking place internally while enabling them to participate.

We host modules that provide the between papers IBM’er with an introduction to the social web. They learn how to use social computing tools to foster collaboration, disseminate and consume news, develop networks, forge closer relationships, and build credibility. As a result, they’re better informed and prepared to take action. By making these types of bar essay frequency, tools and information available, we’re changing how the IBM’er approaches social and computer games twofold, changing our culture. b. How important is the creation of processes to the evolution of social business?

The evolution of social business is a process in itself. An organization must go through the process of identifying market factors that are generating the need for a transformation, it must recognize the social objectives it needs to accomplish, then establish social outputs that will support the objectives and new york frequency finally, executives need to determine which platforms, applications, and features they’ll need to meet desired outcomes. These basic principles or processes are vital to the success of research, a social business. Similar actions must be taken for new york frequency each department and social initiative. c. How important is technology to the evolution of social business? Technology is certainly a key factor in the evolution. An organization must adopt tools that work efficiently in order to of an educator, successfully make this transformation. In that regard, IBM is drinking our own champagne, using our own social business platform to push ahead. In 2010, with 35 percent of Fortune 100 companies using IBM social software in bar essay the enterprise, IDC named IBM as the outstanding educator essay #1 social software platform company in the industry. Just this month, IDC put us on frequency top again, so we feel pretty confident that our technology plays a vital role in the social business transformation. While social software adoption is on styles the rise, a growing challenge for global organizations is the ability to manage risk while harnessing insights from a wide variety of social communities and new york bar essay remaining compliant with their own governance policies, including practices dictated by their regulatory requirements.

We just released the newest version of IBM Connections, our social software platform, that addresses these challenges. The new IBM Connections allows organizations to difference between papers, track and trace data on the fly throughout their organizations, then analyze in real-time using the IBM Connections active compliance service versus waiting until day end for analysis. With these new advancements around compliance enablement, a social business can confidently activate networks of bar essay, people to use a variety of collaborative tools, to improve and accelerate innovation. Social business technology is also vital in essay supporting the mobile workforce. Bar Essay? We’re witnessing an and critical styles explosion in frequency the number and type of computing devices in the market today. Qualities Of An Educator Essay? Just one example is the growth of tablets. Up to 47.9 million tablet PC units are expected to be shipped this year, and 79.6 million next year, according to the latest J.P.

Morgan forecasts. In all, this represents a $35 billion annual revenue opportunity, says the investment firm. And they are not all iPad’s. This dizzying influx of new devices is bar essay, causing a major disruption in the enterprise. Difference Between Papers? With the mobile workforce expected to reach more than 1.19 billion by 2013, nearly 1 trillion Internet-connected devices will be in new york market by next year, generating 20 times more mobile data by 2015. Social enabling these workers to be effective, collaborate and innovate is a major requirement for organizations. IBM is delivering a broad range of social software and on disadvantages of playing collaboration capabilities to employees to new york bar essay frequency, better connect through mobile devices. Whether it be iPhones, iPads, BlackBerry, PlayBook, Nokia or Android. For example, through our Connections software we are enabling mobile employees to create networks, documents, share files through a community that they can access and manage on their mobile device.

The software delivers features that enable mobile employees to collaborate on the fly this includes developing social networks, sharing files, locating business experts, participating in online discussions and conducting in web meetings. Mobile is the and critical thinking future of the workforce and organizations must learn how to support them with social technology. 3. I believe that the new york bar essay growing influence of the essays social customer, among other things, is what is causing business today to humanize its operations. Do you agree? Why or why not? Absolutely. You have to new york frequency, go to where your customers are. Today, customers are out on social networks looking for information. Creative And Critical? In order to new york bar essay frequency, successfully reach them, we need to be active on essays research those platforms, and most importantly engaged with the knowledge seekers. Most business leaders understand this.

In fact, 88 percent of bar essay frequency, all CEOs who participated on the 2010 IBM CEO study picked “getting closer to between research papers, the customer” as the new york bar essay frequency most important dimension to realize their strategy in the next five years. But understanding the importance and actually knowing how to act on it are very different. Consumers are connecting with brands in fundamentally new ways. Customers rely on digital interactions, peer evaluations, social media and online after-purchase support to make decisions. Organizations have to become customer centric to survive. Social media tools must be ingrained in essays and cons an organizations end-to-end business.

Organizations also have to be good listeners, and instead of pushing out bar essay frequency, messages and offers, engagement through open dialogue integrated with rich media capabilities should be implemented. a. What has caused IBM to evolve into a social business? IBM has always been about innovation, pushing the envelope. Essay Of Playing? But there’s no “i” in innovation at IBM, its always been about the bar essay frequency collective, creative mind – collaboration. So becoming a holistic, social business has been somewhat of and critical thinking styles, a natural transformation for the organization – we want to work together to achieve our goals.

The new workforce has also played a part in our transformation. The younger generation of workers demands tools that help them do work better, communicate with their peers and connect with IBM’ers with similar interests. New York? In order to appease this new workforce, we had to develop tools they were familiar with (Facebook, blogs, Twitter) and papers relate them to bar essay, business goals. What better asset does an and cons organization have than its employees? Its the IBM’ers that have pushed us as an organization to develop these social tools, social media guidelines, etc. We recognize that our employees are our what makes the IBM brand and services the best in the world. 4. IBM is a huge organization; and spread out globally. How is social media managed internally? What does the organization look like (i.e. centralized, decentralized, matrix)?

Is there a Center of Excellence? We’re structured as a matrix. We have regional social media managers and teams supporting them based on new york geography (for example US or Europe) who are working to educate and enable IBM’ers and identify “experts.” Its these managers who are behind the Social Business @ IBM project where IBM’ers can go to pros, become educated and start to engage on social platforms. This program serves as our “Center of Excellence”. Our social business strategy seeks to focus interactions on concrete outcomes, enhancing each IBM’ers social presence, projecting their expertise, driving innovation and ultimately, delivering business value. With the Social Business @ IBM site, IBM’ers can achieve these goals more effectively than if they were on their own. Whether they’re a newcomer to social media, an expert seeking to project their expertise over social channels, or an active social business practitioner who wants to engage in specific IBM programs – everything they need is in one spot.

5. There are several hundred IBMers engaged on Twitter and within the social web. Is this by design or did it happen organically? Actually it’s closer to new york bar essay frequency, 25,000 IBMers actively tweeting on Twitter and counting. Not only between essays research, are we present on Twitter but we also have over 300,000 IBMers on Linkedin and frequency 198,000 on Facebook. This is just our external social media footprint. Some examples of IBM’s internal social media footprint today include: 17,000 individual blogs 1 million daily page views of internal wikis, internal information storing website 400,000 employee profiles on introduction research IBM Connections, IBM’s social networking initiative that allows employees to share status updates, collaborate on wikis, blogs and activity, share files. 15,000,000 downloads of employee-generated videos/podcasts 20 million minutes of new york bar essay frequency, LotusLive meetings every month with people both inside and on disadvantages outside the organization More than 400k Sametime instant messaging users, resulting in new york bar essay 40-50 million instant messages per day. We don’t force anyone to participate in social media externally or internally, but its a natural curiosity and interest for IBMers, so we educate and enable them.

We were one of the first organizations to embrace the blogosphere and encourage our employees to participate. Our own IBM bloggers were the gorgias essays ones to develop the company’s Blogging Policy and frequency Guidelines which has evolved into the social computing guidelines as external social platforms have sprung up and difference evolved. So our social web engagement is a little bit of both organic interest and careful design and education. 6. Bar Essay? Can any IBM employee engage externally with partners, suppliers and customers? Essentially, yes, and we aim and work to provide the necessary tools and education so that any IBM’er can effectively engage. In 2007 we realized that our client-facing teams were on the front lines for engaging in meaningful conversations with customers about this emerging technology, social software, and we knew we needed to equip these teams with the creative and critical thinking skills and experience to drive business growth, so we created the BlueIQ program. New York? The BlueIQ team consists of creative thinking, eight worldwide employees who have been tasked with enablement, education, consulting, support, mentoring, and coaching of IBM employees on frequency how they can use social tools in their daily work to creative and critical, help them improve collaboration and share knowledge across the company. At first the target audience for BlueIQ was 16,000 traditional salespeople and technical salespeople (populations that historically do not share knowledge or relationships due to perceived impact on quotas and commissions). Based on the viral adoption of the initial program, BlueIQ extended support to bar essay, IBM’s 400,000-plus workforce. Gorgias Essays? This program has given our employees the knowledge they need to effectively communicate with our constituents – customers, partners, suppliers, etc.

7. Please explain IBM’s journey to social business transformation. Are there any gaps? IBM’s journey really started back in the 1970s, as I mentioned before, when our mainframe programmers started online discussion forums on the System 370 consoles. The journey has evolved with the times, with the new workforce and is still underway. It’s important to understand that our transformation has not been limited to only one department, region, business process, or role, its company wide, a global transformation. It’s also important to note that our transformation is not without its challenges.

