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Papers & Essays: Crash Course Study Skills 9


Writing research papers is an essential skill in your career as a student, and this week we re going to help you do that like a pro.

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Writing a research paper site http owl english purdue edu

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Argumentative Essay Topics for Middle School. Every college student will encounter at least one form of argumentative essay for middle school or the other. If you are in writing a research paper site http edu, the arts field, then you may have to do this more often than not. However, this is not a difficult task. You only critical course need to learn the writing site http edu dictates from the a level literature model masters. If you do, you will start enjoying the exercise of writing a persuasive essay.

When you learn how to writing paper owl english purdue write an essay of this type, it will be very useful to you all through your college years. This is because it will teach you the skills of literature essays presenting relevant evidence to support your arguments in writing a research site http owl english purdue edu, the bid to essay convince your audience to adopt your stance. If you are good in this, you will need to apply it in writing owl english, many other spheres of life so as to get people to critical buy your ideas. When you are writing this essay, your main focus will be to offer the reader vast information about the topic under discussion. Some will say that it must give the a research http owl english purdue reader an overview that will cover all areas or facets of the topic to make the reader see reasons why you have adopted your stance and why they should also join you in adopting the same view. A Level Model Essays! A well-written work on argumentative essay topics for middle school must come with the proper format or outline, just the same way our case study examples are given to a research owl english edu you with an outline that will guide you in writing yours.

You cannot write as you wish. You must follow the given guideline so that you will come out with an organized work, with arguments made in experience about, logical and chronological manner. You have to start the writing of your middle school argumentative essay by understanding the format first. This is where you sit down to read the instruction properly, to understand the purpose of the essay. Some people do not know the importance of this step, but it is actually the most important step, so that you will not derail from the writing http main points. You are supposed to engage in far-reaching research to cover all aspects of the topic and all point of views by different people. While you provide the summary of the work to your readers, be very clear about your own point of view or stance. This is like writing debate speech topics, where after explaining the topic to a level literature model essays people; you tell them what you think about the topic and the angle you are adopting.

The next important part of writing a research paper purdue writing on thinking course, argumentative essay topics for middle school is paper site owl english purdue edu choosing the topic to write on. This is only when you are instructed to make this choice. In most cases, your lecturers may choose the topic for you already. In A Essay! If you have the opportunity to choose, start by picking a topic that fits within the format you have been given. You are expected to offer other people’s opinions and paper owl english edu, argue in support of your own opinion, so the first step is for creative thinking you to pick a topic that is completely debatable. Writing A Research Paper Http Edu! Do not choose topics that do not have two or more equally strong opposing views. You must also pick issues that you have a great interest in. when you choose a topic that interests you, the time and critical essays, energy you will spend in the research and writing will always appear to you as something worth the writing a research paper site http owl english purdue edu stress. This will push you to put in more efforts in the research. In the process of choosing a topic, you should also test your argument. You can do this by course outline picking a friend or peer who is also knowledgeable in the topic and doing a test debate with them.

With this, you can now refine your position and arguments and come up with better arguments and points to a research http owl english edu support your stance too. You should also have your audience in mind while picking. Model Essays! Anything you are writing on which does not interest your teacher or audience is actually wrong. Here, you should realize the influence of people’s backgrounds on their way of thinking and what languages is the writing site best in addressing different groups. You should realize that you are not writing for yourself, but for critical on woody allen your audience too, so it must interest them too. You must also choose argumentative essay topics for middle school in consideration of the rhetorical situations at site hand. Here, you have to consider the author, the text, the audience, the purpose of the essay and the settings of the critical allen milieu. This entails all that you will employ in a research paper site http owl english, order to persuade them to accept your stance. When you consider all the above five factors, you will come out with a better rhetoric. Our services include helping you with good topics.

We can also teach you other systematic approaches like how to make good rhetoric. About Travel! People in need of case study research should rush to enjoy our assistance. Free Plagiarism Report Free Unlimited Revisions Free Title Page Free Bibliography Free Outline Free Email Delivery. Structuring your argumentative essay topics for writing a research paper purdue middle school. There are many things involved in the way you structure your essay here. Many people may come up with different formats and literature model essays, outlines, but there is something that is standard to all, and that is what we teach you. If you need our thesis examples to show you how this works, we will also offer that. You have to start by creating a very attractive and catchy title. When you come up with something very creative and original, you will be pegging your reader’s attention on the paper. People who like good write-ups cannot avoid this and they will always want to read it till the end. Make the title a preview of the main content of the paper and http, garnish it with a quote or a very useful pun.

The title should be followed by the thesis statement. This is critical another core aspect of what you will present. This is supposed to be the writing paper site owl english purdue edu part that will sum up your own point of view. You have to creative thinking course outline place it immediately after the writing a research paper site http purdue introductory paragraphs and let it be simple and clear enough to tell your readers what your stance is in a short formula. The statement always comes with a claim, either a claim of value, definition, causes and effect, policy solutions or any other type of claim. If you need more information on what your thesis statement should look like, you can search for our thesis definition and make use of that. You are now in the middle school and must use something standard. You should be free to explore all aspects of the topic and give all necessary points. Don’t just focus on three parts.

The introduction is where the creative critical thinking outline topic of the essay is given and an overview or background information on a research http owl english edu, the origin and development of the topic so far enumerated. Essays On Woody Allen! It is at the end of this that you should place your thesis statement. This should be followed by the body of the paper where you provide enough information to support your argument. Outline the writing a research site http owl english edu argument of the opposition and refute it with your evidence. After this comes the conclusion that should also reiterate and re-assert your position, making a call to action for the opposition to now accept your view.

There are different ways you can provide your argument, but in all, make sure you cover all the necessary points. You must do enough research when you write this essay because you can never boast of knowing it all. You should always come back and proofread your work very well because of obvious errors and mistakes.

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Newark CEDC: The Economic Development Catalyst. The Newark CEDC or Newark Community Economic Development Corporation is an economic development catalyst in writing paper http purdue edu Newark, New Jersey. The aim of this corporation is to attract, retain and essays, grow businesses. Writing A Research Paper Http? The Newark CEDC has a big role in sustaining economic growth by quality, providing jobs and creating wealth for the citizens in the city of Newark. This time we are going to discuss further about the Newark CEDC.

1. Kevin Seawright. Kevin Seawright is the current executive vice president and chief financial officer in the Newark Community Economic Development. He has a lot of experiences in accounting and diverse capital management, and paper http purdue edu, he was chosen to be the new leader of the team in May 2015. Seawright has been using his financial expertise for in the east coast. His experiences are mostly rooted in financial management for some local government agencies. As the new leader, he designed a new accounting system and implemented it in and support essay the company. The accounting system he designed has been really helpful for the agency. Kevin Seawright has over $400M worth of responsibility in the city, capital, federal, private and bond funds during his career.

He has been responsible for more than 600M USD in the construction of paper site http purdue edu, educational facilities projects in the capital. Essays? He has been in a lot of writing a research paper purdue, positions, finance director, managing fiscal officer, payroll director, budget manager, and plenty a lot more positions. Critical On Woody? Seawright has a great reputation among co-workers and leaders as an efficient business leader who can achieve great results. He’s even got executive leadership certification from Notre Dame, which has set him on his current career path. The Newark CEDC also works with companies that want to relocate or expand their businesses in writing a research paper Newark by assisting them with their locations, workforce information, demographic analysis, available buildings and sites, economic indicators and a lot more important information that are relevant to the business. Other than helping companies, the nursing Newark CEDC also provides other services such as: Small Business Development. Industry Focus (this includes manufacturing, arts entertainments, health services, information technology, port related services and higher education research) 3. Loan Programs. The Newark CEDC also offers loan programs for businesses, they provides $20,000 or less to paper site owl english purdue, entrepreneurs who want to start building their businesses in repetition persuasive essay the city of Newark.

They also offers additional services and a research paper edu, resources if it is needed, including the assistance in improving credit score, developing business plans and trainings, IFEL, and other helpful things. Omar Yunes’ Advances in Entrepreneurship. Omar Yunes, a Mexican investor representing Sushi Itto is a great franchisee and has won several awards in the Best Franchisee of the Word competitions, held yearly. Yunes is interested in the Japanese food industry and runs over 13 franchises situated in Veracruz, Puebla, and Mexico City. In addition, has been able to market his products hence great control of the food industry creating jobs for workers through Omar’s leadership, his brand developed a strong business network and an effective board to literature model, implement the business strategies and Omar’s lacrosse camp.

Besides entrepreneurship, Yunes also has a soft spot for football whereby he spends most of his leisure times supporting two clubs which he loves, Pumas de la UNAM and FC Barcelona. This successful man is full of writing a research site http owl english purdue, surprises because who would have thought that he is a Professor at Saddleback College in the Department of Physical Education and his incredible lecturing skills can be ascertained by his passionate students. Essay? To add, the a research paper site edu students love and repetition in a essay, look up to him because he understands their different capabilities and strengths and contact him. To begin with, the brand manages many other eateries in a research site purdue edu Mexico and is remarkable in the Southern parts America. The reward focuses mainly on creative critical, franchise growth which contributes enormously towards the growth of the franchising brand.

Furthermore, it enables the brand’s growth by motivating the authorities hence upgrading work ethics in accordance with the policies of the brand. This is justified by the continuous increase in benefits to the advantage of the employees and the industries at large and what Omar Yunes knows. Omar Yunes was awarded as being the most influential in bringing a positive change between the brand and its franchises .These achievements market Mexico globally and recognize Yunes for being the writing a research paper site http owl english purdue best in customer care services, hospitality, and product offerings. Omar Yunes is in charge of over four hundred employees who work in the thirteen units possessed by proposition, the brand he represents. Writing A Research Site Http Edu? He has been able to quality assurance essay, scoop several awards based on writing a research paper site http edu, his relationship with his employees. As such, he enumerates them fairly which leads to the effective realization of the goals of the critical on woody company. A Research Site Http Purdue? Under his leadership, his brand has been able to achieve a lot in the franchise domain and more information click here.

The Contribution Of Gregory James Aziz To The Reduction Of Unemployment Rate. The initial thought. When Gregory James Aziz was growing up, he saw many people struggle for jobs. The main reason which he was given as the cause of the struggling was the low education rate and a level essays, the inability of the Canadian government to secure jobs for writing site http owl english purdue edu, everybody. Creative Thinking Course? The thought of being jobless struck him for a long time. Greg Aziz’s background was not poor. The parents were middle class, and they lived a fairly comfortable life. The fact that he was comfortable did not stop him from worrying about the others.

The condition of life was tough, and site http owl english purdue, things only assurance nursing essay got tougher. Gregory James spent most of his life in a research paper purdue edu Hamilton where he thought of how to make a difference someday. The life at the University and beyond. Gregory James was successful in his early education, and he joined the University of Western Ontario for assurance essay, his undergraduate studies. After acquiring his first-class degree from the University, Aziz received several jobs offers different companies but he turned them down to help with the family business. After the success of the Business, Greg Aziz went to the United States to look for better opportunities. He received offers to work with different organizations, but his interests directed him to work with the banks. The success of the family business. The food industry was one of the most promising jobs in Canada and the entire North America. Owl English? It is nursing essay, one of the industries that never lacked a market.

Gregory J Aziz saw an site http edu, opportunity in the industry, and he thought of helping his community through the experience essay travel provision of employment. With his entrepreneurial mind, the gentleman assisted in expanding the operations of the company to the point that it competed internationally. By the time he was leaving for the United States of America, Gregory’s success was already seen in the company. Get More Information Here. Giving back to the community. As the CEO of the National Steel Car, Gregory James felt the need to help his community. He does not believe in giving cash contributions, but he insists on empowering the people around so that they can be self-dependent. Out of the site http 3000 employees that the National Steel Car had in quality assurance 1999, over 80% were from the a research paper site http Hamilton.

The employment was not based on the fact that the assurance nursing essay employees were coming from the same area with the CEO but it was a means of empowering the people around the province. Writing Paper Http Purdue? With the help of the community, Gregory James Aziz has been the most famous CEO in the country. The Customer Base That Gregory James Aziz Has Created Around The World. The National Steel Car is creative, one of the writing a research owl english purdue edu most successful companies in Canada today. The operations of the company were limited in the last 80 years because of the complacency of performance. The potential of the repetition persuasive essay company had been suppressed in the early years because of the satisfaction of the management with the operations. Most of the management in charge were concerned with how to site http owl english edu, maintain the production so that they do not go lower than the previous realization of the profits.

With this mentality, Gregory realized that there was no way the company could improve its operations. After championing for the purchase of the company, several changes were made. The current products manufactured by the National Steel Car. From 1994 to the current age, the in a persuasive essay National Steel Car introduced several products to their manufacturing list. These products include; the super duty Boxcar, coils cars which are both longitudinal and traverse, flat cars, tank cars used for general purposes, hopper cars and several others. The company introduced the hopper cars that can both be open and closed at the top. See This Page for more information. The previous productions. Before Greg Aziz took over as the writing a research site http owl english CEO, the a level National Steel Car produced electric locomotives which could be up to 50 tons; Baggage and log stake cars, passenger and business cars as well as trucks. A Research Paper Http Edu? Considering the epoch of manufacturing, these cars were the most marketable. Trucks for freight were largely used in the long-distance transportation of assurance nursing essay, cargo before the introduction of ship cargo.

The National Steel Car was an site http edu, important company in that era. Check out their Facebook page. The transformation process by Gregory James Aziz. By 1994, most of the cars that were produced by essay, the company were getting extinct. Business cars were replaced by personal cars, the cargo truck market had begun to diminish, and a research site purdue, change was necessary for the industry. In as much as there was still a market for these products, the quality assurance nursing market needs were fast changing, and it was inevitable for the company to make changes. Having read the direction of manufacturing, Gregory Aziz introduced the future of the industry. He came up with more productions and designs which the company had to produce. Writing A Research Paper Owl English Purdue? The market production increased because of the demands and the styles which were fresh in the company. Clients from and support essay all over writing http owl english purdue edu the world developed an interest in the designs, and quality assurance nursing, more tenders were sent to the company.

With the quality of production, the National Steel Car has been on top of the other railroad manufacturers in the world. Adam Milstein’s Success As A Philanthropist. After establishing himself as one of the leading real estate investors globally, Adam Milstein is heavily involved in enhancing the culture and religion of the Jewish community. Adam is the writing a research site owl english managing partner of Hager Pacific Properties, a real estate investment company whose assets are valued at over $2 billion. In addition, the shrewd entrepreneur is the founder and chair of Adam and Gila Milstein Family Foundation.

Through Adam and Gila Milstein Family Foundation, Adam Milstein reaches out to Jewish students across the globe. Adam supports and mentors these students with the repetition persuasive aim of strengthening their bond with Israel. Moreover, Milstein ensures that Jewish students who are pursuing their studies outside Israel do not lose contact with their culture and writing site purdue edu, heritage. Through the literature model essays organization, the students can learn about the community’s history as well as how to read and write Hebrew, a vital tradition to the community. The efforts made by the real estate investor towards enhancing the Jewish culture have seen him being named on the Philanthropists Social Entrepreneurs Top 200 list. Adam is the brain behind the Israeli-American Council. This noble organization has played a pivotal role in enhancing the paper http owl english edu lives of the Jewish Community. Through the organization, Adam Milstein has been able to influence the United States’ policies on Israel.

This goal has been achieved by influencing both Americans and policy makers positively. The investor believes that speaking out is the easiest way to point at problems and in a persuasive essay, get them solved. Over the years, Adam Milstein has been vocal on how societies treat the Jewish community and other marginalized communities. In the recent past, he pointed at the problems that the people close to him such as his wife have undergone in the hands of immigration officers and law enforcement officers. Adam Milstein was born in born in Israel where he pursued his primary, high school, and college education.

Adam Milstein also served in the Israeli Defense Forces during the Yom Kippur War. Adam married his wife Gila in writing paper owl english purdue 1981 before moving with her to repetition in a persuasive, the US to further his education and get a piece of the American dream. Notably, his organization, the Adam and Gila Milstein Family Foundation, donates over $1 million annually. Karl Heideck, a Civil Litigation Lawyer and a Blogger. Most people do refer to litigation attorneys when they are speaking of civil issues.

Litigation attorneys represent clients in criminal matters and personal injury claims from individuals or real estate owners among others. Attorneys prepare cases to go for full trial however due to some factors most of the cases they prepare almost 90% do not reach a full trial as they are settled out of court. Majority of civil litigation lawyers do practice in the private sector, but a few also work for the government as prosecutors and district attorneys. Litigation attorneys are also found in some large corporations such banks and a research paper site purdue, financial institutions. This attorney’s role is to offer legal advice and creative critical course outline, interpretation of the law for this organization and in some instances represents them in courts.

The duties of a litigation attorney in preparing a case are first to do the investigation and a research purdue, collect all the necessary documents and experience essay about travel, evidence required to build a strong case. Once all this is done the civil litigator contacts the other party legal representative, and they both try to reach a settlement. If a settlement is reached, then the case will not proceed to a trial, and if they do not agree on a settlement, then the owl english case proceeds to trial. For an attorney to be successful according to Karl Heideck is essay about, first he needs to understand the writing a research http owl english purdue importance of making connections, should be humble, honest, respectful and helpful to others. In addition, Heideck also suggests that a litigator is supposed to ask questions because that is how they build their knowledge base. Karl Heideck is assurance essay, one of the most successful attorneys with over ten years of experience in civil litigation.

Heideck hails from Philadelphia and specializes in compliance and risk management. Heideck also represents clients in site http purdue edu areas of product liability, corporate law, employment proceedings and commercial litigation. Besides being an attorney, Karl Heideck is experience essay about, a talented writer and blogger. He blogs on matters related to writing a research paper site purdue, legal news and issues affecting the public especially those that reside in Philadelphia. Karl Heideck went to Swarthmore College for his undergraduate studies and has a law degree from Temple University in 2009. Visit karlheideck.com for more information about Karl Heideck. Whitney Wolfe Weds in a Fairly Tale Wedding. Fairly Tales did not end with Romeo and Juliet; Whitney Wolfe writes yet another book. A gorgeous, unique, and essay, breathtaking love affair came to the eyes of writing http edu, many on Whitney’s wedding day. The guests described it as real, deep, and genuine. Whitney Wolfe, who started the Bumble App to help women meet their suitable mates, got her fair share by meeting and marrying the Tycoon and heir of Texas Oil Michael Herd.

The two are said to have met three years back on a valentine day and coincidentally their love affair begun. However, it was only last year that Herd proposed to Whitney and a week back the wedding of the year was held. Villa Treville Positano along the Amalfi Coast Italy is where the repetition in a persuasive essay colorful and writing site http, stunning event was held. Guests were treated to an excellent site with many saying that they have never experienced such color and pomp in an event. The hash tag for the day was #homeiswheretheherdis, and it was used all day to trend the wedding pictures of the repetition essay event. Albeit friends and family invited to the event had been asked to keep the event private, they could not resist circulating the beautiful pictures of the day. Many, who adore Whitney, although absent from the event also circulated the news widely. Whitney wore an Oscar De La Renta gown that was simply breathtaking.

In the evening, she also slipped into an equally stunning evening dress that was silky, slip, cream and simply off the hook. Many guests could not keep the eyes off the bride as she carried the day to the last moment. The candle lit site also gave a feel of the romantic Italian Coast, a factor that made the writing a research site owl english edu event feel special to many. Another feature that made the assurance nursing essay site equally stunning was the paper site http owl english purdue lemon trees canopies that covered the reception; the trees complimented the lemon dinner tables and menus. The one-tiered cake was also very different from the usual as it was so big and topped up with many fruits such as fresh strawberries. Whitney Wolfe is the Founder of Bumble and Bumble BFF, which are online dating apps that empower women. A Level? The former helps women make the a research paper site http first moves in critical essays on woody relationships, denying the men chances of mistreating them. Paper Http Owl English Purdue? The later also helps women, who connect with each other and share their life experiences. It helps them identify them, real friends, far from the office divas. Adam Milstein: Why the Influential Business Guru Is a Favorite in and support the Jewish Community.

Adam Milstein is arguably a name that evokes respect and admiration across the owl english purdue edu business world. Mr. Milstein’s sheer prominence in real estate investment has undoubtedly made him a force to reckon with. As the managing partner of Hager Pacific Properties, Adam Milstein has successfully built a portfolio valued at over $2 billion in properties spanning across the U.S. Apart from a level model building a stellar reputation based on his keen business acumen, he has also emerged as a recognizable philanthropist among the Jewish population. More prominent is Adam Milstein’s philanthropic endeavor with the Adam and writing a research paper http owl english purdue, Gila Milstein Family Foundation, widely known for supporting and mentoring students worldwide. With the aid of his wife, the business guru has undoubtedly made significant progress in educating young Jewish scholars. Through his invaluable assistance, thousands of students have obtained essential knowledge regarding educational advancement and and support, Jewish heritage.

As a testament to his proficiency, Adam Milstein recently featured in writing a research paper owl english edu the Philanthropists Social Entrepreneurs Top 200. Mr. Milstein’s impressive charity goes beyond offering financial assistance. His best donation entailed the essay establishment of the Israeli-American Council which focuses on fostering trade relationships between Israel and the U.S. Paper Edu? Apart from holding an essays on woody, influential and active role in the council, Milstein has also painstakingly fought for the oppressed worldwide while also protecting the Jewish from unjust persecution. Such unwavering commitment also stems from a personal experience emanating from his wife’s experience as a Morocco migrant in the U.S. During his free time, the influential business guru sharpens his writing skills by penning several publications regarding religion, culture and protection of paper site owl english, human rights. Such efforts have gone a long way in assisting his Jewish counterparts forge connections with their religion through Hebrew. As an accomplished entrepreneur and essays, philanthropist, Adam Milstein doesn’t shy away from engaging with various stakeholders in the community. Rather than just signing a check, he strives to come up with effective ways to implement radical change both locally and beyond. Adam Milstein undeniably holds unconditional love for his country.

The Haifa native previously served in the IDF and the Yom Kippur War before pursuing postsecondary education. Upon graduating from writing a research paper http Technion, Milstein moved to the U.S and pursued a business course at persuasive, the University of Southern California. Jose Henrique Borghi Provides Effective Advertising Service. Are you looking to promote or advertise your business, product or service in Brazil? Want to know how to paper http purdue, go about reaching the right audience for thinking course, your products and services? If you are serious about reaching your target audience in Brazil, it is imperative to contact Jose Henrique Borghi and his advertising specialists.

Advertising is essential, no matter the type of writing paper site http edu, business you are running. Nowadays, there is fierce competition among companies, and you need to proposition and support, follow proven marketing and advertising strategies in order to be found by potential customers. Jose Henrique Borghi will help you design and implement effective advertising and marketing materials and campaigns and get people to respond. He has been providing superior marketing and advertising services for many years and is fully aware of owl english, what needs to be done to get the best possible outcome in essays on woody allen a business advertising campaign. Jose Henrique Borghi has countless clients throughout Brazil and he strives to provide the highest quality service.

His team of advertising professionals is comprised of planners, researchers, designers, copywriters and advertising management specialists and learn more about Borghi. If you need to use social and content marketing channels, Jose Henrique Borghi knows how to handle that as well. He has great expertise in a wide variety of paper edu, marketing, advertising and promotional methods and comes highly recommended in the industry and more information click here. Jose Henrique Borghi knows how to reach your target audience, convince them to check out your advertising and convert them. Quality Nursing Essay? He creates advertising that attracts attention and generate interest in your business or product. As an experienced and knowledgeable advertising consultant, Jose Henrique Borghi has a series of best practices that works perfectly for his advertising campaigns. Contact Jose Henrique Borghi to find out how he will help you get more customers and make more money and Borghi’s lacrosse camp.

Jason Hope Plays A Significant Role In His Community And In The Lives Of Other Entrepreneurs. Jason Hope is an entrepreneur and businessman from Scottsdale, Arizona. He holds many other titles such as a skilled futurist, philanthropist and investor. Writing A Research Site Purdue Edu? One of the things he is passionate about technology and what comes with it. He is intrigued by the ways technology contribute to research and development. He obtained a degree in finance from Arizona State University. He also holds a MBA from the university’s W.P. Carey School of a level literature, Business.

Hope’s career started when he started a mobile communications business. Currently, he centers his focus on biotechnology, startup company investments and philanthropy. Hope has a strong desire to give back to his community by helping local associations and he makes every effort to do so consistently. He is an advocate for educational programs the promote learning inside as well as outside of the classroom. Hope also spends his time mentoring high school students. He realizes that starting business can be hard.

Jason Hope creates grant opportunities for a research site http purdue edu, young entrepreneurs because he knows how it feels to get a company up and running. He is passionate about moving research further along to combat anti-aging by way of preventative solutions. Proposition? He supports organizations that greatly influence disease prevention and cures. That is why he stands behind the writing paper owl english edu SENS Foundation, an organization whose goal is to in a persuasive essay, focus on turning around conditions like heart disease, lung cancer and paper http owl english edu, Alzheimer’s, using the most up-to-date technology. Jason Hope has been involved with several organizations throughout his career. Some include the Boys Girls Club of Metropolitan Phoenix, The Tony Hawk Foundation, the Leukemia Lymphoma Society’s Desert Mountain States Chapter, Worldwide Orphans Foundation, International Foundation for essays, Education and Self Help and site owl english, many more.

Hope continue to seek out organizations that he can give his time, energy and resources to essay, in order to make a difference in writing a research paper http purdue the world we live in. The Success of Gregory Aziz and National Steel Car. Gregory James Aziz is the current Chairman and the Chief Executive Officer National Steel Car Company. National Steel Car is centered in Hamilton, Ontario and about travel, focuses on railroad freight car engineering. Gregory James Aziz was born in site http purdue edu 1949 in London, Ontario.

He attended Ridley College and later joined the a level literature model essays University of Western Ontario where he graduated with an economics major. Gregory J. Site Owl English Purdue? Aziz assisted in essay about travel transforming his family wholesale food business since 1971 for over 16 years. The business grew to become an international importer of fresh food from South America, Europe, and Central America. The wholesale also became a major distributor of paper http owl english, fresh food to wholesale food markets in the US and repetition in a persuasive, Eastern Canada. Greg Aziz also invested in banking opportunities in writing site New York between the 1980s and 1990s enabling him to buy National Steel Car from Dofasco in 1994. And Support? Greg Aziz was able to use National Steel Car’s strong team-building, human capital, engineering capabilities, and capital investment to expand the a research site owl english Company manufacturing capabilities to 12,000 cars from 3,500 cars annually by 1999. Besides, Greg James Aziz increased the number of employees from 600 to 3,000. National Steel Car has stood out for essays on woody, over 18 years among many engineering and manufacturing companies in North America to hold the honor of ISO 900I: 2008 certification. National Steel Car is involved in several social responsibilities and writing, charities such as sponsoring the Salvation Army, the United Way, and essays allen, the Hamilton Opera among others. National Steel Car has a purpose to writing purdue edu, move forward with determination, to lead all the time, and do everything with a focus on excellence and quality. Greg Aziz has a native or bilingual proficiency in English.

Greg J. Aziz success can be attributed to his extensive range of skills. He possesses exceptional leadership, management, and strategic planning skills, which are highly associated with the accomplishment of National Steel Car. Greg J. Aziz also strongly believes in continuous improvement. He was able to improve the production of National Steel Car from a level 3,500 cars to site http purdue edu, 12,000 cars annually with a period of nursing essay, five years. See This Page for http purdue edu, additional information. National Steel Car also appreciates the loyalty and support of experience essay about travel, its esteemed customers and suppliers with whom the company has valued relationships. Besides, the company has a committed team of approximately 2,000 members who take pride in manufacturing railcars of the writing paper site http owl english edu highest quality possible. However, the company does not rest on thinking outline, the past or present success.

National Steel Car is full of persistent pursuit of excellence.

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3rd grade homework Ok, so that being my opinion, I still wanted a way to have kids and parents come together and work on school stuff in writing paper site http edu, the evening. Parents are strong teachers and I wanted them to play an important and purposeful role in their child's learning. Essays Allen! If you have about writing owl english edu, 45 minutes, this professional development video from Chris Biffle, the founder of WBT, goes into great depth about the entire Universal Homework Model: I have adjusted UHM to fit my needs and I am happy to say that both the kids and I are all much happier for a level literature model essays, it compared to our old system! Star Homework is a weekly bookmark that gets sent home with three activities for the kids to site http edu, practice each night. Creative! Each activity earns them one star. Simple, meaningful things that will benefit them in a research site owl english edu, the long run and not cause any undue stress in the short run. Read for 20+ minutes= 1 Star Practice Xtra Math for 1+ round= 1 Star Practice Spelling Words Independent Words= 1 Star See? Simple and in a essay easy, and items that parents can help out a research site http purdue, with that won't make them or their kids want to tear their hair out :) At the very end of our Morning Meeting routine, I will have the students grab their bookmarks and tell me how many stars they earned, from 0-3. Any student who has 2 or 3 stars gets a short cheer from essays, us :) On Friday, we count up all of the stars we have earned for the week and, if they all did 2 or more stars for writing site purdue edu, most of the days, then there is and support, a high likelihood that there will be extra Free Choice minutes tacked on to Friday Choice Time! On Wednesday-ish, I will remind my class where we need to be by paper purdue, Friday to in a persuasive essay, meet/exceed our goal and/or get extra choice time and I will ask if there are any volunteers who would be willing to be 3-Star Kids for the rest of the paper http owl english edu, week to help us out. If they raise their hand, I will put their name on the board and we all cheer them and thank them for leading by example.

It's a great motivator to essay, get all of the kids willing to do more, which I'll take any day of the a research paper site owl english edu, week! Our spelling quizzes are on Thursday and kids don't get their new words until Friday, so on Thursday, I have included the option of writing a response to the book they have been reading all week. This can look like any of the following: a summary of quality assurance what they have read questions, predictions, inferences, connections, etc. a letter to me about the book a letter to the author comparing themselves to the character and writing about what they would have done in the story writing a sequel/prequel or anything else that suits the child's fancy! This Response to Text should be no longer than a page, but a bit longer than a few sentences. As long as there is substance, I am not too strict on length.It must be neatly written and writing a research http owl english purdue turned in on Friday to receive a star. If it is messy, not substantive, or clearly not worth a star, then the critical on woody allen, child does not get one- Chris Biffle explains it so well in the video above- I am not doing that child any favors by writing a research paper site edu, accepting and a level literature essays rewarding messy, sloppy work with no effort put into it. Writing A Research Paper Site! It may feel crummy to tell them no, but it will motivate them to do better next week :) I love this and may give it a try! I love WBT! I will check out the video when I have a moment.

You are after my heart! I sooo feel the same way about proposition and support, homework!! I also do Xtramath and LOVE it!! Have we met? :) JT. Come on writing a research owl english over and say hi!! How can I get a copy of your star homework? I love it so much!

Thanks, Are your homework bookmarks laminated or are they just paper for the one week? And we have homework folders, so I could just have my kiddos put their bookmarks and papers in there! I love this idea!! This sounds awesome, I would love this for quality assurance, my class. Writing Http! Have you had any complaints about critical essays allen, this system from the fourth grade teachers? I know that the third grade teachers that get my kiddos always think I#39;m going to easy on my kids in homework. I have taken your wonderful idea and added to it. It is a great system, I LOVE IT!! My students are so motivated to earn stars each day. I have added a STAR Menu for site http purdue, students to choose their activities as well as a goal sheet for individual students to begin to in a persuasive, self monitor their own homework completion. I would love it if you would check out my links and free additional resources to complement your wonderful STAR homework program.

This is an awesome idea! I heard about you through the New Possibilities linky party! Thanks so much for sharing. I am a new follower! I think this is a great idea. Homework is such a problem and writing paper site purdue edu the teacher is critical, always the one who worries about writing a research purdue, it the most. I absolutely love all of experience essay travel your ideas! I am going into my fifth year teaching and because of much of your inspiration, I am revamping the way I do homework and rotations in our classroom! Thanks so much for all of the writing site edu, goodies. Also, you reference free choice as a reward on Fridays for star homework. what you mean by free choice exactly?

Thanks! I think this is a great idea and I think I#39;ve got my team on proposition essay board to do it! (we switch for math and for writing a research site http, reading so it was going to need to be all in or nothing). I#39;m just starting with third grade this year. Thanks for proposition and support, the great information! I am a WBTr and am trying to implement the Star homework. Question. How is the star chart used exactly? Are stars placed on the chart in paper purdue edu, each column for proposition essay, each student as they go through the week? Are stars placed on the chart just to a research paper site http owl english purdue, fill it up? I noticed on your sample it mentioned different colors for different days.

This is critical on woody allen, what lead me to think maybe you do it by student since there are 25 blocks across the top.Please advise as soon as possible since we are trying to writing paper site, implement it for next week. THANKS. Quality Assurance Essay! I have been doing a weekly homework packet and really hate when Monday rolls around and it#39;s not ready! I had noticed this on the WBT website but had forgotten about it. Thanks for the reminder!

I agree with the person above who was confused with the graph. Would you mind explaining how the graph works or showing an example of what a graph might look like at the end of writing a research paper site http edu a typical week please??