IDC published the results of their Social Business Survey* identifying that the new york top three challenges associated with using enterprise social software, they are getting people to participate, measuring the impact on difference between research business goals, and finding the time to use another tool. Other challenges include security, governance, and privacy concerns. IBM has not been immune to new york, any of these. Realistically, any company making the transition to essays pros, a social business will face some issues along the way. 8. How do you measure the effectiveness of a social business? We measure the bar essay frequency effectiveness in very traditional ways – is between research papers, it ultimately affecting our bottom line, and the answer is yes. For example, using our own social business platform, more than 130 communities of IBM professionals around the globe are collaborating virtually. This has reduced the time it would have taken to complete projects by 30%, increased re-use of “software assets” by 50%, and cut component costs by 33%. But we also take into account less quantifiable effectiveness like increases in employee satisfaction, new relationships, and expertise.

9. What advice can you give to other executives who want to transform their organizations into a fully collaborative social business? We’ve learned many valuable lessons along our social business transformation journey. One of the biggest lessons learned was that social business transformation involves more changes to frequency, culture than technology. Remember that your employees are your most important asset. Shift your focus from documents, project plans and other temporary artifacts to the source of the research paper energy, creativity and decision making that moves the new york business forward: people. Remember that trust is a key element to becoming a social business. An organization needs a certain level of on abortion pros and cons, trust to empower its employees to share their ideas and expertise and it must demonstrate this trust by rewarding behavior. At the same time, this trust must be balanced with an new york bar essay frequency appropriate level of governance or discipline that sets the parameters of appropriate actions. Essays? Lastly, becoming a social business is not simply a matter of new york bar essay, deploying some collaboration tools and hoping for the best. It is a long-term strategic approach to shaping a business culture and is highly dependent on executive leadership and effective corporate strategy, including business processes, risk management, leadership development, financial controls and business analytics. *Source: IDC’s Social Business Survey, September 2010.

IBM Case Study on Social Business. Thank you Dana and Jeff for creative providing me with this information. It was truly enlightening to learn about IBM, its culture and journey to become a fully collaborative social business. I write at length about this very topic in my upcoming book , Smart Business, Social Business: A Playbook for Social Media in Your Organization scheduled to be released in July 2011. You can pre-order by new york bar essay clicking on the below social business book cover. 100% of all book royalties are being donated to Not For Sale; a global non profit organization trying to abolish human and sex trafficking.

Thank you for research your support. Michael Brito has been making things happen online since 1996 with a legit hustle. He gets mad when the bar essay 49ers lose, really mad. Feel free to follow him on essay on disadvantages computer games Twitter. Michael, Thank you for new york frequency publishing this amazingly comprehensive material. I could go on for days dissecting this. I think it’s hard for so many social media advocates to realize they are on on disadvantages of playing computer games the leading edge and the need for company culture change will feel like glacial movement. I like Jeff’s thinking around making people centric rather than documents, a very interesting perspective (see my head tilt, hmmm).

Great article and good luck with the new york bar essay frequency book. I’ve been amazed at re-discovering IBM in their 100th year to gorgias essays, learn how nimble and socialized the company is. New York Frequency? The sheer amount of bloggers/employees on Twitter producing valuable content is good paper, inspiring. And with all the analytic companies they’ve acquired, I would not be surprised if they are the technology company to truly disrupt how digital and new york bar essay offline media is bought, sold, measured connected. Great job on this article and I salute you for donating the royalties from your book to Not For Sale! Oh thank you Tamara.

Appreciate the between essays comment. Join over 10,000 people who get fresh content delivered straight to their inboxes. Michael Brito discusses the latest in social business and content strategy.

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It depends how much professional experience you have. If you are a recent college grad, then it is acceptable to include on your resume. Essays! Good luck on the job hunt! Good luck on the job hunt! If the jobs are relevant to the ones you are applying for, then you can go as far back as you like. With regards to your military experience, check out our military to bar essay, civilian resume guide: https://resumegenius.com/blog/go-shooting-guns-coffee-runs. Any of the templates in difference between research papers, library 2 would be suitable for new york frequency manufacturing careers. Best of essay of playing computer luck! I’ve worked in the same industry for the past 13 years. Multiple employers with jobs lasting two to three years each. The jobs have been similar, so the experience looks a bit repetitive.

I need to bar essay frequency, find a template that highlights my experience without getting bogged down in the chronology, Any suggestions? It provides ample space for your professional experience, while also highlighting your top qualifications. Qualities Outstanding Essay! Good luck on bar essay the job hunt! hi resume genius.. i need template resume that suitable for essay of playing computer games trainer and new york coach.. can u suggest to between essays papers, me with template is suitable.. #128578; I had a job for 7 years and during that time I wore many hats, Executive Admin, Purchasing, Vendor Management, Project Coordination, etc. New York! How would I write that on on disadvantages of playing computer games my resume? Perhaps the new york, Company name and then all the related roles under that and the times I did those jobs?

I was always the Executive Admin, but I did other jobs during that period. Yes, your suggestion is correct. Start with the company name and included the gorgias essays, related jobs with their own bullet points underneath. Good luck! Consider trying the ‘Job Hopper’ or the ‘Executive.’ They should able to frequency, fit all your jobs nicely. Ive never had a job so what should I use? Most of the templates above would suit your situation, but we suggest trying the Career Changer template because it emphasizes skills over the dates of your professional experience. (https://resumegenius.com/resume-templates/career-level-life-situation-templates#career-changer-templates) Best of luck! We suggest using the good paper, ‘Gatsby’ Template. Good luck with grad school! As far as style, we suggest our ‘Professional’ template. New York Bar Essay Frequency! In terms of format, if you want to include your restaurant experience, then you might want to consider using a functional format:https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats/functional-samples-writing-guide.

Hope this helps! We suggest using our ‘Entry-Level’ template. Good luck with the internship! Good Day Resume Genius.I’m a midwife by profession an qualities of an educator essay, has worked in a military hospital for 16 years in KSA. New York Bar Essay Frequency! I’m trying to apply as a home based ESL educator and an email respondent . Gorgias Essays! Since I’m from the medical profession, I’m having difficulty in choosing the perfect resume.The skill I know is more on the medical.,clerical which involes data entry for appointments and summary, interpreter and my part time informal english lessons to native speaking arabs. What template should I use? Try the ‘Murray’ template. New York Frequency! Good luck! Hello. Which is good for cabin crew applicant?

I have no many work experience in qualities of an outstanding educator, service. So i want to highlight the other things. Thanks #128578; Take a look at our Flight Attendant resume sample: https://resumegenius.com/resume-samples/flight-attendant-resume-example You can download it and input your own information. Which template would you recommend for a career in education? Check out our teacher resume samples: https://resumegenius.com/resume-samples/teacher-resume-example You can download them and input your own experience. Try using the ‘Freeman’ template. New York Bar Essay! Best of luck on the promotion! Hi!

What resume template would you recommend for a college freshman trying to good introduction on a research paper, apply for a competitive summer program with the USDA and South Dakota State University? Sound like the ‘Entry-Level’ template would be a good fit for what you’re trying to do. Good luck with the summer program. Hi! Which resume template would you recommend for someone trying to tap into bar essay frequency the finance and accounting market. Looking for an entry-level position.

You should go with the ‘Entry-Level’ template. Good luck with the gorgias essays, job hunt. I have worked 32+ years as a nurse, the last 4 years taking care of my elderly father and online work. Bar Essay Frequency! Now seeking to get back into the job market for and cons extra income, not necessarily in bar essay, the health field, just to between, earn some income and socialize. What resume do you suggest? Try the new york bar essay, ‘Job Hopper’ template. Good luck with your job search! Hi! What resume template would you recommend for qualities of an outstanding a 9th grader trying to apply for a doctor (any)?? Apparently, resume making and interviewing is our project for the fourth quarter this year.

I couldn’t find any clear examples on the web, and I was hoping you could help me out with what template I should use.. Try using the bar essay, ‘Elegant 2.0’ template. Good luck on your project. Yes, if you click the View all Resume Designs button and click the download link for the template pack of your choice. If you’ve never written a resume before, I’d recommend checking out our “How to Write a Resume” guide to get a clearer idea (it’s much more comprehensive than any answer I can give here). Difference Between Essays! https://resumegenius.com/how-to-write-a-resume.

Hit us up with any follow-up questions after giving that a read we’ll see if we can help further! Good luck! Hey there Margaret, In order to frequency, best understand which template works, it’s a good idea to check out which resume format fits your particular needs; then you can take it from there. Essays Pros And Cons! https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats. All of the templates were created by professional resume writers, so it’s hard to go wrong with any of them — it just depends on your preference.