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Washington’s Farewell Address 1796. Friends and Citizens: The period for a new election of a citizen to administer the executive government of the United States being not far distant, and a research paper http owl english, the time actually arrived when your thoughts must be employed in designating the person who is to be clothed with that important trust, it appears to me proper, especially as it may conduce to a more distinct expression of the public voice, that I should now apprise you of the resolution I have formed, to repetition in a persuasive essay, decline being considered among the number of those out of site, whom a choice is to be made. I beg you, at proposition, the same time, to do me the justice to be assured that this resolution has not been taken without a strict regard to all the considerations appertaining to the relation which binds a dutiful citizen to his country; and writing paper http owl english purdue, that in withdrawing the tender of service, which silence in my situation might imply, I am influenced by no diminution of zeal for your future interest, no deficiency of grateful respect for your past kindness, but am supported by creative thinking a full conviction that the step is compatible with both. The acceptance of, and writing a research paper http owl english edu, continuance hitherto in, the office to which your suffrages have twice called me have been a uniform sacrifice of inclination to the opinion of duty and to a deference for what appeared to be your desire. I constantly hoped that it would have been much earlier in my power, consistently with motives which I was not at liberty to disregard, to return to that retirement from which I had been reluctantly drawn. The strength of my inclination to do this, previous to the last election, had even led to the preparation of an address to declare it to you; but mature reflection on the then perplexed and critical posture of our affairs with foreign nations, and the unanimous advice of persons entitled to experience about travel, my confidence, impelled me to abandon the idea. I rejoice that the state of your concerns, external as well as internal, no longer renders the pursuit of inclination incompatible with the sentiment of duty or propriety, and am persuaded, whatever partiality may be retained for my services, that, in the present circumstances of writing paper site owl english edu, our country, you will not disapprove my determination to a level essays, retire. The impressions with which I first undertook the arduous trust were explained on the proper occasion. In the discharge of this trust, I will only say that I have, with good intentions, contributed towards the organization and http purdue edu, administration of the government the best exertions of repetition, which a very fallible judgment was capable. Writing Paper Owl English Edu! Not unconscious in the outset of the inferiority of my qualifications, experience in my own eyes, perhaps still more in the eyes of others, has strengthened the motives to diffidence of myself; and every day the increasing weight of years admonishes me more and more that the shade of retirement is as necessary to me as it will be welcome.

Satisfied that if any circumstances have given peculiar value to my services, they were temporary, I have the consolation to believe that, while choice and prudence invite me to repetition essay, quit the political scene, patriotism does not forbid it. In looking forward to the moment which is intended to terminate the career of writing site owl english purdue edu, my public life, my feelings do not permit me to suspend the deep acknowledgment of that debt of gratitude which I owe to my beloved country for the many honors it has conferred upon me; still more for the steadfast confidence with which it has supported me; and for the opportunities I have thence enjoyed of manifesting my inviolable attachment, by services faithful and persevering, though in usefulness unequal to my zeal. Essays On Woody Allen! If benefits have resulted to our country from writing site http these services, let it always be remembered to essay, your praise, and as an instructive example in our annals, that under circumstances in which the writing paper site http purdue, passions, agitated in every direction, were liable to mislead, amidst appearances sometimes dubious, vicissitudes of fortune often discouraging, in situations in which not unfrequently want of success has countenanced the spirit of criticism, the constancy of your support was the essential prop of the efforts, and a guarantee of the plans by which they were effected. Profoundly penetrated with this idea, I shall carry it with me to my grave, as a strong incitement to unceasing vows that heaven may continue to you the choicest tokens of its beneficence; that your union and brotherly affection may be perpetual; that the free Constitution, which is the work of your hands, may be sacredly maintained; that its administration in every department may be stamped with wisdom and virtue; that, in fine, the happiness of the people of these States, under the auspices of liberty, may be made complete by so careful a preservation and so prudent a use of this blessing as will acquire to persuasive, them the glory of recommending it to the applause, the affection, and adoption of writing site owl english purdue, every nation which is yet a stranger to it. Here, perhaps, I ought to stop. But a solicitude for creative critical course, your welfare, which cannot end but with my life, and the apprehension of danger, natural to that solicitude, urge me, on an occasion like the present, to offer to your solemn contemplation, and to recommend to your frequent review, some sentiments which are the a research http owl english purdue, result of much reflection, of no inconsiderable observation, and assurance, which appear to me all-important to the permanency of your felicity as a people.

These will be offered to a research site purdue, you with the model, more freedom, as you can only see in them the disinterested warnings of a parting friend, who can possibly have no personal motive to bias his counsel. Nor can I forget, as an encouragement to it, your indulgent reception of writing paper site http purdue edu, my sentiments on a former and not dissimilar occasion. Interwoven as is the quality, love of liberty with every ligament of your hearts, no recommendation of mine is necessary to fortify or confirm the attachment. The unity of government which constitutes you one people is also now dear to you. Paper Http Owl English Purdue Edu! It is justly so, for it is a main pillar in the edifice of your real independence, the support of your tranquility at home, your peace abroad; of your safety; of your prosperity; of that very liberty which you so highly prize. But as it is easy to foresee that, from a level literature model different causes and from different quarters, much pains will be taken, many artifices employed to weaken in your minds the conviction of this truth; as this is the point in your political fortress against writing a research http owl english edu, which the batteries of internal and external enemies will be most constantly and critical essays allen, actively (though often covertly and insidiously) directed, it is of infinite moment that you should properly estimate the immense value of your national union to your collective and individual happiness; that you should cherish a cordial, habitual, and immovable attachment to writing site edu, it; accustoming yourselves to think and essay, speak of it as of the palladium of your political safety and prosperity; watching for its preservation with jealous anxiety; discountenancing whatever may suggest even a suspicion that it can in a research paper site edu any event be abandoned; and indignantly frowning upon proposition and support essay the first dawning of every attempt to alienate any portion of writing paper http, our country from the a level literature model essays, rest, or to enfeeble the writing paper http edu, sacred ties which now link together the repetition in a essay, various parts.

For this you have every inducement of sympathy and interest. Citizens, by birth or choice, of a common country, that country has a right to concentrate your affections. The name of American, which belongs to you in your national capacity, must always exalt the just pride of patriotism more than any appellation derived from owl english purdue local discriminations. With slight shades of difference, you have the same religion, manners, habits, and nursing, political principles. You have in a research paper site owl english a common cause fought and triumphed together; the independence and liberty you possess are the work of joint counsels, and joint efforts of common dangers, sufferings, and successes. But these considerations, however powerfully they address themselves to your sensibility, are greatly outweighed by those which apply more immediately to your interest. Here every portion of our country finds the most commanding motives for carefully guarding and preserving the union of the critical thinking outline, whole. The North, in an unrestrained intercourse with the South, protected by writing a research paper site http owl english edu the equal laws of a common government, finds in the productions of the latter great additional resources of maritime and commercial enterprise and precious materials of manufacturing industry. The South, in the same intercourse, benefiting by about the agency of the North, sees its agriculture grow and its commerce expand. Writing Paper Site Http Owl English! Turning partly into its own channels the seamen of the North, it finds its particular navigation invigorated; and, while it contributes, in different ways, to experience essay, nourish and increase the general mass of the national navigation, it looks forward to writing a research site http purdue edu, the protection of a level model, a maritime strength, to which itself is unequally adapted.

The East, in a like intercourse with the West, already finds, and in the progressive improvement of interior communications by land and writing a research paper, water, will more and more find a valuable vent for the commodities which it brings from abroad, or manufactures at home. The West derives from the East supplies requisite to its growth and comfort, and, what is perhaps of still greater consequence, it must of necessity owe the and support, secure enjoyment of indispensable outlets for its own productions to writing paper http owl english edu, the weight, influence, and the future maritime strength of the Atlantic side of the Union, directed by an indissoluble community of interest as one nation. Any other tenure by which the West can hold this essential advantage, whether derived from its own separate strength, or from an thinking course, apostate and unnatural connection with any foreign power, must be intrinsically precarious. While, then, every part of our country thus feels an immediate and a research paper purdue, particular interest in union, all the parts combined cannot fail to assurance nursing, find in the united mass of means and paper site http owl english edu, efforts greater strength, greater resource, proportionably greater security from external danger, a less frequent interruption of their peace by foreign nations; and, what is a level literature, of inestimable value, they must derive from union an exemption from those broils and wars between themselves, which so frequently afflict neighboring countries not tied together by writing a research site http owl english the same governments, which their own rival ships alone would be sufficient to produce, but which opposite foreign alliances, attachments, and intrigues would stimulate and embitter. Allen! Hence, likewise, they will avoid the necessity of those overgrown military establishments which, under any form of writing a research paper http edu, government, are inauspicious to liberty, and which are to be regarded as particularly hostile to republican liberty. In this sense it is that your union ought to be considered as a main prop of your liberty, and that the creative thinking outline, love of the paper owl english, one ought to endear to you the preservation of the other. These considerations speak a persuasive language to creative critical thinking, every reflecting and a research owl english, virtuous mind, and exhibit the continuance of the Union as a primary object of patriotic desire. Is there a doubt whether a common government can embrace so large a sphere? Let experience solve it. To listen to proposition and support essay, mere speculation in such a case were criminal.

We are authorized to hope that a proper organization of the whole with the auxiliary agency of governments for the respective subdivisions, will afford a happy issue to the experiment. It is well worth a fair and full experiment. With such powerful and obvious motives to union, affecting all parts of our country, while experience shall not have demonstrated its impracticability, there will always be reason to distrust the patriotism of a research paper http purdue, those who in a level literature any quarter may endeavor to weaken its bands. In contemplating the causes which may disturb our Union, it occurs as matter of serious concern that any ground should have been furnished for characterizing parties by geographical discriminations, Northern and Southern, Atlantic and Western; whence designing men may endeavor to excite a belief that there is a real difference of local interests and views. One of the expedients of party to acquire influence within particular districts is to misrepresent the opinions and aims of other districts.

You cannot shield yourselves too much against the jealousies and heartburnings which spring from these misrepresentations; they tend to render alien to each other those who ought to a research paper site owl english, be bound together by fraternal affection. The inhabitants of our Western country have lately had a useful lesson on this head; they have seen, in the negotiation by the Executive, and in the unanimous ratification by the Senate, of the treaty with Spain, and in the universal satisfaction at repetition in a essay, that event, throughout the United States, a decisive proof how unfounded were the suspicions propagated among them of a policy in the General Government and in the Atlantic States unfriendly to their interests in regard to the Mississippi; they have been witnesses to paper http purdue edu, the formation of two treaties, that with Great Britain, and that with Spain, which secure to them everything they could desire, in respect to our foreign relations, towards confirming their prosperity. Will it not be their wisdom to rely for the preservation of these advantages on the Union by which they were procured? Will they not henceforth be deaf to those advisers, if such there are, who would sever them from their brethren and experience about, connect them with aliens? To the efficacy and permanency of a research site, your Union, a government for the whole is indispensable. Proposition Essay! No alliance, however strict, between the parts can be an adequate substitute; they must inevitably experience the a research paper site owl english edu, infractions and interruptions which all alliances in creative critical thinking all times have experienced. Sensible of this momentous truth, you have improved upon your first essay, by the adoption of a constitution of government better calculated than your former for an intimate union, and for the efficacious management of your common concerns. This government, the offspring of our own choice, uninfluenced and writing paper http edu, unawed, adopted upon full investigation and mature deliberation, completely free in its principles, in the distribution of its powers, uniting security with energy, and containing within itself a provision for its own amendment, has a just claim to your confidence and your support. Nursing! Respect for its authority, compliance with its laws, acquiescence in its measures, are duties enjoined by the fundamental maxims of true liberty.

The basis of our political systems is the right of the people to make and to alter their constitutions of paper, government. But the Constitution which at any time exists, till changed by an explicit and authentic act of the whole people, is and support, sacredly obligatory upon all. The very idea of the writing a research paper owl english edu, power and the right of the people to establish government presupposes the duty of every individual to obey the established government. All obstructions to the execution of the laws, all combinations and associations, under whatever plausible character, with the real design to direct, control, counteract, or awe the regular deliberation and action of the constituted authorities, are destructive of this fundamental principle, and of fatal tendency. They serve to organize faction, to give it an artificial and extraordinary force; to put, in literature essays the place of the delegated will of the nation the will of a party, often a small but artful and enterprising minority of the community; and, according to the alternate triumphs of different parties, to make the public administration the paper owl english purdue, mirror of the ill-concerted and quality assurance essay, incongruous projects of faction, rather than the organ of consistent and paper http owl english edu, wholesome plans digested by common counsels and modified by mutual interests. However combinations or associations of the above description may now and then answer popular ends, they are likely, in the course of quality, time and writing a research paper site http owl english purdue, things, to become potent engines, by which cunning, ambitious, and unprincipled men will be enabled to subvert the power of the people and to usurp for themselves the creative critical outline, reins of government, destroying afterwards the very engines which have lifted them to unjust dominion. Towards the preservation of your government, and the permanency of your present happy state, it is requisite, not only that you steadily discountenance irregular oppositions to its acknowledged authority, but also that you resist with care the spirit of paper site owl english edu, innovation upon nursing its principles, however specious the pretexts. Writing Paper Purdue! One method of assault may be to effect, in the forms of the Constitution, alterations which will impair the energy of the system, and experience about, thus to undermine what cannot be directly overthrown.

In all the writing http purdue, changes to which you may be invited, remember that time and habit are at least as necessary to fix the assurance, true character of governments as of other human institutions; that experience is the site http owl english, surest standard by which to test the real tendency of the creative, existing constitution of a country; that facility in changes, upon the credit of mere hypothesis and opinion, exposes to perpetual change, from the a research http owl english purdue edu, endless variety of hypothesis and opinion; and remember, especially, that for the efficient management of your common interests, in a country so extensive as ours, a government of as much vigor as is consistent with the perfect security of liberty is indispensable. Liberty itself will find in such a government, with powers properly distributed and adjusted, its surest guardian. It is, indeed, little else than a name, where the government is allen, too feeble to withstand the enterprises of faction, to confine each member of the society within the limits prescribed by the laws, and to writing http purdue, maintain all in the secure and tranquil enjoyment of the rights of person and proposition, property. I have already intimated to you the a research paper site http owl english purdue, danger of parties in the State, with particular reference to the founding of them on geographical discriminations. Let me now take a more comprehensive view, and warn you in outline the most solemn manner against the baneful effects of the spirit of party generally. This spirit, unfortunately, is inseparable from our nature, having its root in writing paper site http owl english purdue the strongest passions of the human mind. It exists under different shapes in all governments, more or less stifled, controlled, or repressed; but, in those of the popular form, it is seen in its greatest rankness, and literature model essays, is truly their worst enemy. The alternate domination of one faction over paper purdue edu another, sharpened by the spirit of revenge, natural to party dissension, which in different ages and countries has perpetrated the most horrid enormities, is itself a frightful despotism. But this leads at length to a more formal and proposition, permanent despotism.

The disorders and miseries which result gradually incline the minds of men to seek security and repose in the absolute power of an writing paper owl english, individual; and proposition and support essay, sooner or later the chief of some prevailing faction, more able or more fortunate than his competitors, turns this disposition to the purposes of his own elevation, on writing a research site owl english, the ruins of public liberty. Without looking forward to an extremity of this kind (which nevertheless ought not to be entirely out of sight), the common and continual mischiefs of the spirit of critical on woody, party are sufficient to make it the interest and duty of writing a research site http owl english edu, a wise people to proposition, discourage and restrain it. It serves always to distract the public councils and writing a research site owl english purdue, enfeeble the public administration. It agitates the community with ill-founded jealousies and essay, false alarms, kindles the animosity of one part against another, foments occasionally riot and writing site http owl english, insurrection. It opens the door to foreign influence and corruption, which finds a facilitated access to the government itself through the channels of party passions.

Thus the policy and the will of critical essays, one country are subjected to the policy and will of another. There is an opinion that parties in free countries are useful checks upon the administration of the government and serve to writing a research paper, keep alive the proposition essay, spirit of liberty. This within certain limits is probably true; and in governments of writing a research paper site http owl english edu, a monarchical cast, patriotism may look with indulgence, if not with favor, upon the spirit of party. But in those of the popular character, in governments purely elective, it is a spirit not to be encouraged. And Support! From their natural tendency, it is a research edu, certain there will always be enough of that spirit for every salutary purpose. And there being constant danger of excess, the effort ought to be by force of public opinion, to mitigate and assuage it. Repetition Persuasive! A fire not to be quenched, it demands a uniform vigilance to prevent its bursting into a flame, lest, instead of warming, it should consume. It is important, likewise, that the habits of thinking in a free country should inspire caution in those entrusted with its administration, to confine themselves within their respective constitutional spheres, avoiding in the exercise of the powers of one department to writing a research site, encroach upon another.

The spirit of encroachment tends to consolidate the powers of proposition, all the departments in one, and thus to create, whatever the form of government, a real despotism. A just estimate of that love of power, and proneness to abuse it, which predominates in the human heart, is sufficient to satisfy us of the truth of this position. Writing A Research Paper Owl English! The necessity of reciprocal checks in the exercise of political power, by dividing and distributing it into different depositaries, and constituting each the guardian of the public weal against invasions by the others, has been evinced by experiments ancient and modern; some of them in our country and under our own eyes. To preserve them must be as necessary as to institute them. If, in assurance the opinion of the people, the distribution or modification of the site owl english edu, constitutional powers be in literature model essays any particular wrong, let it be corrected by writing http owl english purdue edu an amendment in essay about travel the way which the Constitution designates. But let there be no change by usurpation; for though this, in one instance, may be the writing a research owl english edu, instrument of good, it is the assurance nursing, customary weapon by which free governments are destroyed. The precedent must always greatly overbalance in permanent evil any partial or transient benefit, which the use can at any time yield. Of all the dispositions and habits which lead to political prosperity, religion and morality are indispensable supports. In vain would that man claim the tribute of patriotism, who should labor to subvert these great pillars of human happiness, these firmest props of the site owl english purdue edu, duties of men and citizens. The mere politician, equally with the pious man, ought to respect and to cherish them.

A volume could not trace all their connections with private and public felicity. Let it simply be asked: Where is the security for property, for reputation, for life, if the sense of religious obligation desert the oaths which are the instruments of investigation in courts of justice ? And let us with caution indulge the quality assurance nursing, supposition that morality can be maintained without religion. Whatever may be conceded to the influence of refined education on minds of writing paper owl english edu, peculiar structure, reason and in a essay, experience both forbid us to expect that national morality can prevail in exclusion of religious principle. It is substantially true that virtue or morality is a necessary spring of popular government. The rule, indeed, extends with more or less force to every species of free government. Who that is a sincere friend to site purdue edu, it can look with indifference upon essays attempts to shake the writing paper purdue, foundation of the fabric? Promote then, as an object of primary importance, institutions for critical allen, the general diffusion of knowledge. In proportion as the structure of a government gives force to public opinion, it is essential that public opinion should be enlightened. As a very important source of strength and security, cherish public credit.

One method of preserving it is to use it as sparingly as possible, avoiding occasions of expense by cultivating peace, but remembering also that timely disbursements to prepare for danger frequently prevent much greater disbursements to repel it, avoiding likewise the accumulation of debt, not only by a research site owl english purdue shunning occasions of expense, but by vigorous exertion in time of peace to discharge the debts which unavoidable wars may have occasioned, not ungenerously throwing upon posterity the burden which we ourselves ought to bear. The execution of these maxims belongs to your representatives, but it is necessary that public opinion should co-operate. To facilitate to them the performance of their duty, it is essential that you should practically bear in travel mind that towards the site owl english, payment of quality assurance, debts there must be revenue; that to have revenue there must be taxes; that no taxes can be devised which are not more or less inconvenient and unpleasant; that the intrinsic embarrassment, inseparable from the writing a research paper site http, selection of the proper objects (which is proposition and support essay, always a choice of difficulties), ought to be a decisive motive for a candid construction of the conduct of the government in making it, and for a spirit of acquiescence in the measures for obtaining revenue, which the owl english edu, public exigencies may at any time dictate. Observe good faith and justice towards all nations; cultivate peace and harmony with all. Religion and in a persuasive essay, morality enjoin this conduct; and can it be, that good policy does not equally enjoin it – It will be worthy of a free, enlightened, and at no distant period, a great nation, to give to mankind the magnanimous and too novel example of writing paper http purdue edu, a people always guided by an exalted justice and benevolence. Who can doubt that, in the course of proposition, time and things, the fruits of such a plan would richly repay any temporary advantages which might be lost by a steady adherence to a research site http, it ? Can it be that Providence has not connected the permanent felicity of a nation with its virtue ? The experiment, at least, is essays allen, recommended by every sentiment which ennobles human nature.

Alas! is it rendered impossible by its vices? In the paper site edu, execution of such a plan, nothing is more essential than that permanent, inveterate antipathies against particular nations, and passionate attachments for others, should be excluded; and that, in place of them, just and amicable feelings towards all should be cultivated. The nation which indulges towards another a habitual hatred or a habitual fondness is in some degree a slave. It is a slave to its animosity or to its affection, either of which is sufficient to proposition and support essay, lead it astray from its duty and its interest. Antipathy in one nation against another disposes each more readily to offer insult and injury, to lay hold of slight causes of umbrage, and to be haughty and writing a research site http, intractable, when accidental or trifling occasions of dispute occur. Hence, frequent collisions, obstinate, envenomed, and proposition and support, bloody contests. The nation, prompted by ill-will and resentment, sometimes impels to war the government, contrary to the best calculations of policy. The government sometimes participates in the national propensity, and adopts through passion what reason would reject; at other times it makes the writing a research paper http, animosity of the nation subservient to projects of experience essay about, hostility instigated by pride, ambition, and other sinister and pernicious motives. The peace often, sometimes perhaps the liberty, of nations, has been the victim. So likewise, a passionate attachment of one nation for another produces a variety of writing owl english edu, evils. Sympathy for the favorite nation, facilitating the illusion of an imaginary common interest in cases where no real common interest exists, and in a persuasive essay, infusing into one the enmities of the other, betrays the former into a participation in the quarrels and wars of the latter without adequate inducement or justification.

It leads also to writing a research site owl english, concessions to creative critical thinking course outline, the favorite nation of privileges denied to others which is apt doubly to injure the nation making the concessions; by unnecessarily parting with what ought to a research site owl english purdue edu, have been retained, and by exciting jealousy, ill-will, and a disposition to retaliate, in the parties from whom equal privileges are withheld. Quality Nursing! And it gives to ambitious, corrupted, or deluded citizens (who devote themselves to the favorite nation), facility to betray or sacrifice the interests of their own country, without odium, sometimes even with popularity; gilding, with the writing paper site owl english edu, appearances of a virtuous sense of persuasive, obligation, a commendable deference for public opinion, or a laudable zeal for public good, the writing http owl english purdue, base or foolish compliances of proposition and support essay, ambition, corruption, or infatuation. As avenues to foreign influence in innumerable ways, such attachments are particularly alarming to the truly enlightened and independent patriot. How many opportunities do they afford to tamper with domestic factions, to practice the arts of seduction, to mislead public opinion, to influence or awe the public councils. Such an attachment of writing a research http purdue edu, a small or weak towards a great and powerful nation dooms the former to be the satellite of the latter. Against the insidious wiles of foreign influence (I conjure you to believe me, fellow-citizens) the jealousy of a free people ought to be constantly awake, since history and experience prove that foreign influence is experience essay about, one of the most baneful foes of republican government. But that jealousy to be useful must be impartial; else it becomes the instrument of the very influence to writing a research paper owl english purdue edu, be avoided, instead of a defense against persuasive essay, it. Excessive partiality for one foreign nation and excessive dislike of another cause those whom they actuate to see danger only on one side, and a research http owl english, serve to veil and even second the arts of influence on the other. Real patriots who may resist the intrigues of the favorite are liable to become suspected and odious, while its tools and dupes usurp the applause and essay, confidence of the people, to surrender their interests. The great rule of conduct for us in regard to foreign nations is in extending our commercial relations, to have with them as little political connection as possible. So far as we have already formed engagements, let them be fulfilled with perfect good faith.

Here let us stop. Europe has a set of paper, primary interests which to us have none; or a very remote relation. Hence she must be engaged in frequent controversies, the quality assurance, causes of which are essentially foreign to our concerns. Hence, therefore, it must be unwise in us to implicate ourselves by artificial ties in writing paper site purdue edu the ordinary vicissitudes of her politics, or the ordinary combinations and proposition essay, collisions of writing a research paper site http purdue edu, her friendships or enmities. Our detached and distant situation invites and enables us to pursue a different course. If we remain one people under an efficient government. the course outline, period is not far off when we may defy material injury from external annoyance; when we may take such an attitude as will cause the neutrality we may at any time resolve upon to be scrupulously respected; when belligerent nations, under the impossibility of making acquisitions upon us, will not lightly hazard the giving us provocation; when we may choose peace or war, as our interest, guided by justice, shall counsel. Why forego the advantages of so peculiar a situation?

Why quit our own to stand upon writing paper owl english purdue foreign ground? Why, by creative thinking course outline interweaving our destiny with that of writing a research site http, any part of proposition, Europe, entangle our peace and prosperity in the toils of European ambition, rivalship, interest, humor or caprice? It is our true policy to steer clear of permanent alliances with any portion of the foreign world; so far, I mean, as we are now at liberty to do it; for let me not be understood as capable of a research paper site http owl english, patronizing infidelity to quality assurance nursing, existing engagements. I hold the maxim no less applicable to public than to private affairs, that honesty is always the best policy. I repeat it, therefore, let those engagements be observed in their genuine sense. But, in my opinion, it is unnecessary and would be unwise to paper site http owl english purdue, extend them. Taking care always to keep ourselves by suitable establishments on a respectable defensive posture, we may safely trust to essays, temporary alliances for extraordinary emergencies. Harmony, liberal intercourse with all nations, are recommended by policy, humanity, and interest. But even our commercial policy should hold an equal and paper site http owl english, impartial hand; neither seeking nor granting exclusive favors or preferences; consulting the natural course of things; diffusing and diversifying by repetition in a persuasive gentle means the a research paper site, streams of commerce, but forcing nothing; establishing (with powers so disposed, in order to give trade a stable course, to define the rights of our merchants, and to enable the government to support them) conventional rules of intercourse, the best that present circumstances and mutual opinion will permit, but temporary, and liable to be from time to time abandoned or varied, as experience and circumstances shall dictate; constantly keeping in view that it is folly in quality assurance one nation to writing a research site http purdue, look for disinterested favors from another; that it must pay with a portion of its independence for creative course, whatever it may accept under that character; that, by such acceptance, it may place itself in the condition of having given equivalents for nominal favors, and yet of being reproached with ingratitude for not giving more. There can be no greater error than to expect or calculate upon writing a research paper purdue edu real favors from nation to nation. It is an illusion, which experience must cure, which a just pride ought to discard.

In offering to you, my countrymen, these counsels of an old and essays, affectionate friend, I dare not hope they will make the writing a research owl english edu, strong and lasting impression I could wish; that they will control the usual current of the passions, or prevent our nation from running the experience travel, course which has hitherto marked the writing paper owl english purdue, destiny of nations. But, if I may even flatter myself that they may be productive of some partial benefit, some occasional good; that they may now and then recur to moderate the fury of party spirit, to warn against the mischiefs of foreign intrigue, to guard against repetition persuasive, the impostures of pretended patriotism; this hope will be a full recompense for the solicitude for a research paper http purdue, your welfare, by proposition essay which they have been dictated. How far in the discharge of my official duties I have been guided by the principles which have been delineated, the public records and a research http owl english purdue edu, other evidence of my conduct must witness to you and to experience, the world. To myself, the assurance of my own conscience is, that I have at a research http owl english purdue, least believed myself to be guided by them. In relation to the still subsisting war in Europe, my proclamation of the twenty-second of April, I793, is the index of my plan. Sanctioned by your approving voice, and by that of your representatives in both houses of Congress, the proposition and support essay, spirit of that measure has continually governed me, uninfluenced by any attempts to deter or divert me from it. After deliberate examination, with the aid of the best lights I could obtain, I was well satisfied that our country, under all the writing http edu, circumstances of the model essays, case, had a right to take, and was bound in duty and interest to take, a neutral position.

Having taken it, I determined, as far as should depend upon me, to maintain it, with moderation, perseverance, and firmness. The considerations which respect the right to hold this conduct, it is not necessary on this occasion to detail. I will only observe that, according to my understanding of the matter, that right, so far from being denied by any of the writing a research site owl english, belligerent powers, has been virtually admitted by all. The duty of holding a neutral conduct may be inferred, without anything more, from the obligation which justice and humanity impose on every nation, in cases in in a persuasive which it is free to paper site purdue edu, act, to maintain inviolate the in a, relations of peace and amity towards other nations. The inducements of interest for writing a research http owl english, observing that conduct will best be referred to your own reflections and repetition in a essay, experience. With me, a predominant motive has been to endeavor to gain time to writing a research owl english, our country to settle and mature its yet recent institutions, and to progress without interruption to that degree of strength and creative critical outline, consistency which is a research site http owl english edu, necessary to give it, humanly speaking, the literature model essays, command of its own fortunes. Though, in reviewing the incidents of my administration, I am unconscious of intentional error, I am nevertheless too sensible of writing a research site owl english edu, my defects not to think it probable that I may have committed many errors. Whatever they may be, I fervently beseech the Almighty to avert or mitigate the essays allen, evils to which they may tend. A Research Paper Site Owl English! I shall also carry with me the hope that my country will never cease to view them with indulgence; and that, after forty-five years of my life dedicated to its service with an upright zeal, the faults of incompetent abilities will be consigned to critical thinking, oblivion, as myself must soon be to the mansions of rest.

Relying on a research paper purdue edu, its kindness in this as in other things, and actuated by that fervent love towards it, which is essay, so natural to a man who views in it the native soil of himself and his progenitors for several generations, I anticipate with pleasing expectation that retreat in which I promise myself to realize, without alloy, the writing a research site purdue, sweet enjoyment of partaking, in the midst of my fellow-citizens, the benign influence of good laws under a free government, the ever-favorite object of my heart, and the happy reward, as I trust, of our mutual cares, labors, and dangers. THE EXISTENCE OF GOD AND THE BEGINNING OF THE UNIVERSE. William Craig earned a doctorate in creative thinking course philosophy at the University of Birmingham, England, before taking a doctorate in theology from the Ludwig Maximiliens Universitat-Munchen, West Germany, at which latter institution he was for two years a Fellow of the Alexander von Humboldt-Stiftung. He is currently a visiting scholar at the Universite Catholique de Louvain. Writing Paper Purdue Edu! He has authored various books, including The Kalam Cosmological Argument, The Cosmological Argument from Plato to Leibniz, and The Problem of Divine Foreknowledge and Future Contingents from Aristotle to proposition, Suarez , as well as articles in professional journals like British Journal for owl english, the Philosophy of Science , Zeitschrift fur Philosophische Forschung , Australasian Journal of Philosophy , and Philosophia . The kalam cosmological argument, by showing that the universe began to exist, demonstrates that the world is not a necessary being and, therefore, not self-explanatory with respect to its existence. Creative Thinking Outline! Two philosophical arguments and two scientific confirmations are presented in support of the beginning of the universe.

Since whatever begins to exist has a cause, there must exist a transcendent cause of the universe. Source: “The Existence of God and the Beginning of the writing paper site, Universe.” Truth: A Journal of Modern Thought 3 (1991): 85-96. “The first question which should rightly be asked,” wrote G.W.F. Leibniz, is “ Why is a level model, there something rather than nothing ?”[1] This question does seem to writing paper site purdue edu, possess a profound existential force, which has been felt by some of mankind’s greatest thinkers. According to Aristotle, philosophy begins with a sense of wonder about the world, and the most profound question a man can ask concerns the origin of the universe.[2] In his biography of Ludwig Wittgenstein, Norman Malcolm reports that Wittgenstein said that he sometimes had a certain experience which could best be described by saying that “when I have it, I wonder at the existence of the world . I am then inclined to thinking course outline, use such phrases as ‘How extraordinary that anything should exist!'”[3] Similarly, one contemporary philosopher remarks, “. . . Writing Site Http Owl English Purdue Edu! My mind often seems to reel under the immense significance this question has for me. That anything exists at repetition in a essay, all does seem to me a matter for the deepest awe.”[4] Why does something exist instead of nothing? Leibniz answered this question by arguing that something exists rather than nothing because a necessary being exists which carries within itself its reason for existence and is the sufficient reason for a research paper site http purdue edu, the existence of all contingent being.[5]

Although Leibniz (followed by certain contemporary philosophers) regarded the non- existence of a necessary being as logically impossible, a more modest explication of quality assurance nursing, necessity of writing paper http owl english, existence in terms of what he calls “factual necessity” has been given by a level literature essays John Hick: a necessary being is an eternal, uncaused, indestructible, and incorruptible being.[6] Leibniz, of course, identified the necessary being as God. His critics, however, disputed this identification, contending that the material universe could itself be assigned the status of a necessary being. “Why,” queried David Hume, “may not the material universe be the necessary existent Being, according to a research owl english purdue, this pretended explanation of experience about travel, necessity?”[7] Typically, this has been precisely the position of the atheist. Atheists have not felt compelled to embrace the view that the universe came into being out of a research paper site purdue, nothing for no reason at all; rather they regard the quality assurance nursing, universe itself as a sort of factually necessary being: the universe is eternal, uncaused, indestructible, and incorruptible. As Russell neatly put it, ” . . . The universe is just there, and that’s all.”[8] Does Leibniz’s argument, therefore, leave us in writing a research paper site http owl english edu a rational impasse, or might there not be some further resources available for untangling the riddle of the existence of the literature model essays, world? It seems to me that there are. It will be remembered that an essential property of paper site owl english purdue edu, a necessary being is in a, eternality. If then it could be made plausible that the universe began to exist and is not, therefore, eternal, one would to that extent at writing a research paper site http edu, least have shown the superiority of theism as a rational world view. Now there is one form of the cosmological argument, much neglected today but of great historical importance, that aims precisely at the demonstration that the universe had a beginning in time.[9] Originating in the efforts of Christian theologians to refute the Greek doctrine of the eternity of matter, this argument was developed into sophisticated formulations by proposition and support essay medieval Islamic and Jewish theologians, who in turn passed it back to the Latin West.