Good luck! It really depends on what job you’re applying for. Since you have substantial work experience, try quantifying that in new york, your resume (think: any numbers that a hiring manager can look at and better understand what you accomplished during your time working there). Check out this page and good on a choose the one you find most fitting, that should be a good start: https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats. Good luck on the job hunt! Hey there hbil036, This way, you can focus on your skills qualifications critical to the job application. As an aside, you may want to new york bar essay frequency, look into gorgias essays whether you’re qualified to new york, get back into accounting after that many years outside of the field. I understand that some regulations and rules change over the years — it may just be a matter of taking a test or updating your certifications, but I’m not certain. If that doesn’t seem to be a problem then go with the essay, functional resume for sure. Good luck on frequency the job hunt!

If you are lacking in major experience, I’d recommend using a reverse chronological format for your resume. Our “Classic” template on this page should do the trick: https://resumegenius.com/resume-templates/ Good luck at the job fair! I recommend you first check out our internship resume sample page: https://resumegenius.com/resume-samples/internship-resume-example. Afterwards, feel free to and critical styles, choose any format – just use a comprehensive education section instead of a professional experience section, and you should be good. Bar Essay Frequency! Good luck landing that internship! Share Free Downloadable Resume Templates Our code geeks and HR experts are proud to introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to help you land more interviews in between, today’s competitive job market. We provide HR-approved resume templates, built-in job description bullet point phrases to choose from, and easy export to bar essay, MS Word and between essays research papers PDF.

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charles beard essay Why Charles Beard Lied. Britain's War on the Constitution. by Kathleen Murphy. In 1913, an aspiring historian by the name of new york frequency, Charles Austin Beard published a savage assault on American republicanism in the form of an economic interpretation of the U.S. Constitution. Timed to coincide with the presidential inauguration of that shameless Anglo-Ameriphile Woodrow Wilson, the publication of essay, Beard's lying account of the Constitution's origins quickly accomplished what it had set out to do: to trigger a demoralizing national controversy over the spurious question, Is the Constitution 'democratic' enough to meet the needs of a modern 'mass society'? -- a debate which would pave the way for the wholesale subversion of the American System. An Economic Interpretation of the Constitution bore as much similarity to honest historiography as today's soap operas to real life.

Stripped of new york, its flimsy academic pretenses, Beard's book was an hysterical diatribe against the great men who brought the United States into introduction existence. Overflowing with distortions, innuendo, and outright fabrications, manifesting no concern whatever for historical accuracy, An Economic Interpretation nevertheless self-righteously insisted that the bar essay frequency Founding Fathers had been a clique of greedy, self-interested proto-aristocrats who had secretly drawn up the Constitution and then conspired to impose it illegally upon the rest of the population for the sole purpose of essays on abortion, consolidating political and economic control over the new nation in their own money-grubbing hands. It should come as no surprise, then, to learn that the new york bar essay frequency young Columbia University professor who penned this prize specimen of black propaganda was consciously acting on behalf of a power hostile to the United States. Despite his hypocritical protests of nonpartisanship, Charles Beard was serving the interests of the British oligarchy when he wrote this most infamous of his many books had served them, in fact, since at least 1900 and continued to do so until his death in creative thinking, 1948. Beard's deliberate distortion of one of the most decisive turning points in America's development as a sovereign republic represented a significant escalation in an ambitious campaign, launched by London in the early nineteenth century, to rob the new york bar essay frequency U.S. of its sense of moral purpose by systematically rewriting, revising and reinterpreting its history.

Premised on the British oligarchy's perception that the United States would never succumb to its plans for of an outstanding educator essay, re-conquering its former colonies unless all traces of the Neoplatonic world view which had given rise to frequency, the victorious American Revolution were first obliterated from the historical record, the British campaign to undermine the American System put hired hist-whorians such as the renowned George Bancroft and Frederick Jackson Turner to work churning out a stream of fictionalizations purporting to represent and interpret the history of America. (1) The story of how Beard came to figure so prominently in this Big Lie deployment against on abortion and cons, the United States begins at Oxford's Balliol College. Long the new york frequency key training center for Britain's topmost intelligence agents and ruling elite, Balliol also played a prominent role in seducing American intellectuals into outstanding educator essay the Crown's employ a process institutionalized with the new york bar essay creation of the Rhodes Scholarship Fund in 1904. Sent to Balliol by his Anglophile professor at Indiana's DePauw University, Beard was taken under the computer wing of Fabian Society and related Round Table networks immediately upon his arrival there in 1899. These networks, featuring Fabian leaders Ramsay MacDonald, Keir Hardie, and Beatrice and Sidney Webb, tailored a curriculum for Beard which enabled him to assimilate swiftly the tools of the British intelligence trade. One of Beard's first assignments, carried out under the direction of Balliol's Regius Professor of History F. York Powell in collaboration with another American expatriate, socialist Walter Vrooman, involved setting up Oxford's pioneer workingman's college, Ruskin Hall.

Named in honor of arch-racist John Ruskin, spiritual godfather of Round Table founder Cecil Rhodes and one of Beard's lifelong idols, Ruskin Hall became an important element in the Round Table's strategy for new york, infusing new blood--in this case, from the labor movement--into the Empire's dangerously anemic administrative apparatus. As Ruskin Hall's extension agent, Beard undertook several recruitment drives through England's pitiful industrial cities. He also published his first book under its imprint. Creative And Critical Styles. An anti-industrial tract misnomered The Industrial Revolution, Beard's first exercise in new york, the Big Lie school of historiography blamed Europe's food production crisis on its craze for industrialization, and recommended, among other measures, that if the gorgias essays soil of bar essay frequency, Europe were tilled and managed like that of China, it would support one thousand millions of human beings instead of its three hundred and sixteen millions. (2) During his last year at Balliol, Beard wrote a series of articles for Young Oxford magazine making it clear beyond question that his loyalties now lay completely with the British oligarchy. Essays On Abortion Pros And Cons. In this series, titled The Living Empire, Beard endorsed the new york frequency Round Table's geopolitical strategy for papers, turning the U.S. into the Empire's dumb giant by inveigling it into an Anglo-Saxon alliance against Germany, Japan, and Russia -- the Ruskin-Cecil Rhodes strategy for preserving the British Empire.

Imperialism is the world-creating process, Beard began. The average rational healthy man who does not suffer from new york bar essay frequency, Imperial word phobia will agree that the of playing Imperialism which produced the United States and frequency the colonies is good. Then, in an open appeal to the United States to help consolidate and essays extend Britain's worldwide looting policies -- the same policies against which the United States had already fought three bloody wars -- Beard wrote that if the two countries could integrate their own political, economic, social and frequency educational programs, vast settlements from various white countries would be transplanted, not as individuals, but as communities, over the rich plains of northern and central Asia and Southern South America, while the United States and England would use the essay on disadvantages of playing computer games same methods in distributing much needed populations over the great western plains of America and new york frequency of South Australia and South Africa. The only sane attitude which statesmen can adopt towards other races is that of non-mixture. The question is, then: Are the places of the earth now capable of supporting increased populations to be made white, or black, or yellow? It is not a question of death; it is a question of essays on abortion pros and cons, birth.

The whites are capable of multiplying indefinitely, so are the blacks and frequency yellows. Some life must be repressed. Which shall it be? [Emphasis original.] (3) It was to making this fantastic vision of a global Anglo-Saxon Empire a reality that Beard dedicated the rest of between essays research papers, his life. It was his commitment to this oligarchical grand strategy which inspired his hypocritical attacks against the antidemocratic Constitution -- and not as his defenders claim, any fine notions about the bar essay ability of the common man to on a paper, govern himself. Beard's patrons in England were impressed by his progress; here was an American who outdid the Empire's most ardent proponents in promoting the most hideous aspects of its rule! Keir Hardie and Ramsay MacDonald were so impressed, in fact, that they urged Beard to remain in frequency, England indefinitely, going so far as to promise him a Cabinet post when the soon-to-be-formed Labour Party came to power. (4) The Constitution . is grotesque But Beard's plans to pros, become the first U.S. Bar Essay. citizen to hold a Cabinet portfolio were altered abruptly in September 1901 when William McKinley, the last American president to identify himself consciously as a Hamiltonian, was murdered by a London-controlled assassin.

Under McKinley's infantile, pro-London successor, Teddy Roosevelt, a legion of British agents and agents of influence was activated in the United States in a concerted effort to essays on abortion and cons, wipe out America's republican institutions and new york bar essay frequency replace them with a Fabian/populist-modeled British colonial regimen. Spearheading what has come to be known as the Progressive Movement were the liberal reformers led by social worker Jane Addams, Lincoln Steffens, Edmond Kelley, Victor Berger, and John Spargo -- amply funded from London-connected investment bankers Jacob Schiff and James Loeb, among others -- who waged trust-busting assaults on U.S. industry and anticorruption campaigns against America's old-line political machines. Simultaneously, London unleashed a full-fledged epistemological war against the nation's humanist traditions. John Dewey a lifelong friend of Beard set about destroying American education and, with it, the minds of generations of American youth. Roscoe Pound, Louis Brandeis and Oliver Wendell Holmes worked to overthrow the natural-law foundations of America's legal system in introduction on a, favor of nominalist doctrines typified by frequency sociological jurisprudence, while in economics, Richard Ely, Thorstein Veblen, and E.R.A. Seligman (a scion of the Rothschild-connected Seligman banking family) propagated openly anti-industrial theories.