The argument thus has a broad intersectarian appeal, having been defended by Muslims, Jews, and Christians both Catholic and Protestant. This argument, which I have called the kalam cosmological argument, can be exhibited as follows: Let us examine this argument more closely. Defense of the Kalam Cosmological Argument. Clearly, the crucial premiss in this argument is (2), and writing a research paper http owl english purdue edu, two independent arguments are offered in support of it. Let us, therefore, turn first to an examination of the supporting arguments. In order to understand (2.1), we need to understand the difference between a potential infinite and repetition in a persuasive essay, an actual infinite. Crudely put, a potential infinite is a collection which is increasing toward infinity as a limit, but never gets there. Such a collection is really indefinite, not infinite. The sign of this sort of infinity, which is a research http purdue edu, used in calculus, is ? . Experience Essay About! An actual infinite is a collection in which the number of members really is infinite. The collection is not growing toward infinity; it is infinite, it is “complete.” The sign of this sort of infinity, which is used in set theory to writing a research http edu, designate sets which have an infinite number of members, such as , is A 0 . Critical! Now (2.11) maintains, not that a potentially infinite number of things cannot exist, but that an actually infinite number of things cannot exist.

For if an actually infinite number of things could exist, this would spawn all sorts of absurdities. Perhaps the best way to bring home the truth of (2.11) is by means of an site http owl english, illustration. Let me use one of my favorites, Hilbert’s Hotel, a product of the experience about travel, mind of the great German mathematician, David Hilbert. Let us imagine a hotel with a finite number of rooms. Suppose, furthermore, that all the rooms are full . Writing A Research Http Purdue! When a new guest arrives asking for a room, the proprietor apologizes, “Sorry, all the and support, rooms are full.” But now let us imagine a hotel with an paper site http, infinite number of rooms and suppose once more that all the rooms are full. There is not a single vacant room throughout the entire infinite hotel. Now suppose a new guest shows up, asking for essay about, a room. “But of course!” says the proprietor, and he immediately shifts the person in room #1 into room #2, the person in room #2 into room #3, the a research http owl english, person in room #3 into room #4 and so on, out to infinity. As a result of these room changes, room #1 now becomes vacant and the new guest gratefully checks in. But remember, before he arrived, all the rooms were full! Equally curious, according to the mathematicians, there are now no more persons in the hotel than there were before: the number is proposition and support, just infinite.

But how can this be? The proprietor just added the paper site owl english edu, new guest’s name to the register and critical thinking course, gave him his keys-how can there not be one more person in writing a research paper edu the hotel than before? But the situation becomes even stranger. For suppose an infinity of new guests show up the a level essays, desk, asking for a room. “Of course, of course!” says the proprietor, and he proceeds to shift the person in room #1 into room #2, the person in writing a research http owl english purdue room #2 into room #4, the person in experience essay room #3 into room #6, and so on out to infinity, always putting each former occupant into the room number twice his own. As a result, all the odd numbered rooms become vacant, and the infinity of new guests is easily accommodated. And yet, before they came, all the rooms were full!

And again, strangely enough, the number of writing a research http owl english, guests in the hotel is the experience essay about, same after the a research site purdue, infinity of new guests check in essays allen as before, even though there were as many new guests as old guests. In fact, the proprietor could repeat this process infinitely many times and writing a research paper http, yet there would never be one single person more in the hotel than before. But Hilbert’s Hotel is even stranger than the critical thinking outline, German mathematician gave it out to be. Writing A Research Paper Site Owl English Purdue Edu! For suppose some of the guests start to check out. Suppose the guest in creative course outline room #1 departs. Is there not now one less person in the hotel? Not according to the mathematicians, but just ask the woman who makes the writing a research http owl english edu, beds! Suppose the guests in room numbers 1, 3, 5, . Persuasive! . . check out. In this case, an writing a research paper site http owl english purdue edu, infinite number of people have left the hotel, but according to the mathematicians there are no fewer people in the hotel—but don’t talk to that laundry woman!

In fact, we could have every other guest check out of the in a, hotel and paper owl english, repeat this process infinitely many times, and yet there would never be any f people in the hotel. But suppose instead the persons in room number 4, 5, 6, . . . checked out. At a single stroke, the hotel would be virtually emptied, the proposition, guest register reduced to three names, and the infinite converted to finitude. Paper Site Http Owl English Edu! And yet it would remain true that the fewer same number of proposition and support, guests checked out this time as when the guests in room numbers 1, 3, 5, . . . checked out. Can anyone sincerely believe that such a hotel could exist in reality? These sorts of absurdities illustrate the impossibility of the existence of an actually infinite number of writing paper edu, things. That takes us to (2.12). The truth of allen, this premiss seems fairly obvious. If the universe never began to a research http edu, exist, then prior to the present event there have existed an actually infinite number of previous events.

Hence, a beginningless series of events in time entails the travel, existence of an actually infinite number of things, namely, past events. Given the truth of (2.11) and (2.12), the conclusion (2.13) logically follows. The series of past events must be finite and have a beginning. But since the universe is not distinct from the series of events, it follows that the universe began to exist. At this point, we might find it profitable to consider several objections that might be raised against the argument. First, let us consider objections to site, (2.11). Wallace Matson objects that the premiss must mean that an actually infinite number of things is logically impossible, but it is easy to show that such a collection is logically possible. Repetition In A Persuasive Essay! For example, the series of negative numbers is an actually infinite collection with no first member.[10] Matson’s error here lies in thinking that (2.11) means to assert the logical impossibility of an actually infinite number of things. What the premise expresses is the real or factual impossibility of an actual infinite.

To illustrate the difference between real and logical possibility: there is no logical impossibility in something’s coming to exist without a cause, but such a circumstance may well be really or metaphysically impossible. In the same way, (2.11) asserts that the absurdities entailed in a research site http owl english purdue the real existence of an actual infinite show that such an existence is metaphysically impossible. Hence, one could grant that in the conceptual realm of mathematics one can, given certain conventions and repetition in a persuasive, axioms, speak consistently about infinite sets of numbers, but this in no way implies that an actually infinite number of things is really possible. One might also note that the mathematical school of intuitionism denies that even the a research owl english purdue edu, number series is quality nursing essay, actually infinite (they take it to be potentially infinite only), so that appeal to number series as examples of actual infinites is a moot procedure. The late J.L. Mackie also objected to writing a research paper http purdue edu, (2.11), claiming that the absurdities are resolved by noting that for infinite groups the axiom “the whole is greater than its part” does not hold, as it does for finite groups.[11] Similarly, Quentin Smith comments that once we understand that an on woody allen, infinite set has a proper subset which has the same number of members as the set itself, the purportedly absurd situations become “perfectly believable.”[12] But to my mind, it is precisely this feature of infinite set theory which, when translated into the realm of the real, yields results which are perfectly incredible, for example, Hilbert’s Hotel. Writing Paper Site Http Owl English Edu! Moreover, not all the absurdities stem from infinite set theory’s denial of Euclid’s axiom: the absurdities illustrated by guests checking out of the hotel stem from the self-contradictory results when the inverse operations of subtraction or division are performed using transfinite numbers. Here the case against an actually infinite collection of experience travel, things becomes decisive. Finally one might note the objection of Sorabji, who maintains that illustrations such as Hilbert’s Hotel involve no absurdity. In order to understand what is wrong with the writing paper http edu, kalam argument, he asks us to envision two parallel columns beginning at the same point and stretching away into the infinite distance, one the column of past years and the other the column of past days. The sense in which the literature essays, column of a research paper site http, past days is no larger than the column of creative critical thinking outline, past years, says Sorabji, is writing a research paper site http purdue, that the quality nursing essay, column of days will not “stick out” beyond the far end of the other column—since neither column has a far end.

Now in a research paper site owl english edu the case of Hilbert’s Hotel, there is the temptation to think that some unfortunate resident at a level model essays, the far end will drop off into site owl english purdue, space. But there is creative course outline, no far end: the writing paper site purdue edu, line of residents will not stick out critical on woody allen beyond the far end of the line of rooms. Once this is seen, the paper http owl english purdue, outcome is just an critical allen, explicable—even if a surprising and exhilarating—truth about infinity.[13] Now Sorabji is certainly correct, as we have seen, that Hilbert’s Hotel illustrates an explicable truth about the nature of the http edu, actual infinite. Experience Essay About Travel! If an actually infinite number of things could exist, a Hilbert’s Hotel would be possible. But Sorabji seems to fail to understand the heart of the paradox: I, for one, experience no temptation to think of people dropping off the far end of the hotel, for http owl english purdue, there is none, but I do have difficulty believing that a hotel in which all the rooms are occupied can accommodate more guests. Of course, the line of guests will not stick out beyond the experience about travel, line of rooms, but if all of those infinite rooms already have guests in them, then can moving those guests about really create empty rooms?

Sorabji’s own illustration of the columns of past years and days I find not a little disquieting: if we divide the columns into writing a research paper site http purdue, foot-long segments and mark one column as the years and the other as the days, then one column is as long as the repetition in a persuasive essay, other and yet for every foot-length segment in the column of years, 365 segments of equal length are found in the column of days! These paradoxical results can be avoided only if such actually infinite collections can exist only in paper http owl english edu the imagination, not in reality. Critical Thinking Course Outline! In any case, the Hilbert’s Hotel illustration is not exhausted by dealing only with the addition of paper site owl english purdue, new guests, for quality assurance essay, the subtraction of guests results in writing paper http owl english purdue absurdities even more intractable. Sorabji’s analysis says nothing to resolve these. Hence, it seems to experience essay about travel, me that the objections to premiss (2.11) are less plausible than the premiss itself.

With regard to (2.12), the most frequent objection is that the past ought to be regarded as a potential infinite only, not an actual infinite. This was Aquinas’s position versus Bonaventure, and the contemporary philosopher Charles Hartshorne seems to side with Thomas on a research purdue edu, this issue.[14] Such a position is, however, untenable. The future is quality assurance essay, potentially infinite—since it does not exist—but the past is actual in a way the future is not, as evidenced by the fact that we have traces of the past in the present, but no traces of the future. Hence, if the series of writing a research paper edu, past events never began to exist, there must have been an actually infinite number of past events. The objections to either premiss, therefore, seem to be less compelling than the a level essays, premisses themselves. Together they imply that the universe began to exist. Hence, I conclude that this argument furnishes good grounds for accepting the truth of premiss (2) that the universe began to exist. The second argument (2.2) for the beginning of the universe is based on the impossibility of a research paper edu, forming an literature model, actual infinite by successive addition. This argument is paper http purdue edu, distinct from the first in that it does not deny the possibility of the existence of an actual infinite, but the possibility of its being formed by successive addition.

Premiss (2.21) is the course, crucial step in site http edu the argument. One cannot form an actually infinite collection of things by successively adding one member after another. A Level! Since one can always add one more before arriving at infinity, it is impossible to a research paper site http owl english purdue edu, reach actual infinity. Sometimes this is called the nursing essay, impossibility of “counting to infinity” or “traversing the writing a research site http edu, infinite.” It is important to understand that this impossibility has nothing to do with the thinking course, amount of time available: it belongs to the nature of infinity that it cannot be so formed. Now someone might say that while an infinite collection cannot be formed by beginning at a point and adding members, nevertheless an infinite collection could be formed by never beginning but ending at a point, that is to say, ending at writing a research http owl english purdue, a point after having added one member after another from eternity. But this method seems even more unbelievable than the first method. If one cannot count to infinity, how can one count down from infinity? If one cannot traverse the infinite by moving in one direction, how can one traverse it by simply moving in the opposite direction? Indeed, the idea of a beginningless series ending in a level literature the present seems to be absurd.

To give just one illustration: suppose we meet a man who claims to writing a research http owl english purdue edu, have been counting from eternity and is now finishing: . . Essay Travel! ., -3, -2, -1, 0. A Research Paper Site Owl English! We could ask, why did he not finish counting yesterday or the day before or the year before? By then an infinite time had already elapsed, so that he should already have finished by then. Thus, at no point in the infinite past could we ever find the model essays, man finishing his countdown, for by that point he should already be done! In fact, no matter how far back into the past we go, we can never find the man counting at all, for at any point we reach he will have already finished. But if at no point in writing site owl english the past do we find him counting, this contradicts the hypothesis that he has been counting from eternity. This illustrates the critical essays allen, fact that the paper site owl english edu, formation of an actual infinite by successive addition is equally impossible whether one proceeds to or from infinity. Premiss (2.22) presupposes a dynamical view of time according to which events are actualized in serial fashion, one after another. The series of events is not a sort of timelessly subsisting world-line which appears successively in consciousness. Rather becoming is real and essential to a temporal process.

Now this view of nursing essay, time is not without its challenges, but to consider their objections in edu this article would take us too far afield.[15] In this piece, we must rest content with the fact that we are arguing on common ground with our ordinary intuitions of temporal becoming and in agreement with a good number of contemporary philosophers of about, time and a research paper owl english edu, space. Given the and support essay, truth of (2.21) and (2.22), the conclusion (2.23) logically follows. If the universe did not begin to writing a research paper site http owl english purdue edu, exist a finite time ago, then the present moment could never arrive. But obviously, it has arrived. Therefore, we know that the universe is finite in the past and began to exist. Again, it would be profitable to consider various objections that have been offered against this reasoning. Travel! Against (2.21), Mackie objects that the argument illicitly assumes an infinitely distant starting point in the past and then pronounces it impossible to travel from that point to today.

But there would in an infinite past be no starting point, not even an infinitely distant one. Yet from any given point in writing a research paper site purdue edu the infinite past, there is only a finite distance to the present.[16] Now it seems to me that Mackie’s allegation that the critical thinking course outline, argument presupposes an infinitely distant starting point is writing a research paper site http edu, entirely groundless. The beginningless character of the series only serves to critical on woody, accentuate the writing paper site http, difficulty of its being formed by repetition persuasive successive addition. The fact that there is no beginning at paper site http purdue edu, all , not even an infinitely distant one, makes the problem more, not less, nettlesome. And the point that from any moment in the infinite past there is experience, only a finite temporal distance to the present may be dismissed as irrelevant. The question is not how any finite portion of the temporal series can be formed, but how the whole infinite series can be formed. If Mackie thinks that because every segment of the series can be formed by successive addition and therefore the whole series can be so formed, then he is simply committing the fallacy of composition.

Sorabji similarly objects that the reason it is impossible to count down from infinity is because counting involves by nature taking a starting number, which is writing a research paper site purdue edu, lacking in proposition and support this case. But completing an infinite lapse of years involves no starting year and is, hence, possible.[17] But this response is clearly inadequate, for, as we have seen, the years of an infinite past could be enumerated by the negative numbers, in which case a completed infinity of years would, indeed, entail a beginningless countdown from infinity. Sorabji anticipates this rebuttal, however, and claims that such a backwards countdown is possible in principle and therefore no logical barrier has been exhibited to the elapsing of an infinity of past years. Writing A Research Paper Owl English! Again, however, the question I am posing is not whether there is a logical contradiction in essays such a notion, but whether such a countdown is a research paper site owl english purdue edu, not metaphysically absurd. For we have seen that such a countdown should at any point already have been completed. But Sorabji is again ready with a response: to say the countdown should at any point already be over a level model essays confuses counting an infinity of numbers with counting all the numbers.

At any given point in the past, the writing site purdue edu, eternal counter will have already counted an infinity of negative numbers, but that does not entail that he will have counted all the in a persuasive, negative numbers. I do not think the argument makes this alleged equivocation, and this may be made clear by examining the reason why our eternal counter is supposedly able to complete a count of the negative numbers ending at zero. In order to justify the paper site owl english, possibility of creative thinking, this intuitively impossible feat, the argument’s opponent appeals to the so- called Principle of writing owl english purdue edu, Correspondence used in set theory to critical course outline, determine whether two sets are equivalent (that is, have the same number of members) by matching the members of one set with the members of the other set and vice versa . On the basis of this principle the a research paper owl english edu, objector argues that since the counter has lived, say, an infinite number of years and since the set of past years can be put into a one-to-one correspondence with the set of negative numbers, it follows that by counting one number a year an eternal counter would complete a countdown of the creative thinking course, negative numbers by the present year. Writing A Research Paper Site Http! If we were to ask why the critical essays allen, counter would not finish next year or in a hundred years, the objector would respond that prior to a research paper http owl english purdue, the present year an infinite number of years will have already elapsed, so that by the Principle of Correspondence, all the numbers should have been counted by now. But this reasoning backfires on thinking outline, the objector: for, as we have seen, on this account the counter should at any point in paper http purdue the past have already finished counting all the numbers, since a one-to-one correspondence exists between the years of the past and the negative numbers. Thus, there is no equivocation between counting an infinity of numbers and counting all the numbers. But at proposition essay, this point a deeper absurdity bursts in view: for suppose there were another counter who counted at a rate of one negative number per day. According to the Principle of Correspondence, which underlies infinite set theory and transfinite arithmetic, both of our eternal counters will finish their countdowns at the same moment, even though one is counting at a rate 365 times faster than the other! Can anyone believe that such scenarios can actually obtain in writing a research paper site reality, but do not rather represent the outcome of an imaginary game being played in a purely conceptual realm according to adopted logical conventions and axioms? As for premiss (2.22), many thinkers have objected that we need not regard the past as a beginningless infinite series with an end in the present. And Support Essay! Popper, for example, admits that the set of all past events is a research paper http owl english purdue edu, actually infinite, but holds that the series of past events is potentially infinite.

This may be seen by beginning in the present and numbering the events backward, thus forming a potential infinite. Therefore, the problem of an actual infinite’s being formed by successive addition does not arise.[18] Similarly, Swinburne muses that it is dubious whether a completed infinite series with no beginning but an end makes sense, but he proposes to solve the problem by beginning in the present and regressing into the past so that the repetition in a essay, series of past events would have no end and would therefore not be a completed infinite.[19] This objection, however, clearly confuses the mental regress of counting with the real progress of the paper site http purdue edu, temporal series of events itself. Numbering the series from the present backward only shows that if there are an infinite number of a level literature model essays, past events, then we can enumerate an infinite number of past events. But the problem is, how can this infinite collection of events come to be formed by successive addition? How we mentally conceive the series does not in any way affect the ontological character of the series itself as a series with no beginning but an end, or in other words, as an actual infinite completed by successive addition. Once again, then, the objections to (2.21) and (2.22) seem less plausible than the premisses themselves.

Together they imply (2.23), or that the universe began to exist. These purely philosophical arguments for the beginning of the universe have received remarkable confirmation from discoveries in astronomy and astrophysics during this century. Writing Owl English Edu! These confirmations might be summarized under two heads: the confirmation from the expansion of the universe and the confirmation from in a essay thermodynamic properties of the universe. With regard to the first, Hubble’s discovery in 1929 of the red-shift in the light from distant galaxies began a revolution in astronomy perhaps as significant as the Copernican revolution. Prior to writing paper site http owl english purdue, this time the universe as a whole was conceived to be static; but the startling conclusion to which Hubble was led was that the red-shift is due to the fact that the universe is in a level essays fact expanding . The staggering implication of purdue, this fact is that as one traces the expansion back in time, the universe becomes denser and creative, denser until one reaches a point of infinite density from which the universe began to expand.

The upshot of Hubble’s discovery was that at some point in the finite past-probably around 15 billion years ago-the entire known universe was contracted down to a single mathematical point which marked the origin of the writing a research http purdue, universe. That initial explosion has come to be known as the “Big Bang.” Four of the world’s most prominent astronomers described that event in these words: The universe began from a state of infinite density. . . . Space and time were created in that event and so was all the creative critical thinking, matter in the universe. It is not meaningful to writing http owl english purdue, ask what happened before the a level essays, Big Bang; it is http purdue edu, like asking what is north of the North Pole. Similarly, it is not sensible to ask where the Big Bang took place. The point-universe was not an object isolated in space; it was the entire universe, and so the answer can only be that the Big Bang happened everywhere.[20] This event that marked the beginning of the universe becomes all the more amazing when one reflects on proposition and support essay, the fact that a state of “infinite density” is synonymous to “nothing.” There can be no object that possesses infinite density, for if it had any size at writing site http purdue edu, all it could still be even more dense.

Therefore, as Cambridge astronomer Fred Hoyle points out, the Big Bang Theory requires the creation of matter from nothing. This is because as one goes back in time, one reaches a point at persuasive essay, which, in writing purdue Hoyle’s words, the universe was “shrunk down to nothing at all.”[21] Thus, what the Big Bang model of the universe seems to require is that the universe began to exist and was created out of nothing. Some theorists have attempted to avoid the essay, absolute beginning of the universe implied by the Big Bang theory by speculating that the universe may undergo an infinite series of expansions and contractions. There are, however, good grounds for doubting the writing http edu, adequacy of quality nursing, such an oscillating model of the paper site http owl english edu, universe: (i) The oscillating model appears to be physically impossible. For all the talk about such models, the fact seems to be that they are only theoretically, but not physically possible. As the a level model, late Professor Tinsley of writing a research paper http purdue, Yale explains, in oscillating models “even though the mathematics say that the essay, universe oscillates, there is no known physics to reverse the writing paper http owl english, collapse and essays allen, bounce back to writing a research paper site owl english purdue edu, a new expansion. In A! The physics seems to say that those models start from the Big Bang, expand, collapse, then end.”[22] In order for the oscillating model to be correct, it would seem that the known laws of physics would have to be revised. (ii) The oscillating model seems to be observationally untenable. Two facts of writing paper site, observational astronomy appear to run contrary to the oscillating model. First, the observed homogeneity of matter distribution throughout the universe seems unaccountable on an oscillating model. During the contraction phase of such a model, black holes begin to gobble up surrounding matter, resulting in quality assurance an inhomogeneous distribution of matter. But there is no known mechanism to “iron out” these inhomogeneities during the ensuing expansion phase.

Thus, the homogeneity of a research purdue edu, matter observed throughout the universe would remain unexplained. Second, the density of the quality assurance nursing essay, universe appears to be insufficient for the re-contraction of the paper site purdue edu, universe. For the oscillating model to be even possible, it is necessary that the universe be sufficiently dense such that gravity can overcome the force of the expansion and pull the universe back together again. And Support! However, according to the best estimates, if one takes into account both luminous matter and non-luminous matter (found in galactic halos) as well as any possible contribution of site http owl english purdue edu, neutrino particles to total mass, the universe is still only about one-half that needed for re-contraction.[23] Moreover, recent work on calculating the speed and deceleration of the essay travel, expansion confirms that the universe is writing paper http purdue edu, expanding at, so to speak, “escape velocity” and will not therefore re-contract. According to Sandage and Tammann, “Hence, we are forced to decide that . . . it seems inevitable that the Universe will expand forever”; they conclude, therefore, that “the Universe has happened only once.”[24]

As if this were not enough, there is a second scientific confirmation of the beginning of the universe based on the thermodynamic properties of various cosmological models. According to the second law of thermodynamics, processes taking place in essay about travel a closed system always tend toward a state of equilibrium. Now our interest is in what implications this has when the law is applied to the universe as a whole. For the universe is a gigantic closed system, since it is everything there is and no energy is writing http purdue edu, being fed into it from without. The second law seems to imply that, given enough time, the universe will reach a state of thermodynamic equilibrium, known as the “heat death” of the universe. This death may be hot or cold, depending on whether the universe will expand forever or eventually re-contract.

On the one hand, if the density of the critical course, universe is great enough to overcome the force of the expansion, then the universe will re-contract into a hot fireball. As the universe contracts, the stars burn more rapidly until they finally explode or evaporate. Paper Site! As the universe grows denser, the black holes begin to gobble up everything around them and begin themselves to coalesce until all the black holes finally coalesce into one gigantic black hole which is coextensive with the universe, from which it will never re-emerge. On the on woody, other hand, if the density of the universe is insufficient to writing a research purdue, halt the expansion, as seems more likely, then the galaxies will turn all their gas into stars and the stars will burn out. At 10[30 ]years the universe will consist of 90% dead stars, 9% supermassive black holes, and l% atomic matter.

Elementary particle physics suggests that thereafter protons will decay into electrons and positrons, so that space will be filled with a rarefied gas so thin that the distance between an electron and a positron will be about the size of the quality assurance nursing essay, present galaxy. At 10[100] years some scientists believe that the black holes themselves will dissipate into radiation and elementary particles. Eventually all the matter in writing http the dark, cold, ever-expanding universe will be reduced to an ultra-thin gas of elementary particles and radiation. Equilibrium will prevail throughout, and the entire universe will be in its final state, from which no change will occur. Now the question which needs to be asked is this: if, given sufficient time, the universe will reach heat death, then why is it not now in a state of heat death if it has existed for infinite time? If the universe did not begin to exist, then it should now be in a state of assurance, equilibrium. Writing Paper Http Owl English Purdue! Some theorists have suggested that the universe escapes final heat death by oscillating from eternity past to eternity future. But we have already seen that such a model seems to be physically and observationally untenable. But even if we waive those considerations and suppose that the proposition essay, universe does oscillate, the fact is that the thermodynamic properties of this model imply the very beginning of the a research paper http purdue, universe which its proponents seek to avoid. On Woody Allen! For the thermodynamic properties of an oscillating model are such that the universe expands farther and farther with each successive cycle.

Therefore, as one traces the expansions back in time, they grow smaller and smaller. As one scientific team explains, “The effect of entropy production will be to enlarge the cosmic scale, from writing http owl english purdue edu cycle to cycle. . . . Literature Model! Thus, looking back in time, each cycle generated less entropy, had a smaller cycle time, and had a smaller cycle expansion factor than the cycle that followed it.”[25] Novikov and Zeldovich of the Institute of Applied Mathematics of the USSR Academy of Sciences, therefore, conclude, “The multicycle model has an infinite future, but only writing a research paper http owl english a finite past.”[26] As another writer points out, the oscillating model of the literature model, universe thus still requires an origin of the universe prior to a research http owl english purdue edu, the smallest cycle.[27] So whatever scenario one selects for essay travel, the future of the a research site http owl english edu, universe, thermodynamics implies that the universe began to exist. According to physicist P.C.W. Essay! Davies, the universe must have been created a finite time ago and is in the process of winding down. Prior to the creation, the universe simply did not exist. Therefore, Davies concludes, even though we may not like it, we must conclude that the universe’s energy was somehow simply “put in” at the creation as an initial condition.[28] We, therefore, have both philosophical argument and scientific confirmation for the beginning of the universe. On this basis, I think that we are amply justified in concluding the a research http, truth of premiss (2) that the universe began to exist.

Premiss (1) strikes me as relatively non-controversial. It is experience travel, based on site http edu, the metaphysical intuition that something cannot come out of nothing. Hence, any argument for the principle is apt to essays, be less obvious than the principle itself. Writing Paper Site Owl English Edu! Even the great skeptic David Hume admitted that he never asserted so absurd a proposition as that something might come into existence without a cause; he only assurance nursing essay denied that one could prove the obviously true causal principle.[29] With regard to a research site owl english, the universe, if originally there were absolutely nothing— no God, no space, no time—then how could the universe possibly come to thinking course, exist? The truth of the principle ex nihilo , nihil fit is so obvious that I think we are justified in foregoing an elaborate defense of the writing a research site http purdue edu, argument’s first premiss.

Nevertheless, some thinkers, exercised to avoid the theism implicit in this premiss within the proposition and support essay, present context, have felt driven to deny its truth. In order to avoid its theistic implications, Davies presents a scenario which, he confesses, “should not be taken too seriously,” but which seems to have a powerful attraction for writing a research paper site owl english purdue, Davies.[30] He has reference to a quantum theory of gravity according to which spacetime itself could spring uncaused into being out of absolutely nothing. Thinking Course! While admitting that there is “still no satisfactory theory of writing a research http owl english, quantum gravity,” such a theory “would allow spacetime to be created and destroyed spontaneously and uncaused in the same way that particles are created and destroyed spontaneously and uncaused. The theory would entail a certain mathematically determined probability that, for instance, a blob of space would appear where none existed before. Thus, spacetime could pop out of nothingness as the creative outline, result of a causeless quantum transition.”[31]

Now, in fact, particle pair production furnishes no analogy for this radical ex nihilo becoming, as Davies seems to imply. Site Http! This quantum phenomenon, even if an exception to the principle that every event has a cause, provides no analogy to something’s coming into being out of nothing. Though physicists speak of this as particle pair creation and annihilation, such terms are philosophically misleading, for all that actually occurs is conversion of energy into critical thinking outline, matter or vice versa. As Davies admits, “The processes described here do not represent the creation of a research owl english, matter out of nothing, but the conversion of pre- existing energy into quality assurance, material form.”[32] Hence, Davies greatly misleads his reader when he claims that “Particles . . Writing A Research Purdue Edu! . Repetition In A Essay! can appear out of nowhere without specific causation” and again, “Yet the world of quantum physics routinely produces something for nothing.”[33] On the contrary, the world of quantum physics never produces something for nothing. But to consider the paper site http owl english, case on its own merits: quantum gravity is thinking outline, so poorly understood that the writing site owl english purdue edu, period prior to 10[-43] sec, which this theory hopes to describe, has been compared by one wag to literature, the regions on the maps of the ancient cartographers marked “Here there be dragons”: it can easily be filled with all sorts of fantasies. Writing A Research Site Http Owl English Purdue! In fact, there seems to be no good reason to think that such a theory would involve the sort of spontaneous becoming ex nihilo which Davies suggests. A quantum theory of gravity has the essays, goal of providing a theory of gravitation based on the exchange of particles (gravitons) rather than the writing site http edu, geometry of space, which can then be brought into a Grand Unification Theory that unites all the forces of experience essay, nature into a super symmetrical state in which one fundamental force and a single kind of paper site owl english, particle exist. But there seems to be nothing in this which suggests the quality assurance nursing essay, possibility of spontaneous becoming ex nihilo . Indeed, it is not at all clear that Davies’s account is even intelligible. What can be meant, for example, by the claim that there is a mathematical probability that nothingness should spawn a region of spacetime “where none existed before?” It cannot mean that given enough time a region of spacetime would pop into paper owl english purdue, existence at a certain place—since neither place nor time exists apart from essays spacetime.

The notion of some probability of something’s coming out of nothing thus seems incoherent. I am reminded in this connection of a research http purdue, some remarks made by A.N. Prior concerning an argument put forward by course Jonathan Edwards against something’s coming into existence uncaused. This would be impossible, said Edwards, because it would then be inexplicable why just any and everything cannot or does not come to writing paper site edu, exist uncaused. One cannot respond that only creative critical course things of a certain nature come into existence uncaused—since prior to their existence they have no nature which could control their coming to be. Prior made a cosmological application of Edwards’s reasoning by commenting on the steady state model’s postulating the continuous creation of hydrogen atoms ex nihilo : It is no part of Hoyle’s theory that this process is causeless, but I want to be more definite about this, and to say that if it is causeless, then what is alleged to happen is fantastic and incredible. If it is possible for objects—objects, now, which really are objects, “substances endowed with capacities”—to start existing without a cause, then it is incredible that they should all turn out to be objects of the same sort, namely, hydrogen atoms. Writing A Research Site Http Owl English Purdue Edu! The peculiar nature of hydrogen atoms cannot possibly be what makes such starting-to-exist possible for them but not for objects of any other sort; for creative thinking outline, hydrogen atoms do not have this nature until they are there to a research paper http, have it, i.e. until their starting-to-exist has already occurred. That is Edwards’s argument, in fact; and here it does seem entirely cogent. . Experience Essay About! . .[34] Now in the case at hand, if originally absolutely nothing existed, then why should it be spacetime that springs spontaneously out of the void, rather than, say, hydrogen atoms or even rabbits? How can one talk about the a research purdue, probability of repetition persuasive essay, any particular thing’s popping into being out of site http, nothing?

Davies on one occasion seems to answer as if the laws of physics are the controlling factor which determines what may leap uncaused into being: “But what of the laws? They have to be ‘there’ to start with so that the universe can come into being. Quantum physics has to thinking, exist (in some sense) so that a quantum transition can generate the cosmos in the first place.”[35] Now this seems exceedingly peculiar. Paper Purdue Edu! Davies seems to attribute to travel, the laws of nature themselves a sort of ontological and causal status such that they constrain spontaneous becoming. But this seems clearly wrong-headed: the paper site edu, laws of physics do not themselves cause or constrain anything; they are simply propositional descriptions of model, a certain form and generality of what does happen in the universe. And the issue Edwards raises is why, if there were absolutely nothing, it would be true that any one thing rather than another should pop into being uncaused?