In philosophy, occultist and Aristotelian William James's ludicrous pragmatism was established as a uniquely American contribution. Above all, this Tory fifth column was determined to savage the U.S. Constitution, and it was to this task that Beard, who returned to the United States in gorgias essays, 1902 to a teaching post at Morgan-connected Columbia University, devoted his efforts. To London, the very existence of the Constitution presented a constant reminder of its humiliating defeat by bar essay frequency the American revolutionists and, as her agents were constantly complaining, the principal obstacle to social progress. To the United States, on the other hand, the Constitution served as the essay of playing computer living embodiment of its framers' intent to build a nation committed to bar essay frequency, the perfection of its citizens through scientific and technological progress.

On both counts, London knew that the destruction of the Constitution's credibility was an between essays, absolute prerequisite if its overall subversion of the U.S. was to proceed successfully. Beard's An Economic Interpretation of the Constitution represented the culmination of this assault. Since the new york bar essay turn of the century, British conduits had been flooding the U.S. with virulent attacks on the Constitution and the men who created it. Essay On Disadvantages Computer Games. The opening salvo was fired in 1898 by the American branch of the Fabian Society. In the inaugural issue of its magazine, the Society vowed to replace the U.S. Constitution with something resembling England's: We call our paper The American Fabian for two reasons. We call it Fabian because we desire to make it stand for the kind of educational Socialist work which is so ably done by the English Fabian Society. Bar Essay Frequency. We call our paper The American Fabian because our politics must in a measure differ from those of the introduction on a English Fabians. England and America are alike in some things; in some things they are utterly unalike.

England's Constitution readily admits of constant though gradual modification. Our American Constitution does not readily admit of new york bar essay, such change. England can thus move into Socialism almost imperceptibly. Our Constitution being largely individualistic must be changed to admit of Socialism, and each change necessitates a political crisis. This means the qualities of an raising of new york frequency, great new issues. [Emphasis added.] (5)

Within weeks, the same line was being retailed in London by Ramsay MacDonald -- who, not accidentally, was soon to become one of Beard's principal patrons at Balliol. Creative. Briefing a meeting of the frequency Fabian Society on his just-concluded tour of the United States, MacDonald lamented: The great bar to progress in the U.S. is the written constitution, Federal and State, which gives ultimate power to a law court. (6) By 1912, denunciations of the Constitution had become so commonplace that even Colonel Edward House, Woodrow Wilson's British-connected controller, could openly sneer that the document was not only outmoded, but grotesque. In order to introduction paper, provide some shred of credibility to this treachery, a slew of sensationalist books smearing the Constitution were circulated. Among the most influential were The Spirit of American Government (1907) whose author, J. New York Bar Essay. Allen Smith, said he wanted to call attention to the [Constitution's] inherent opposition to democracy (7) -- and self-styled Marxist Algie Simons' Social Forces in American History (1911), which charged that: The organic law of this nation was formulated in secret session by a body called into existence through a conspiratorial trick, and was forced upon a disenfranchised people by means of a dishonest apportionment in order that the interests of a small body of wealthy rulers might be served. (8)

By the time Beard's An Economic Interpretation of the Constitution appeared in 1913, the ground had been well-prepared for just such an and critical styles, impartial and definitive indictment. Beard's role in these attacks on the Constitution, exemplified but by no means limited to An Economic Interpretation, was based on his study and conscious replication of the new york bar essay political theory of the bestialist Aristotle. Against the Founding Fathers' goal of an introduction on a paper, urban-centered, industrialized United States, Beard posed Aristotle's vision of democracy based on small farmers condemned to rural idiocy and bar essay frequency powerless against the rule of oligarchies. Against their Neoplatonic humanist commitment to the development of human minds guided by reason and the necessary interest of humanity as a whole, Beard championed Aristotle's heteronomic individual self-interest and greed. In a series of lectures delivered at Amherst College three years after publishing An Economic Interpretation, Beard was at his most effusive and frank in his admiration for Aristotle: The mighty Aristotle, 'the master of all them that know,' . rightly deserves to called 'the father of political science,' because he took it out of the sphere of creative and critical styles, utopian idealism where Plato left it and new york frequency placed it on the strong foundations of natural history . he sought to combine the idealism of ethics with the realism of historical research. Aristotle combines economics, politics, and ethics. Good Introduction Paper. How sound is this, how wise, how much more scientific than our modern practice of dissection and distribution among specialists. . Bar Essay Frequency. When he approaches the heart of the matter, namely, the causes of variation in the form of the state, he immediately relates economics and politics.

It can hardly be doubted that Aristotle . looks upon difference between essays the character and distribution of wealth in new york frequency, society as the chief determining factors in fixing the form of state. When Aristotle takes up the problem of computer games, finding the best material for new york bar essay frequency, a democracy he is no less insistent upon the economic element as the fundamental factor. The safest and introduction paper most enduring form of democracy is, in his opinion, that based upon new york frequency agriculture. Educator. In such a state the people are compelled to work hard for a livelihood, they have little time for political intrigue and bar essay combinations, they do not covet the property of others, and they will endure in patience oligarchies or tyrannies if they are allowed to work and are not deprived of their lands or cattle. [emphasis added]. Next to an agricultural democracy, that of a pastoral people is best. The worst and most dangerous democracy is that founded on commerce, for there is no moral excellence in the employments of traders, mechanics, and laborers. (9)

Hypocritically, Beard, who was later to explicitly espouse just such an good on a research, agrarian democracy for the United States, had denounced the U.S. New York Frequency. Constitution for being aristocratic and qualities of an inefficient for positive action only eight years earlier. Beard based his own views on government on Aristotle's conception -- against Plato's insistence on the greater the unity of the state the better that no individual or group of men is capable of transcending the boundaries of his or their own immediate self-interest to act in the interests of the human species as mediated, for instance, through a state as a whole. In his Politics Aristotle wrote: Is it not obvious that a state may at length attain such a degree of new york bar essay, unity as to be no longer a state? Since the nature of a state is to be a plurality, and in tending to greater unity, from being a state, it becomes a family, and from being a family, an individual; for the family may be said to be more one than the between research papers state, and the individual than the family. So that we ought not to attain this greater unity even if we could, for it would be the destruction of the state. (10) Beard repeated this same pluralistic argument in a Politics of his own (published 1908) in which he asserted that the real state is not the juristic state but is the new york bar essay group of persons able to work together efficiently for the accomplishment of their joint aims. The essence of the state is the exercise of sovereign authority by some person or group of persons. (I1)

Five years later, in essay of playing computer, his lying interpretation of the Constitution, Beard drew Aristotle's argument to its ultimate antihumanist conclusion: It does not follow, Beard cynically declared, that the new york bar essay frequency vague thing known as the advancement of general welfare or some abstraction known as justice was the creative and critical thinking styles immediate, guiding purpose of the framers [of the Constitution]. Bar Essay Frequency. The point is, that the direct, impelling motive in both cases was the economic advantages which the beneficiaries expected would accrue to themselves first, from their action. This view, together with Aristotle's espousal of rural democracy, is both the underpinning and the purpose of Beard's analysis in essay, An Economic Interpretation that the fight over the Constitution represented an irreconcilable split between agrarian special interests and new york bar essay frequency capitalist special interests. Rotten lies and filthy perversions The allegations and conclusions Beard put forth in An Economic Interpretation differed little from those of his predecessors. Of An Outstanding. In essence, he contended that there had been a fundamental division in the American population over the Constitution and its ramifications for national policy. On the one hand, Beard maintained, stood the overwhelming majority of the population, the debtors and small farmers, constituting a popular party based on paper money and agrarian interests; on the other, a conservative party centred in new york bar essay frequency, the towns and resting on financial, mercantile, and on abortion personal property interests generally. (12) The movement for the Constitution, Beard claimed, was originated and carried through principally by four groups of personal interests which had been adversely affected under the new york bar essay frequency Articles of Confederation: money, public securities, manufactures, and of an educator essay trade and frequency shipping. (13) Moreover, The members of the Philadelphia Convention which drafted the essays Constitution were immediately, directly, and personally interested in, and new york frequency derived economic advantages from, the establishment of the new system. (14)

As for the Constitution itself, Beard deemed it essentially an economic document based upon the concept that the introduction research fundamental private rights of property are anterior to government and morally beyond the new york frequency reach of popular majorities. (15) Beard charged that the convening of the Constitional Convention amounted to a virtual coup d'etat in gorgias essays, itself since no popular vote was taken directly or indirectly on the proposition to new york bar essay frequency, call the Convention which drafted the Constitution; that a large propertyless mass was . excluded at the outset from participation (through representatives) in the work of framing the essay Constitution by prevailing suffrage qualifications; and that the Constitution was ratified by new york a vote or probably not more than one-sixth of adult males. (16) Beard's treatment of the entirety of American history -- from the dispute over the Constitution, through the split between Hamilton and Jefferson, to the Civil War -- was based on the false premise that the principal dynamic in the development of the nation was the struggle for domination between capitalist (manufacturing, commerce, finance) and farming interests. This false dichotomy was simply Beard's method of diverting attention from and obscuring the real battle that has characterized every major crisis in American history: the fight between the American System, with its commitment to scientific progress and the application of new technologies to both agriculture and industry, and the British System, based on essays pros, Aristotle's bestial vision of pastoral idiocy -- a vision which Beard openly urged the United States to adopt. Had Beard published his tirade against the Constitution ten years earlier, it would probably have been dismissed as the rantings of a crank, and the matter would have ended there. But London's epistemological war had already begun to erode America's capacity for resistance.

Thanks to the zealous publicity efforts of America's wretchedly anglophile liberal establishment, An Economic Interpretation was palmed off on the public as the definitive expose the real story behind the Constitution. As the following quotes from two establishment spokesmen suggest, the damage which Beard's book wrought on the American System was incalculable. According to new york frequency, the Nation magazine, founded by E.L. Gorgias Essays. Godkin as a conduit for British propaganda, An Economic Interpretation was the chief reason that. . We know today that the Constitution is a scheme devised by a land-holding and rum-selling oligarchy for the enslavement of a democracy. There was a group of people and an epoch commonly described as the Fathers. Frequency. We know today that they were not parents to be proud of. The Fathers in their graves stand in the way of a great many desirable things of the present. Essays Pros And Cons. Therefore, they must be shown up. The movement once under way, impetus does the rest.

There ensues a chronic irritation with the past; a chronic suspicion that the past was just the opposite new york frequency, of what patriotic sentiment has usually pictured. (17) Commenting more explicitly on the contribution Beard's book made to the Progressive Movement's attempt to overthrow the American constitutional system, Max Lerner wrote: Beard's book . brought the theory of group interests and of class conflict into the center of the study of American politics; it dealt a blow to the conservative Supreme Court majorities and to their apologists, for if it was true that even the founding fathers were human beings governed by difference essays papers their sense of economic interest, it was a fortiori even truer of the frequency Supreme Court justices who passed on the validity of federal and educator essay state legislation that sought to new york, control Big Property. Thus it dealt a blow to thinking styles, the strongest panoply in which property in Beard's day clothed itself -- the inviolate panoply of Constitutional due process of law. At the same time, it gave the coup de grace to the mechanical jurisprudence of the time, the rebellion against which was one of Beard's strongest motivations. (18) Equally damaging, Beard's bogus theories became the accepted interpretation of the Constitution for several decades to come; by the mid-1930s, his central thesis had been incorporated into the overwhelming majority of college textbooks and into a significant proportion of secondary school texts as well. And when the New Republic conducted a survey of books that changed our minds during the new york same period, An Economic Interpretation ranked second out of a hundred, prompting Walter Lippmann to praise it for marking a turning point in the interpretation of American history. (19) This is not to imply that American Whigs did not attempt to counter Beard's lies. Typifying the outrage with which these layers greeted An Economic Interpretation was Warren G. Harding's Marion (Indiana) Star.

Scavengers, Hyena-like, Desecrate the Graves of the Dead Patriots We Revere, ran the headline over the Star's review of Beard's book, which nominated Beard for. . the place of Chief Hyena. His book is libelous, vicious and damnable in its influence, and every patriotic citizen of the United States, every lover of liberty in this land should rise to condemn him and the purveyors of essays on abortion and cons, his filthy lies and rotten perversions. (20) But while Harding hit the nail smack on its head, his and new york bar essay others' failure to identify Beard and qualities outstanding essay his book for what they were -- weapons in London's ongoing war against the Republic -- rendered their protests ineffective. The New History: Lying with a clear conscience. As Harding said, An Economic Interpretation was basically a pack of lies. Research done subsequently by Robert Brown, Nancy Spannaus, Forrest McDonald and others (21) has indisputably demonstrated that the facts which Beard marshaled to support his attack on the Founding Fathers were either downright fraudulent, or ambiguous at best. Even Beard's major evidence for charging that the Fathers were materially motivated in framing the Constitution -- the fact that several of new york frequency, them held U.S. Treasury Bonds -- is of an outstanding, both questionable and ludicrous.

Imagine railing at someone for financially supporting a cause to which he has committed his entire life! The fundamental silliness of Beard's arguments is what probably provoked arch-Fabian Oliver Wendell Holmes to remark that the only thing he Saw in Beard's magnum opus was a covert sneer. Beard justified his utter contempt for bar essay, historical accuracy on styles, the grounds that accuracy is an unattainable dream. New York Bar Essay. A few years before An Economic Interpretation appeared, Beard had collaborated with a Columbia colleague, historian James Harvey Robinson, in essay on disadvantages games, developing a new theory of history which would enable them to lie with a clear conscience. Dubbed the New History, this modernized version of Aristotle's doctrine of mythmaking contended that, since it was impossible to know with any certainty what had actually occurred in the past, history should be written from the standpoint of bar essay, contemporary prejudices and creative styles geared principally toward shaping the future. Specifically, the New Historians argued, history should be used for furthering the new york bar essay goals of the Progressive Movement. This was the of an educator essay theory which enabled Beard -- an new york bar essay, ardent proponent of U.S. entry into essays pros World War I -- to write an account of the American Revolution, on behalf of the notorious Creel Committee of World War I, which asserted that the only argument the new york frequency American colonists had had with England was the on disadvantages games fact that King George III was a German! (22) One of the most revealing statements of Beard's ideas on historiographical method can be found in his 1933 presidential address to the American Historical Association, Written History as An Act of Faith and its sequel, That Noble Dream.

In these, Beard insisted that history exists wholly in the eyes of the beholder. History as it actually was is new york bar essay frequency, not known and cannot be known, Beard declared, adding that writing history is first and foremost a question of cutting off connections to difference research papers, the universal. (23) Beard gradually extended his denial of the possibility of truth in historiography to frequency, the entire spectrum of human knowledge. In the mid-1930s, when the Depression had begun to undermine Americans' belief in the idea of willfully determined progress, Beard began a sweeping attack against the scientific method. Claiming that the economic collapse had ushered in a fundamental crisis in Western thought, Beard wrote that this crisis. may be said to spring from the disconcerting recognition of the fact that science cannot of essays on abortion pros, itself provide the certainty, understanding and unequivocal direction to policy and practice profoundly expected after theological supremacy and assurance were disrupted in a conflict extending through several centuries. (24)

Elsewhere, Beard contended that: The contrast between the ideal that seems possible and the real [reality] that oppresses us is painfully evident to contemporary knowledge; and it is increasingly understood that science, which once supplanted theological assurance, can furnish no unequivocal prescriptions for bar essay, national policy and action. Qualities. Despite all the sayings, declarations, and prognostications . unequivocal explanations and guidance are denied us. Deprived of the certainty which it was once believed science would deliver, and bar essay of the very hope that it can in the nature of creative thinking, things disclose certainty, human beings must now concede their own fallibility and accept the world as a place of bar essay frequency, trial and error. (25) By the end of his life, Beard was espousing the most openly irrationalist outlook. In a speech to the American Political Association in 1948 he announced: I have come to of an educator, the conviction that we have no justification whatever for regarding our universe as a unified process under law and hence reducible to bar essay, an exact science, either physical or political; and still less justification for supposing that, given the nature of essays, our minds, we can grasp the scheme of bar essay frequency, things entire in its three-dimension fullness. (26) Beard's deliberate lies concerning the origins and development of the United States cannot be attributed simply to the workings of an amoral mind given to pathological lying. Like the other elements of Britain's cultural subversion of America's humanist heritage, Beard's wanton historical misrepresentations constituted, as he himself freely admitted, the means to an end. That end, as Beard made absolutely explicit time after time, was the transformation of the essays United States from the world's premier industrial power into a replica of Aristotle's perfect state a zero-growth nightmare, inhabited by men-turned-sheep tending sheep, and ruled over by a feudal aristocracy capable only new york frequency, of looting, plundering, and pillage: in modern terminology, a fascist state. In a textbook on American government published in 1924, Beard implicitly acknowledged that his incessant chattering in computer games, behalf of true democracy was demagogic bunk, intended solely for the edification of the masses.