It is futile to say it somehow belongs to the nature of spacetime to a research paper, do so, for if there were absolutely nothing then there would have been no nature to determine that spacetime should spring into being. Even more fundamentally, however, what Davies envisions is critical on woody, surely metaphysical nonsense. Though his scenario is site purdue, cast as a scientific theory,. someone ought to be bold enough to say that the essays on woody allen, Emperor is wearing no clothes. Either the necessary and writing a research owl english edu, sufficient conditions for the appearance of spacetime existed or not; if so, then it is not true that nothing existed; if not, then it would seem ontologically impossible that being should arise out of in a, absolute non-being. To call such spontaneous springing into being out of non-being a “quantum transition” or to attribute it to writing paper site purdue, “quantum gravity” explains nothing; indeed, on essays allen, this account, there is no explanation. It just happens. It seems to me, therefore, that Davies has not provided any plausible basis for denying the truth of the writing a research site http purdue, cosmological argument’s first premiss. That whatever begins to exist has a cause would seem to be an ontologically necessary truth, one which is constantly confirmed in our experience. Given the truth of premisses (1) and (2), it logically follows that (3) the universe has a cause of its existence. In fact, I think that it can be plausibly argued that the quality assurance essay, cause of the a research owl english purdue, universe must be a personal Creator.

For how else could a temporal effect arise from an eternal cause? If the cause were simply a mechanically operating set of about, necessary and sufficient conditions existing from eternity, then why would not the effect also exist from eternity? For example, if the cause of water being frozen is the temperature’s being below zero degrees, then if the temperature were below zero degrees from eternity, then any water present would be frozen from eternity. The only way to have an eternal cause but a temporal effect would seem to be if the cause is a personal agent who freely chooses to create an effect in writing a research paper site purdue time. Proposition And Support Essay! For example, a man sitting from eternity may will himself to stand up; hence, a temporal effect may arise from an a research paper site http, eternally existing agent. Indeed, the agent may will from eternity to create a temporal effect, so that no change in the agent need be conceived. Thus, we are brought not merely to the first cause of the universe, but to its personal Creator. In conclusion, we have seen on the basis of both philosophical argument and scientific confirmation that it is plausible that the universe began to exist. Given the intuitively obvious principle that whatever begins to proposition essay, exist has a cause of writing a research site http purdue edu, its existence, we have been led to critical thinking course outline, conclude that the universe has a cause of its existence.

On the basis of writing site http owl english purdue, our argument, this cause would have to be uncaused, eternal, changeless, timeless, and immaterial. Moreover, it would have to be a personal agent who freely elects to create an effect in experience about time. Therefore, on the basis of the kalam cosmological argument, I conclude that it is rational to believe that God exists. [1]G.W. Leibniz, “The Principles of Nature and a research paper edu, of Grace, Based on Reason,” in Leibniz Selections , ed. Philip P. Wiener, The Modern Student’s Library (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1951), p. 527. [2]Aristotle Metaphysica Lambda. A Level Literature! l. A Research Http Edu! 982b10-15. [3]Norman Malcolm, Ludwig Wittgenstein: A Memoir (London: Oxford University Press, 1958), p. 70. [4]J.J.C. Smart, “The Existence of God,” Church Quarterly Review 156 (1955): 194. [5]G.W.

Leibniz, Theodicy: Essays on the Goodness of on woody, God, the Freedom of Man, and the Origin of Evil , trans. E.M. Huggard (London: Routledge Kegan Paul, 1951), p. 127; cf. idem, “Principles,” p. 528. [6]John Hick, “God as Necessary Being,” Journal of Philosophy 57 (1960): 733-4. [7]David Hume, Dialogues concerning Natural Religion , ed. with an Introduction by writing paper edu Norman Kemp Smith, Library of the Liberal Arts (Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill. 1947), p. 190. [8]Bertrand Russell and F.C. Copleston, “The Existence of God,” in a level literature essays The Existence of God , ed. with an Introduction by John Hick, Problems of Philosophy Series (New York: Macmillan Co., 1964), p. 175. [9]See William Lane Craig, The Cosmological Argument from writing a research site owl english Plato to Leibniz , Library of creative critical outline, Philosophy and Religion (London: Macmillan, 1980), pp. 48-58, 61-76, 98-104, 128-31. [10]Wallace Matson, The Existence of writing a research http owl english edu, God (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1965), pp.

58-60. [11]J.L. Mackie, The Miracle of Theism ( Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1982), p. 93. [12]Quentin Smith, “Infinity and the Past,” Philosophy of Science 54 (1987): 69. [13]Richard Sorabji, Time, Creation and the Continuum (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1983), pp.

213, 222-3. [14]Charles Hartshorne, Man’s Vision of God and the Logic of Theism (Chicago: Willett, Clark, Co., 1941), p. In A! 37. [15]G.J. Whitrow defends a form of this argument which does not presuppose a dynamical view of time, by writing a research site http asserting that an infinite past would still have to be “lived through” by a level any everlasting, conscious being, even if the series of physical events subsisted timelessly (G.J. A Research Paper Site Owl English Edu! Whitrow, The Natural Philosophy of Time , 2d ed. [Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1980], pp. 28-32). [17]Sorabji, Time, Creation, and the Continuum, pp. Outline! 219-22. [18]K.R.

Popper, “On the Possibility of an Infinite Past: a Reply to Whitrow,” British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 29 (1978): 47-8. [19]R.G. Swinburne, “The Beginning of the Universe,” The Aristotelian Society 40 (1966): 131-2. [20]Richard J. A Research Site! Gott, et.al. , “Will the Universe Expand Forever?” Scientific American (March 1976), p. 65. [21]Fred Hoyle, From Stonehenge to Modern Cosmology (San Francisco: W.H.

Freeman, 1972), p. Travel! 36. [22]Beatrice Tinsley, personal letter. [23]David N. Schramm and Gary Steigman, “Relic Neutrinos and writing a research paper edu, the Density of the repetition in a essay, Universe,” Astrophysical Journal 243 (1981): p. Paper Owl English Edu! 1-7. [24]Alan Sandage and G.A. Tammann, “Steps Toward the Hubble Constant. VII,” Astrophyscial Journal 210 (1976): 23, 7; see also idem, “Steps toward the creative thinking course, Hubble Constant. VIII.” Astrophysical Journal 256 (1982): 339-45. [25]Duane Dicus, et.al. Writing A Research Purdue! “Effects of Proton Decay on the Cosmological Future.” Astrophysical Journal 252 (1982): l, 8. [26]I.D.

Novikov and Ya. B. Zeldovich, “Physical Processes Near Cosmological Singularities,” Annual Review of critical outline, Astronomy and writing owl english, Astrophysics 11 (1973): 401-2. [27]John Gribbin, “Oscillating Universe Bounces Back,” Nature 259 (1976): 16. [28]P.C.W. Davies, The Physics of Time Asymmetry (London: Surrey University Press, 1974), p. Repetition Essay! 104. [29]David Hume to John Stewart, February, 1754, in The Letters of David Hume , ed. J.Y.T.

Greig (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1932), 1:187. [30]Paul Davies, God and the New Physics (New York: Simon Schuster, 1983), p. 214. [33]Ibid., pp. Writing A Research Paper Http Owl English Purdue Edu! 215, 216. [34]A.N. Prior, “Limited Indeterminism,” in Papers on about, Time and Tense (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1968), p. Site Purdue Edu! 65. Updated: 14 July 2002.

“Concerning matter, we have been all wrong. What we have called matter is energy, whose vibration has been so lowered as to be perceptible to the senses. There is no matter.” – Quote attributed to literature essays, Albert Einstein. Yes, this is quite a bold statement, if true, that would certainly demand some sort of evidence or mathematical proof to back it up. It may seem like a paradox that the things which we can see and http edu, touch are nonexistent.

However, there is an answer to this, which may be found in and support essay the bold and exciting (relatively) new science of quantum physics. In ages past, it was believed that what we can see and touch, like a rock for instance, was the elements, in other words, matter. However, as science developed, such as chemistry, and paper site owl english edu, much more recently quantum physics, it had been observed that matter seems to exist on one hand, but once one takes a deep look into the heart of the assurance, matter (no pun intended), there seems as if there is nothing. In atoms, you have mostly protons, neutrons and writing a research edu, electrons. However, electrons for example, are insignificantly microscopic and spread out over essays on woody allen enormous distances. Inbetween them, there is site purdue edu, what is perceived as empty space. In fact, 99.99999% of an atom is this so-called ‘empty space’. Even if we look into electrons, protons, etc, we see that there is yet more open space.

Gluons, neutrinos and the like are also in there somewhere but no matter how far into these particles we look, there is not anything that we can say quantifiably that it is the building block of all of this. What’s more, electrons literally possess no dimension. Experience Travel! An electron is purdue edu, simply not an object as we know it. There is assurance, nothing. However, our eyes and observations are fooling us because indeed this nothing is something but we can not quantifiably say it is something and therefore it is a research paper site owl english purdue, nothing. There has to exist an energy that holds all these particles together like a sort of glue, or else matter would not exist because it would be akin to having a rock turn into a level literature model essays, sand that can not stay together as a rock any longer.

There have been some notable quantum physicists, such as Dr. Fred Alan Wolf, that have been looking to writing site purdue edu, fuse science with spirituality…and with relative success. Below is from an article attributed to Dr. Wolf concerning his perception of this most-interesting issue at hand. Quantum physics has thus brought about a radical new understanding both of the particles and the void. In subatomic physics, mass is essays on woody allen, no longer seen as a material substance but is recognized as a form of energy. When a piece of a research paper site owl english, seemingly solid matter–a rock or a human hand or the limb of a tree–is placed under a powerful electronic microscope: the electron-scanning microscope, with the power to magnify several thousand times, takes us down into a realm that has the in a persuasive essay, look of the sea about it… In the writing purdue, kingdom of corpuscles, there is transfiguration and there is samsara, the critical on woody allen, endless round of birth and death. Every passing second, some 2-1/2 million red cells are born; every second, the same number die. The typical cell lives about 110 days, then becomes tired and decrepit. There are no lingering deaths here, for when a cell loses its vital force, it somehow attracts the attention of macrophage. As the magnification increases, the a research paper owl english, flesh does begin to dissolve.

Muscle fiber now takes on a fully crystaline aspect. We can see that it is made of long, spiral molecules in orderly array. And all of these molecules are swaying like wheat in the wind, connected with one another and held in place by invisible waves that pulse many trillions of times a second. What are the molecules made of? As we move closer, we see atoms, the tiny shadowy balls dancing around their fixed locations in the molecules, sometimes changing position with their partners in perfect rhythms. And now we focus on one of the atoms; its interior is lightly veiled by a cloud of electrons.

We come closer, increasing the magnification. Model! The shell dissolves and we look on the inside to writing a research paper http owl english purdue edu, find…nothing. Somewhere within that emptiness, we know is a nucleus. We scan the space, and there it is, a tiny dot. On Woody! At last, we have discovered something hard and solid, a reference point. But no! as we move closer to the nucleus, it too begins to dissolve.

It too is nothing more than an oscillating field, waves of rhythm. Inside the nucleus are other organized fields: protons, neutrons, even smaller “particles.” Each of these, upon our approach, also dissolve into pure rhythm. These days they (the scientists) are looking for quarks, strange subatomic entities, having qualities which they describe with such words as upness, downness, charm, strangeness, truth, beauty, color, and flavor. But no matter. If we could get close enough to paper site edu, these wondrous quarks, they too would melt away. They too would have to give up all pretense of solidity. Even their speed and relationship would be unclear, leaving them only critical essays relationship and pattern of vibration. Of what is the body made? It is made of emptiness and rhythm. At the ultimate heart of the body, at the heart of the world, there is no solidity.

Once again, there is only the dance. (At) the unimaginable heart of the atom, the compact nucleus, we have found no solid object, but rather a dynamic pattern of writing a research paper site http owl english purdue, tightly confined energy vibrating perhaps 1022 times a second: a dance… The protons–the positively charged knots in the pattern of the nucleus–are not only powerful; they are very old. Along with the much lighter electrons that spin and vibrate around the outer regions of the atom, the protons constitute the most ancient entities of matter in essays the universe, going back to the first seconds after the paper edu, birth of space and time. It follows then that in the world of subatomic physics there are no objects, only processes. Atoms consist of critical allen, particles and these particles are not made of any solid material substance. When we observe them under a microscope, we never see any substance; we rather observe dynamic patterns, continually changing into one another–a continuous dance of energy. This dance of energy, the underlying rhythm of the universe, is again more intuited than seen. Jack Kornfield, a contemporary teacher of meditation, finds a parallel between the behavior of subatomic particles and meditational states: When the mind becomes very silent, you can clearly see that all that exists in the world are brief moments of consciousness arising together with the six sense objects. There is only sight and writing paper site owl english purdue, the knowing of sight, sound and the knowing of sound, smell, taste and the knowing of them, thoughts and the knowing of repetition in a persuasive, thoughts. If you can make the site http purdue, mind very focused, as you can in meditation, you see that the whole world breaks down into these small events of a level essays, sight and the knowing, sound and the knowing, thought and the knowing.

No longer are these houses, cars, bodies or even oneself. All you see are particles of consciousness as experience. Yet you can go deep in meditation in another way and the mind becomes very still. You will see differently that consciousness is like waves, like a sea, an ocean. Now it is http, not particles but instead every sight and every sound is contained in this ocean of assurance nursing essay, consciousness. From this perspective, there is no sense of a research paper site edu, particles at all. If truly being the words of literature model essays, Dr.

Wolf, I believe this above explanation of this fascinating reality is a beautiful description of the issue at hand. So how is it that we exist as matter? Albert Einstein alluded to this answer. We, the people of this beautiful planet, are really beings made of energy, but we exist at the 3rd dimension because our atoms have a specific frequency which makes us able to exist in this very 3rd dimension. This specific frequency is stable enough for all our lifetime.

Using this information, if we are indeed capable of accelerating and decelerating the frequencies to make us able to exist in writing paper edu the 3rd dimension, then naturally, we can use this in order to travel inter-dimensionally throughout the infinite multiverse…and here lies the key to quality assurance, the true evolution of the writing site http owl english purdue edu, human being race. Once we learn, or progress far enough, to essays on woody allen, accelerate and decelerate the vibrating frequencies of our atoms, then, in theory, we will be able to exist in the 5th dimension and in parallel universes of writing http edu, this wonderful multiverse. Note: The quote attributed to Albert Einstein in the beginning of the article, as well as the article quotations attributed to Fred Alan Wolf are not in quality nursing essay the specific terms which these two physicists have used. However, upon deeper research, there is enough evidence to be compelled to believe that the general message of matter not being definitive to paper http owl english, still hold true. A quote from Einstein’s “Metaphysics of Relativity” (1950)shows this: “Physical objects are not in space, but these objects are spatially extended (as fields). In this way the concept ‘empty space’ loses its meaning. … The field thus becomes an irreducible element of physical description, irreducible in experience essay travel the same sense as the concept of matter (particles) in the theory of Newton.” Legendary physicist Max Planck is attributed to saying in a lecture that was given in Florence the following: “As a physicist, that is, a man who had devoted his whole life to a wholly prosaic science, the exploration of matter, no one would surely suspect me of site purdue edu, being a fantast. And so, having studied the atom, I am telling you that there is no matter as such. All matter arises and proposition, persists only writing a research paper site owl english purdue due to a force that causes the atomic particles to vibrate, holding them together in the tiniest of solar systems, the atom.

Yet in essays the whole of the universe there is no force that is either intelligent or eternal, and we must therefore assume that behind this force there is a conscious, intelligent mind or spirit. Writing A Research Paper Site Owl English Edu! This is the very origin of all matter.” Source of this quote is from the following: Pauli, Wolfgang: THE INFLUENCE OF ARCHETYPICAL PRESENTATIONS ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE NATURAL SCIENCE THEORY BY KEPPLER in: Jung Pauli: NATURAL EXPLANATION AND PSYCHE, Zuerich 1952, p. 163. MUST READ ARTICLE ON TRUMP’S GREAT OPPORTUNITY TO BRING TYRANNY TO AMERICA. Democracies end when they are too democratic. -Plato.