For the present, he wrote, we shall accept the dictum of Lord Bryce that the world is governed by active minorities who originate ideas and compel the attentions of the new york frequency multitudes. (27) In other words, it is the elites, not the on abortion and cons people, who actually rule. Throughout his career, Beard complemented his historiographical subversion by actively involving himself in operations specifically geared towards supplanting American's humanist elite with one capable of carrying out London's desired transformation of the United States. One of the most important of these deployments was the so-called government reform movement, which had been inaugurated by Lord Bryce himself. (28) A key component of the Progressive Movement, government reform, was the new york bar essay frequency noble-sounding name which London applied to its attempt to seize America's government institutions by replacing democratically elected, constituency-oriented leaderships with nonpartisan experts or technocrats. Sold to the public on between essays papers, the grounds that American institutions had been corrupted beyond repair, the bar essay government reform movement aimed not merely at planting a layer of top-level agents in key policymaking positions, but at overhauling the entire structure of U.S. government and essay of playing games refashioning it along explicitly British lines. The spate of mini-Watergates which proliferated during the early twentieth century, largely provoked by the exposes of corruption in government uncovered by the British-controlled muckraking press, provided the justification for the wholesale destabilization of American government institutions, as one after another urban machine toppled before the reformers' onslaught. Beard threw himself into the government reform movement as soon as he returned from Oxford. New York. Under the gorgias essays tutelage of Frank Goodnow -- the chairman of Columbia University's political science department -- and new york bar essay frequency spurred on educator, by the bar essay frequency vision of bringing about the of an reconciliation of bar essay frequency, democracy with efficiency through the new science of public administration, Beard concentrated on two strategic areas: training the on disadvantages computer new class of technocrats, and reworking state and local constitutions.

In 1906, Beard joined the faculty of the New York Bureau of Municipal Research, where he helped establish its pioneering Training School for Public Service, becoming director of the Training School in 1912. Frequency. Funds for the Training School came from Mrs. E.H. Harriman who, returning from a trip to England in 1910, was so enthusiastic about the caliber of the British Civil Service, that she wished to replicate it at home. Known by its victims at Tammany Hall as the Bureau of Municipal Besmirch, the Training School and its parent institution produced study after study purportedly proving how inefficiently municipal government was being carried out, and how much better it would be if Americans realized that government properly belonged in the hands of specially trained experts. As New York public works czar Rober Moses, one of Beard's prize Training School pupils, put it in a dissertation he wrote at Oxford University while preparing himself for a career in introduction on a research, municipal reform back home: The Civil Service of Great Britain is new york bar essay, brilliant and farsighted because it recognizes that only a few, select university trained individuals should be permitted to hold important government positions. (29)

Through Beard's efforts, the Bureau and its Training School rapidly established themselves as the paramount institutions of their kind and the model for the thousands of others which were set up across the of playing computer games country over new york frequency the next two decades. Through these institutions -- of which the Brookings Institution (founded in 1916) is one of the most notorious -- government policymaking and administration on all levels were systematically wheedled out of the hands of elected officials. Recognizing, as his mentor Ramsay MacDonald had stressed years earlier, that state as well as federal constitutions presented formidable obstacles to the drastic changes he and his cronies wanted to wreak on American governance, Beard spearheaded an ambitious, nationwide campaign to reform them. In 1919, under the auspices of the National Municipal League, Beard produced a model state constitution which recommended that the states adopt a governing structure hardly distinguishable from British parliamentarianism. In this document, the man who attacked the U.S. Difference Essays. Constitution for being undemocratic, called for a system of government in which. . the governor would be elected by the people, with absolute power to appoint and remove heads of departments, would prepare the budget which the bar essay legislature might reduce but not increase; and would have the essay games power to dissolve the legislature when it defeats any of his measures. The legislature, organized with one committee on appropriations and revenues and one standing committee for each of the major branches of the state administration might, on the other hand, call a general election to new york frequency, support it in any break with the governor. There would also be introduced the recall principle. (30) Beard also advocated the consolidation of all government departments into a few superagencies, with the essay computer governor as the czar, and the adoption of the short ballot -- a technique for drastically reducing the number of elected officials by frequency making most administrative positions appointive.

These proposals were specifically aimed toward placing control over the government budget in the right hands. Essays And Cons. The budget is the very heart of the governing process he wrote in one of his tracts, It involves fundamental problems in bar essay, administrative organization, in public policy, in legislative responsibility and in political leadership. Sound budgetary procedure . requires a thorough-going reconstruction, even of the very elemental parts of the government framework. (31) Through its government reform movement, London succeeded to a significant extent in taking government away from the country's elected representatives, bestowing it instead on a selected and ever-growing gaggle of experts. The massive influence wielded today by the Brookings Institution and other thinktanks, together with the proliferation of such strategically situated government policy institutions as the Office of Management and Budget and qualities essay the General Accounting Office, is only part of the anticonstitutional legacy bequeathed to the United States by radical democrat Charles Beard. Beard's commitment to turn the U.S. into a backward colony of the British Empire is new york, nowhere more apparent than in the recommendations he continually put forth for U.S. economic and foreign policy.

A prolific writer and self-proclaimed expert on foreign affairs and economics, Beard emerged during the crisis-wracked 1930s especially as one of the most important and pros influential spokesmen in the U.S. on behalf of Britain's attempt to turn the U.S. into an explicitly fascist entity. It is entirely lawful that Beard should have become the leader of the band of anglophile liberals, centered around the new york New Republic, which championed fascism and organized for its triumph in creative thinking, America. Anyone who finds it difficult to new york, reconcile Beard's ardent support for fascism and his outspoken adulation for British puppet Benito Mussolini with his defense of introduction research, democracy does not yet understand the profound similarities between the dionysian doctrine of radical democracy and that of Nazism. Beard made no secret of his fascist proclivities. In a review he wrote for the New Republic in 1929 of Herbert Schneider's The Making of the Fascist State, Beard declared that Italian fascism was. beyond question an amazing experiment. an experiment in reconciling individualism and socialism, politics and technology. This is far from the frozen dictatorship of Russian Tsardom. It is more like the frequency American checks and balance system; and it may work out in a new democratic direction. It would be a mistake, Beard admonishes any possibly queasy readers, to allow feelings aroused by contemplating the good introduction harsh deeds and extravagant assertions that have accompanied the bar essay frequency Fascist process (as all other immense historical changes) to obscure the potentialities and lessons of the adventure -- no, not adventure, but destiny riding without any saddle and bridle across the historic peninsula that bridges the world of antiquity and our modern world. Then, in an outrageous attempt to invoke the Founding Fathers in support of this rubbish, Beard continues:

In the fascist condemnation of democracy there is nothing new . the fathers of the American republic, notably Hamilton, Madison and gorgias essays John Adams, were as voluminous and vehement as any fascist could desire. New York Bar Essay Frequency. (32) Over the next decade, Beard devoted himself to ensuring that this amazing experiment would triumph across the globe. Beard welcomed the essay of playing computer games Depression, confident that the ensuing political and economic dislocation presented a golden opportunity for new york bar essay, launching a sweeping reorganization of American policy. An early, vocal advocate of FDR's domestic economic policies, Beard frequented both the White House, and gorgias essays Capitol Hill during the New Deal's heyday, where -- as a confidante of the President put it -- he was regarded as the bar essay frequency intellectual father of the New Deal. In a series of analyses published during the early thirties, Beard set out in qualities outstanding educator, detail what course he believed the U.S. should take.

One of the most revealing of bar essay frequency, these was A Five-Year Plan for essay of playing games, America, published in the July 1931 issue of Forum magazine. An unabashed blueprint for creating a fascist state in the U.S., the article called for establishing a corporatist governmental structure based on a National Economic Council whose members would include. . economic agencies concerned with transportation, communications, fuel, (oil, gas, and new york bar essay frequency coal), iron and steel, lumber and building materials, electrical utilities, textiles, packing . agriculture, wholesaling and retailing. In addition, labor, In addition, labor, organized and unorganized, will have its spokesmen. The exact weight to pros and cons, be assigned to each element can be evolved and in the process the experience of Germany with economic councils may be studied with profit.

In short, Beard continued, there will be established for the fundamental industries of the bar essay frequency country . a small national body charged with the gorgias essays function of coordinating these divisions of economy and working out the project of their inner relations -- financial, operative, and distributive. It will naturally propound any changes in the Constitution and laws deemed necessary for the realization of planned economy [emphasis added]. (33) Under the National Economic Council would be a Board of Strategy and Planning modeled, Beard said, after Bernard Baruch's War Industries Board; whose prime function . will be to make a survey of the country and new york bar essay forecast the production of consumer and capital goods. (34) Syndicates representing each major industry would also be established for the express purpose of limiting industrial production. Harkening back to his earlier praise for Aristotle's bucolic fantasies, Beard reveals fully his own feudalistic anti-urban, anti-industry bias: Agriculture ought to be especially emphasized in connection with national planning, for city dwellers are woefully ignorant of the land.

Yet it is fundamental. If agriculture perishes, as in parts of China, civilization sinks down in ruins. Rome likewise furnishes an example: our scholars well know the intimate relations between the decay of Roman agriculture and the decline of the good introduction on a research Empire. (35) There is also another side to the problem, Beard asserted: The overgrown urban agglomerations of the United States, with their millions pounding pavements, toiling listlessly in poorly lighted offices and new york bar essay frequency factories, and living in essays, sunless tenements need more of the frequency country, not less. And a rational system of industrial planning will dissolve the absurd and unwholesome slum areas of cities, carry industries out into air and sunlight, and institute a fine balance of rural and qualities educator essay urban life. Frequency. (36)

As to those city-dwellers not dispersed to the countryside by this city-wrecking scheme, Beard proposes that they. be channeled into the Building Materials and Housing Syndicates . [which] will enroll an army of two or three million men to tear down the cities and rehabilitate them, along the lines of the sweat equity and essays related labor-intensive full employment schemes pushed by today's liberals. (37) Beard's plan also stipulated that a Marketing Syndicate be set up to bar essay, control the distribution of all industrial and creative thinking agricultural output through the economy. Regarding foreign trade which he identified as the most fruitful source of bar essay, international rivalries and wars -- Beard proposed that a Syndicate comprising all export/import firms be set up in of playing computer games, order to slash U.S. trade to new york, a bare minimum, and that to be carried on research papers, chiefly through barter. The Syndicate, wrote Beard, will not proceed on the assumption that the nation can get rich by new york bar essay frequency dumping goods abroad . [but] will be a powerful aid to diplomacy, bringing the reason of commodity exchange to bear on the vagaries of ministers plenipotentiary. Fearing that all this might be too much for his audience to take, Beard hastened to reassure them that . the scheme here outlined is no foreign concoction or importation.

It is a purely native product. Even now it lies partly completed before us. (38) Beard amplified these British-originated policy proposals for the United States in a highly publicized study which he published in 1934 under the creative thinking ironically apt title, The Open Door At Home. New York Frequency. Commissioned by the Social Science Research Council and essays and cons funded by the Carnegie Corporation, The Open Door urged that the U.S. adopt a policy of continentalism -- Beard's Jeffersonian-sounding euphemism for withdrawing the U.S. from the world arena and preventing it from bar essay, challenging Britain's strategic gameplan for the 1930s. Arguing that U.S. national interests could best be served if more emphasis were placed on domestic policy than on an effort to gorgias essays, wrest new 'benighted' areas from Great Britain, France or Japan for the purpose of securing more moral obligations to other races, Beard assailed the Hamiltonian tradition of outward industrial and commercial expansion which assumed that American prosperity depended upon the expansion of foreign markets. It was imperative, moreover, Beard continued, that an immediate end be put to the outward thrust of commercial power supposedly forced on new york frequency, the U.S. by greedy businessmen and to the overaccumulation of capital and the too-rapid expansion of industrial plant capacity. If these measures were taken, then the nation's attention could be focused on achieving a wider distribution of wealth-- even if the absolute decline in essay on disadvantages computer, overall national wealth brought about by these measures caused a decline in the standard of living. In a section sharply redolent of his racist Young Oxford articles, Beard also prescribed that the American government impose drastic restrictions on new york frequency, immigration in order to maintain the racial homogeneity of the American stock he deemed so crucial to achieving his insane vision of an autarkical United States.

By universal consent, he wrote, the creative and critical thinking styles U.S. has the legal right to regulate or abolish immigration with respect to the national interest. As a matter of physical limitations, it is impossible for the U.S. to take care of the pullulating surplus populations of the earth. Bar Essay Frequency. (39) In terms not dissimilar to on a research paper, Britain's current strategy for wrecking the U.S. economy, Beard concluded The Open Door by laying out the following summary proposals: By domestic control over all foreign trade, by the relaxation of the capitalistic pressure of the United States on world markets in frequency, standardized manufactures and commercial investments, by of an outstanding concentrating national energies on the development of frequency, national resources and the efficient distribution of on disadvantages of playing, wealth at home, by deliberately withdrawing from the rivalries of imperialist nations, the frequency United States would take its official nose out of a thousand affairs of no vital concern to the people of the United States, would draw back its defense lines upon zones that can be defended with the greatest probability of victory in case of war, and would thus have a minimum dependence on the strategic products indispensable to war. [The U.S.] could steadily decrease its dependence on world markets for difference between essays research, the essentials indispensable to our material civilization. (40) In December 1934, Beard surveyed the devastation wrought on the U.S. economy by FDR's Keynesian-inspired corporatism measures and was satisfied: The fundamental idea of the frequency New Deal, he ruminated, is the coordination of classes and maintenance of gorgias essays, balance by new york frequency regulation and by a certain control over the distribution of wealth. America was certainly moving in the direction Beard had been so vociferously advocating since he left Oxford thirty years earlier. Beginning about 1935, however, Beard began to detect a certain troublesome independence on President Roosevelt's part, especially in the realm of foreign policy. FDR was simply not following the script which London had prepared dictating that the U.S. pursue a thoroughly isolationist role. Pros. Indeed, Beard had expressed some of frequency, these fears in his Open Door: if Roosevelt has a foreign policy appropriate to gorgias essays, the trend of bar essay, his domestic policy, he has not yet revealed it. As Roosevelt started to break away from London's grip -- a process which posed the threat that the U.S. Qualities Of An Essay. muscle might be brought to bear against British puppets Mussolini and Hitler -- Beard opened up a barrage of increasingly violent denunciations of his former idol's internationalist tendencies. At this juncture, Beard made an ostentatiously conservative shift which enabled him to insinuate himself into, and gain the confidence of, key anti-British Republican Party leaders, including Senator William Borah.

In a Kissingeresque operation, Beard used this leverage to manipulate their fears of being tricked into fighting yet another war for the British into an hysterical denial of reality. As the situation in Europe deterioriated, Beard emerged as a leader of the British-fostered isolationist movement, ultimately joining America First -- itself a project of the profascist Cliveden Set in England. (41) In a book published in new york frequency, 1940, Beard argued vehemently that the gorgias essays U.S. Frequency. could play no positive international role: There must be, he said, recognition of the limited nature of American power to relieve, restore and maintain life beyond its own sphere of interest and control -- a recognition of the hard fact that the U.S., either alone or in any coalition, did not possess the power to force peace on Europe and research Asia, to assure the bar essay frequency establishment of democratic and pacific governments there, or to provide the social and economic underwriting necessary to the endurance of such governments. Gorgias Essays. (42) As World War II ended, Beard took up the new york bar essay frequency cudgels against Roosevelt once again, attempting to derail FDR's plans to forge an American-Soviet alliance against the rotting remnants of British imperial power. In his President Roosevelt and essay on disadvantages of playing games the Coming of the War, Beard launched into a cold war frenzy, berating the new york bar essay now-dead Roosevelt for involving the U.S. in a war which produced nothing but. the triumph of another totalitarian regime no less despotic and ruthless than Hitler's system, namely, Russia, possessing more than twice the population astride Europe and Asia, employing bands of Quislings as terroristic in methods as any Hitler ever assembled, and insistently effectuating a political and economic ideology equally inimical to the democracy, liberties and institutions of the paper United States. (43)

Beard died in 1948, secure in new york bar essay frequency, the knowledge that his lifetime of treason had contributed significantly to the Empire's survival. Through his historical lies millions of Americans had been deprived of their heritage or actually turned against it; countless others had been duped into supporting British policy for the United States as a result of Beard's influence. His death prompted an outpouring of eulogies from his British friends, returning the favor. Creative And Critical Styles. As one old friend, Fabian Harold Laski, wrote: From the angle of a European observer, Charles Beard's work is among the most distinguished of American contributions to the social sciences. Beard's An Economic Interpretation of the Constitution and new york its sequel, the Economic Origins of Jeffersonian Democracy, were . books that laid the foundation of qualities of an, a new and creative approach to the subjects with which they dealt. But even more important than the brilliant use of the material that went into their making was the frequency value of the solid foundation they offered to the criticism of those who sought to see American history in realistic terms. Charles Beard has always been a man of and critical thinking, progressive ideas.

We in Britain are not likely to forget that . he was one of the founders of Ruskin Hall, Oxford, . which has had a vital part in shaping the character of the British Labour Party generally, and of many of its members, especially since 1915, who have entered the new york bar essay House of Commons. (44) 1. George Bancroft (1800-1891) and essays on abortion Frederick Jackson Turner (1861-1931) were both extremely influential in revising American history according to the changing tactical requirements of the British oligarchy. Considered to be the foremost historian produced by the United States in the nineteenth century, Bancroft portrayed the course of the nation's development as the triumph of the people's democracy in his multivolume History of the United States. An ardent Jacksonian and Transcendentalist, and an intimate friend and bar essay collaborator of August Belmont, the thinking House of Rothschild's chief agent in the U.S., Bancroft combined his historiographical subversion with an extensive political career. These included his capacities as political advisor to Martin Van Buren --the man whom London installed in bar essay frequency, the White House to oversee its destruction of the U.S. economy in the aftermath of Andrew Jackson's sabotage of the Second National Bank; as official counselor to British puppet James K. Polk; as ghost writer to gorgias essays, Andrew Jackson; and as U.S. Ambassador to Bismark's Germany and to the Court of St. James. Bancroft thus participated at the highest levels in Britain's post-American Revolution deployment to derail attempts by European and American humanist networks to revive the Grand Design which had brought the United States into existence.

Although less active politically than Bancroft, Frederick Jackson Turner played an equally determining role in reshaping American history. Turner is best known for his frontier thesis, which maintained that westward expansion and free land had been the chief sources of democratization and social stability for the United States. During the London-inspired 1890-1920 campaign slash the flow of immigrants into the United States, Turner's theory provided crucial back-up for new york frequency, the absurd argument that the closing of the frontier made it impossible for the U.S. to assimilate large numbers of new immigrants, especially those of the mongrel races of Asia and southern Europe. Trained at John Hopkins University by Woodrow Wilson, and at the University of Wisconsin, where he helped Robert LaFollette and essays pros and cons other progressives make Wisconsin a model Fabian state, Turner frequently is credited with popularizing the avowedly Aristotelian economic interpretation of history among American academics. New York Bar Essay Frequency. Indeed, Charles Beard praised Turner for restoring economic facts to historical writing in computer games, America. That Bancroft and Turner -- two of the most renowned U.S. historians --were fully complicit in London's schemes for undermining the new york bar essay frequency United States as a sovereign nation, bears shocking witness to the astounding success Britain achieved in penetrating American historiography.

In 1884, London took a major step toward extending and consolidating that penetration with the founding of the American Historical Association (AHA). Between. From its beginnings, the AHA exhibited a distinctly pro-British bent. Bar Essay. Its first president, Albert Shaw, simultaneously acted as editor-in-chief of the American edition of Review of Reviews , the British-based magazine published by Willian T. Stead, co-organizer with Cecil Rhodes of the styles British Round Table! Lawfully, Shaw's Review of Reviews emerged at the turn of the century as the leading propagandist for immigration restriction as well as for a U.S. New York Bar Essay. alliance with Britain under the guise of Anglo-Saxon unity. 2. Charles A. Beard, The Industrial Revolution (London, 1927), p. 44.

3. Charles A. And Critical Thinking Styles. Beard, The Living Empire, Young Oxford (November, 1901). 4. Bar Essay Frequency. Cited in Eric Goldman, Rendezvous with Destiny (New York: 1952), p. 116. 5. Quoted in Rose L. Introduction On A Paper. Martin, Fabian Freeway (Belmont, Mass.: 1966) p. 136. 6. Ibid., pp. 136-37. 7. Quoted in Goldman, op. cit., p. 119. 8. Quoted in Ibid., pp. New York. 109-110. Simons had been a student of Frederick Jackson Turner and Richard Ely at the University of Wisconsin. 9. Reprinted in Charles A. Beard, The Economic Basis of Politics And Related Writings (New York: 1957), p. 25. 10.

Aristotle, Politics, reprinted in Justin D. Kaplan, ed., The Pocket Aristotle (New York: 1%0), p. 283. 11. Cited in David W. Noble, Historians against History (Minneapolis: 1965), p. 60. 12. Charles A. Beard, An Economic Interpretation of the Constitution (New York: 1913), p. 292. 17.

The Nation, January 1915. 18. Quoted in Goldman, op cit., p. 118. 19. For the of playing impact of An Economic Interpretation of the Constitution on new york, U.S. textbooks, see Maurice Blinkoff, The Influence of Charles A. Beard upon American Historiography, in the University of Buffalo Studies, Monographs in essays on abortion pros, History, XII (May, 1936), No. 4, Ch.

II. 20. Quoted in Goldman, op cit., p. New York Bar Essay Frequency. 119. 21. Cf.

Robert E. Brown, Charles Beard and the Constitution: A Critical Analysis of An Economic Interpretation of the Constitution (Princeton: 1965); Nancy B. Educator Essay. Spannaus and Christopher White, eds., The Political Economy of the American Revolution (New York: 1977); and Forrest McDonald, We The People: The Economic Origins of the bar essay Constitution (Chicago: 1958). 22. Difference Essays Research Papers. Marcus Cunliffe and Robin Winks, Pastmasters (New York: 1969), pp. 136-38. New York Bar Essay. According to the authors, the computer games history subcommittee of the Creel Committee (which was the new york frequency official U.S. Gorgias Essays. propaganda agency during World War I) patterned itself after its British counterpart, Wellington House. This subcommittee, whose members included Frederick Jackson Turner, Carl Becker, Charles Beard, and other eminent historians, wrote and new york disseminated tons of history, distorted history, and open lies called history, for purposes of war propaganda . in creative and critical styles, general the idea was to depict the Germans as barbarians, militaristic but second-rate in actual warfare, and to new york frequency, show that Anglo-American relations had always been friendly and that American relations with Germany had always been bad. 23. Written History As An Act of Faith, American Historical Review XLI (October, 1935), pp. 73-87; That Noble Dream, American Historical Review XLII (April, 1937), pp.

460-483. It is important to note that Beard appended to qualities of an outstanding educator essay, the former a copy of a letter written to him by Italian philosopher and historian, Benedetto Croce, on historical method. Bar Essay. Beard frequently cites Croce as the strongest influence on his own thinking on the philosophy of history. The pro-fascist Croce was only essay on disadvantages computer, one of frequency, a number of top British intelligence-linked European intellectuals with whom Beard maintained active collaborative relations. Among them were the Frankfurt School networks. Beard was a member along with Sidney Webb, Felix Warburg and Jean Piaget of the Frankfurt School's board of between essays, directors, and was instrumental in relocating the School to Columbia in the 1930s, from where it proceeded to manufacture rock music and other atrocities. 24. Charles A. Frequency. Beard, Limitations to the Application of Social Science Implied in Recent Social Trends, Social Forces 2 (May, 1933), p. Difference Between Essays. 506. 25. Charles A. Beard and bar essay frequency G.H.E. Smith, The Open Door at Home (New York: 1934), pp.

19-20. 26. Quoted in Cunliffe and qualities outstanding Winks, op. Bar Essay Frequency. cit. 27. Charles A. Beard, American Government and Politics (New York: 1924). 28. Bryce's well-known treatise on creative and critical thinking, American institutions, The American Commonwealth (1888), provided both the impetus and the rationale for frequency, the municipal reform movement. Essentially an intelligence profile of weak flanks within the U.S. which could be exploited most profitably by the British, An American Commonwealth singled out U.S. urban governments as the qualities of an outstanding educator essay one disappointing aspect of American life because of their corrupt tendencies. Several individuals who were to new york, play powerful roles in gorgias essays, the urban reform movement as it subsequently evolved actually wrote chapters for Bryce's book. Seth Low, the famous reform mayor of bar essay frequency, Brooklyn, wrote the creative styles chapter on municipal reform, while Frank Goodnow, an expert on administrative law and government reform wrote the chapter on the Tweed Ring. When Bryce (who was British Ambassador to the U.S. from bar essay frequency, 1907-1913) appealed to his American friends for good introduction on a research paper, help in revising An American Commonwealth in 1908, Seth Low, then president of Columbia University, lent him the services of a young Columbia professor, Charles Beard.

29. Robert A. Caro, The Power Broker: Rober Moses and the Fall of New York (New York: 1974), p. 53. 30. Charles A. Beard, The Bolshevik Session of the National Municipal League Annual Conference, National Municipal Review VIII (January, 1919), pp. 26-33. 31. Charles A. Beard, The Budgetary Provisions of the New York Constitution, Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science LXIV (March, 1916), pp. Bar Essay. 215- 226.

32. Charles A. Beard, Making the Fascist State, New Republic LVII (January 23, 1929), pp. 277-78. 33. Charles A. Beard, A Five-Year Plan for America, Forum LXXXVI (June, 1934), p. 5. 39.

Charles A. Creative Styles. Beard and new york frequency G.H.E. Smith, op. cit. 41. Beard's pre-war denunciations of FDR included Giddy Minds and Foreign Quarrels: An Estimate of good introduction on a research, American Foreign Policy (New York: 1939); The Old Deal and the New (New York: 1940); plus numerous articles. 42. Bar Essay Frequency. Cited in thinking, Cunliffe and new york Winks, op. cit., p. 434. 43.

Charles A. Beard, President Roosevelt and and critical styles The Coming of War (New Haven: 1948), p. 577.