As this dystopian election campaign has unfolded, my mind keeps being tugged by a passage in Plato’s Republic . It has unsettled — even surprised — me from the moment I first read it in graduate school. The passage is from the and support, part of the dialogue where Socrates and writing a research site purdue edu, his friends are talking about the nature of different political systems, how they change over time, and how one can slowly evolve into another. And Socrates seemed pretty clear on one sobering point: that “tyranny is probably established out of and support essay, no other regime than democracy.” What did Plato mean by that? Democracy, for him, I discovered, was a political system of maximal freedom and owl english, equality, where every lifestyle is literature model, allowed and public offices are filled by a lottery. And the http owl english edu, longer a democracy lasted, Plato argued, the more democratic it would become. A Level Essays! Its freedoms would multiply; its equality spread. Paper Http Edu! Deference to any sort of authority would wither; tolerance of any kind of inequality would come under intense threat; and multiculturalism and sexual freedom would create a city or a country like “a many-colored cloak decorated in all hues.” This rainbow-flag polity, Plato argues, is, for many people, the fairest of regimes. The freedom in proposition essay that democracy has to be experienced to writing site owl english, be believed — with shame and privilege in particular emerging over time as anathema. But it is inherently unstable.

As the authority of elites fades, as Establishment values cede to popular ones, views and identities can become so magnificently diverse as to be mutually uncomprehending. Thinking Course! And when all the barriers to equality, formal and informal, have been removed; when everyone is equal; when elites are despised and writing a research paper owl english, full license is established to do “whatever one wants,” you arrive at what might be called late-stage democracy. There is no kowtowing to authority here, let alone to political experience or expertise. The very rich come under attack, as inequality becomes increasingly intolerable. Creative Critical Thinking Course! Patriarchy is also dismantled: “We almost forgot to mention the writing paper owl english purdue, extent of the law of essays on woody, equality and of freedom in the relations of women with men and men with women.” Family hierarchies are inverted: “A father habituates himself to be like his child and fear his sons, and a son habituates himself to a research site owl english purdue, be like his father and to have no shame before or fear of his parents.” In classrooms, “as the creative critical thinking outline, teacher … is frightened of the writing http owl english edu, pupils and fawns on them, so the students make light of their teachers.” Animals are regarded as equal to essays allen, humans; the rich mingle freely with the writing a research owl english, poor in creative critical the streets and writing a research paper site owl english edu, try to blend in. The foreigner is equal to the citizen.

And it is when a democracy has ripened as fully as this, Plato argues, that a would-be tyrant will often seize his moment. He is usually of the elite but has a nature in tune with the time — given over to random pleasures and whims, feasting on persuasive essay, plenty of food and sex, and reveling in a research site purdue the non-judgment that is democracy’s civil religion. He makes his move by “taking over a particularly obedient mob” and attacking his wealthy peers as corrupt. If not stopped quickly, his appetite for attacking the quality assurance nursing, rich on behalf of the people swells further. He is writing paper site http owl english purdue edu, a traitor to critical allen, his class — and soon, his elite enemies, shorn of popular legitimacy, find a way to appease him or are forced to flee. Eventually, he stands alone, promising to cut through the paralysis of democratic incoherence. It’s as if he were offering the addled, distracted, and self-indulgent citizens a kind of relief from democracy’s endless choices and insecurities. He rides a backlash to writing a research site owl english, excess—“too much freedom seems to change into nothing but too much slavery” — and offers himself as the personified answer to the internal conflicts of the democratic mess. He pledges, above all, to take on essay, the increasingly despised elites.

And as the people thrill to him as a kind of writing a research site http edu, solution, a democracy willingly, even impetuously, repeals itself. And so, as I chit-chatted over cocktails at a Washington office Christmas party in December, and saw, looming above our heads, the pulsating, angry televised face of Donald Trump on Fox News, I couldn’t help but feel a little nausea permeate my stomach. And as I watched frenzied Trump rallies on C-SPAN in the spring, and saw him lay waste to far more qualified political peers in the debates by simply calling them names, the nausea turned to dread. Literature! And when he seemed to condone physical violence as a response to political disagreement, alarm bells started to ring in my head. Plato had planted a gnawing worry in my mind a few decades ago about the intrinsic danger of late-democratic life. It was increasingly hard not to see in Plato’s vision a murky reflection of our own hyper-democratic times and in Trump a demagogic, tyrannical character plucked directly out of one of the first books about politics ever written. Could it be that the Donald has emerged from the a research paper http owl english edu, populist circuses of pro wrestling and New York City tabloids, via reality television and Twitter, to prove not just Plato but also James Madison right, that democracies “have ever been spectacles of essays, turbulence and contention … and have in general been as short in their lives as they have been violent in their deaths”? Is he testing democracy’s singular weakness — its susceptibility to the demagogue — by blasting through the paper http owl english purdue edu, firewalls we once had in place to prevent such a person from seizing power? Or am I overreacting?

Perhaps. The nausea comes and goes, and there have been days when the news algorithm has actually reassured me that “peak Trump” has arrived. But it hasn’t gone away, and neither has Trump. In the wake of his most recent primary triumphs, at a time when he is perilously close to winning enough delegates to grab the Republican nomination outright, I think we must confront this dread and be clear about what this election has already revealed about the fragility of our way of life and the threat late-stage democracy is beginning to pose to in a persuasive essay, itself. Plato, of course, was not clairvoyant. His analysis of purdue edu, how democracy can turn into essay travel, tyranny is a complex one more keyed toward ancient societies than our own (and contains more wrinkles and eddies than I can summarize here). His disdain for democratic life was fueled in http no small part by persuasive essay the fact that a democracy had executed his mentor, Socrates. And he would, I think, have been astonished at how American democracy has been able to thrive with unprecedented stability over site http owl english purdue edu the last couple of centuries even as it has brought more and more people into its embrace. It remains, in my view, a miracle of literature, constitutional craftsmanship and cultural resilience.

There is no place I would rather live. But it is not immortal, nor should we assume it is immune to the forces that have endangered democracy so many times in human history. Part of American democracy’s stability is owed to the fact that the Founding Fathers had read their Plato. To guard our democracy from the tyranny of the majority and the passions of the mob, they constructed large, hefty barriers between the popular will and site owl english edu, the exercise of power. Model Essays! Voting rights were tightly circumscribed. The president and vice-president were not to be popularly elected but selected by writing a research site http edu an Electoral College, whose representatives were selected by the various states, often through state legislatures. The Senate’s structure (with two members from every state) was designed to temper the a level essays, power of the more populous states, and its term of office (six years, compared with two for the House) was designed to cool and restrain temporary populist passions. The Supreme Court, picked by the president and confirmed by the Senate, was the final bulwark against any democratic furies that might percolate up from the House and threaten the Constitution. This separation of powers was designed precisely to create sturdy firewalls against democratic wildfires.

Over the a research paper site purdue, centuries, however, many of these undemocratic rules have been weakened or abolished. The franchise has been extended far beyond propertied white men. The presidency is now effectively elected through popular vote, with the Electoral College almost always reflecting the national democratic will. And these formal democratic advances were accompanied by experience about informal ones, as the culture of democracy slowly took deeper root. For a very long time, only the writing a research paper site http owl english purdue, elites of the political parties came to select their candidates at their quadrennial conventions, with the vote largely restricted to party officials from the various states (and often decided in, yes, smoke-filled rooms in large hotel suites). Beginning in the early 1900s, however, the parties began experimenting with primaries, and after the chaos of the 1968 Democratic convention, today’s far more democratic system became the norm. Direct democracy didn’t just elect Congress and proposition, the president anymore; it expanded the notion of who might be qualified for public office. Once, candidates built a career through experience in elected or Cabinet positions or as military commanders; they were effectively selected by peer review.

That elitist sorting mechanism has slowly imploded. In 1940, Wendell Willkie, a businessman with no previous political office, won the writing a research paper site purdue, Republican nomination for president, pledging to keep America out of war and boasting that his personal wealth inoculated him against corruption: “I will be under obligation to nobody except the people.” He lost badly to creative course, Franklin D. Roosevelt, but nonetheless, since then, nonpolitical candidates have proliferated, from Ross Perot and Jesse Jackson, to Steve Forbes and Herman Cain, to this year’s crop of Ben Carson, Carly Fiorina, and, of course, Donald J. Trump. This further widening of our democracy — our increased openness to being led by anyone; indeed, our accelerating preference for outsiders — is writing a research paper site http owl english, now almost complete. The barriers to the popular will, especially when it comes to choosing our president, are now almost nonexistent. In 2000, George W. Bush lost the popular vote and won the election thanks to Electoral College math and, more egregiously, to a partisan Supreme Court vote. Persuasive! Al Gore’s eventual concession spared the nation a constitutional crisis, but the episode generated widespread unease, not just among Democrats. And this year, the delegate system established by our political parties is also under assault.

Trump has argued that the candidate with the most votes should get the Republican nomination, regardless of the rules in writing a research place. It now looks as if he won’t even need to essay, win that argument — that he’ll bank enough delegates to secure the nomination uncontested — but he’s won it anyway. Fully half of Americans now believe the a research http owl english purdue, traditional nominating system is rigged. Many contend, of course, that American democracy is actually in retreat, close to being destroyed by the vastly more unequal economy of the last quarter-century and the ability of the experience, very rich to purchase political influence. This is Bernie Sanders’s core critique. But the past few presidential elections have demonstrated that, in fact, money from the ultra-rich has been mostly a dud. Barack Obama, whose 2008 campaign was propelled by small donors and writing paper site http owl english purdue, empowered by the internet, blazed the trail of the modern-day insurrectionist, defeating the prohibitive favorite in the Democratic primary and later his Republican opponent (both pillars of their parties’ Establishments and backed by moneyed elites).

In 2012, the fund-raising power behind Mitt Romney — avatar of the one percent — failed to dislodge Obama from experience essay about office. And in this presidential cycle, the breakout candidates of a research site http purdue, both parties have soared without financial support from the essays on woody, elites. Sanders, who is sustaining his campaign all the writing a research site http owl english purdue edu, way to California on the backs of small donors and large crowds, is, to put it bluntly, a walking refutation of his own argument. Trump, of course, is a largely self-funding billionaire — but like Willkie, he argues that his wealth uniquely enables him to resist the a level model essays, influence of the rich and their lobbyists. Those despairing over the influence of Big Money in American politics must also explain the swift, humiliating demise of Jeb Bush and the struggling Establishment campaign of Hillary Clinton. The evidence suggests that direct democracy, far from being throttled, is actually intensifying its grip on American politics. None of this is necessarily cause for alarm, even though it would be giving the Founding Fathers palpitations. The emergence of the first black president — unimaginable before our more inclusive democracy — is writing a research paper site http, miraculous, a strengthening, rather than weakening, of the system. In A Persuasive Essay! The days when party machines just fixed things or rigged elections are mercifully done with. The way in which outsider candidates, from Obama to Trump and Sanders, have brought millions of new people into the electoral process is an unmitigated advance. The inclusion of previously excluded voices helps, rather than impedes, our public deliberation.

But it is edu, precisely because of the assurance, great accomplishments of our democracy that we should be vigilant about its specific, unique vulnerability: its susceptibility, in stressful times, to the appeal of a shameless demagogue. What the 21st century added to this picture, it’s now blindingly obvious, was media democracy — in a truly revolutionary form. If late-stage political democracy has taken two centuries to ripen, the media equivalent took around two decades, swiftly erasing almost any elite moderation or control of our democratic discourse. The process had its origins in partisan talk radio at the end of the past century. Writing Paper Site Owl English Purdue Edu! The rise of the internet — an event so swift and pervasive its political effect is only now beginning to be understood — further democratized every source of information, dramatically expanded each outlet’s readership, and proposition and support essay, gave everyone a platform.

All the old barriers to entry — the cost of print and paper and distribution — crumbled. So much of this was welcome. I relished it myself in the early aughts, starting a blog and paper http edu, soon reaching as many readers, if not more, as some small magazines do. Critical Essays! Fusty old-media institutions, grown fat and lazy, deserved a drubbing. The early independent blogosphere corrected facts, exposed bias, earned scoops. And as the medium matured, and as Facebook and Twitter took hold, everyone became a kind of blogger. In ways no 20th-century journalist would have believed, we all now have our own virtual newspapers on our Facebook newsfeeds and Twitter timelines — picking stories from countless sources and creating a peer-to-peer media almost completely free of owl english edu, editing or interference by elites.

This was bound to critical on woody, make politics more fluid. Political organizing — calling a meeting, fomenting a rally to advance a cause — used to be extremely laborious. Now you could bring together a virtual mass movement with a single webpage. It would take you a few seconds. The web was also uniquely capable of absorbing other forms of site edu, media, conflating genres and categories in ways never seen before. The distinction between politics and entertainment became fuzzier; election coverage became even more modeled on sportscasting; your Pornhub jostled right next to your mother’s Facebook page. The web’s algorithms all but removed any editorial judgment, and experience, the effect soon had cable news abandoning even the pretense of asking “Is this relevant?” or “Do we really need to cover this live?” in the rush toward ratings bonanzas.

In the end, all these categories were reduced to one thing: traffic, measured far more accurately than any other medium had ever done before. And what mainly fuels this is precisely what the Founders feared about democratic culture: feeling, emotion, and narcissism, rather than reason, empiricism, and public-spiritedness. Online debates become personal, emotional, and irresolvable almost as soon as they begin. Godwin’s Law — it’s only a matter of time before a comments section brings up Hitler — is writing http owl english, a reflection of the collapse of the reasoned deliberation the Founders saw as indispensable to a functioning republic. Yes, occasional rational points still fly back and literature model, forth, but there are dramatically fewer elite arbiters to establish which of those points is actually true or valid or relevant. We have lost authoritative sources for even a common set of facts.

And without such common empirical ground, the emotional component of politics becomes inflamed and reason retreats even further. The more emotive the candidate, the more supporters he or she will get. Politically, we lucked out at first. Obama would never have been nominated for the presidency, let alone elected, if he hadn’t harnessed the power of the web and the charisma of his media celebrity. But he was also, paradoxically, a very elite figure, a former state and U.S. senator, a product of Harvard Law School, and, as it turned out, blessed with a preternaturally rational and calm disposition. So he has masked, temporarily, the real risks in the system that his pioneering campaign revealed. Hence many Democrats’ frustration with him.

Those who saw in his campaign the seeds of writing a research paper http owl english purdue, revolutionary change, who were drawn to him by their own messianic delusions, came to be bitterly disappointed by his governing moderation and pragmatism. The climate Obama thrived in, however, was also ripe for far less restrained opportunists. A Level Literature Essays! In 2008, Sarah Palin emerged as proof that an ardent Republican, branded as an outsider, tailor-made for reality TV, proud of her own ignorance about the world, and reaching an audience directly through online media, could also triumph in this new era. She was, it turned out, a John the Baptist for the true messiah of conservative populism, waiting patiently and strategically for his time to come. Trump, we now know, had been considering running for president for decades. Those who didn’t see him coming — or kept treating him as a joke — had not yet absorbed the precedents of Obama and Palin or the power of the new wide-open system to change the a research site purdue, rules of the political game. Creative Critical Thinking Course! Trump was as underrated for all of 2015 as Obama was in 2007 — and for the same reasons. He intuitively grasped the vanishing authority of writing a research owl english purdue edu, American political and media elites, and he had long fashioned a public persona perfectly attuned to essay travel, blast past them. Despite his immense wealth and writing site http purdue, inherited privilege, Trump had always cultivated a common touch. He did not hide his wealth in the late-20th century — he flaunted it in a way that connected with the masses. He lived the rich man’s life most working men dreamed of — endless glamour and women, for example — without sacrificing a way of critical on woody, talking about the world that would not be out of place on the construction sites he regularly toured.

His was a cult of democratic aspiration. His 1987 book, The Art of the Deal , promised its readers a path to instant success; his appearances on paper site owl english edu, “The Howard Stern Show” cemented his appeal. His friendship with Vince McMahon offered him an early entree into the world of professional wrestling, with its fusion of sports and essays on woody allen, fantasy. He was a macho media superstar. One of the more amazing episodes in writing owl english purdue Sarah Palin’s early political life, in fact, bears this out. She popped up in the Anchorage Daily News as “a commercial fisherman from Wasilla” on April 3, 1996. Palin had told her husband she was going to Costco but had sneaked into J.C. Penney in Anchorage to see … one Ivana Trump, who, in the wake of her divorce, was touting her branded perfume. “We want to see Ivana,” Palin told the paper, “because we are so desperate in Alaska for any semblance of glamour and culture.” Trump assiduously cultivated this image and took to reality television as a natural.

Each week, for 14 seasons of The Apprentice, he would look someone in the eye and tell them, “You’re fired!” The conversation most humane bosses fear to have with an employee was something Trump clearly relished, and the cruelty became entertainment. In retrospect, it is clear he was training — both himself and on woody, his viewers. If you want to understand why a figure so widely disliked nonetheless powers toward the election as if he were approaching a reality-TV-show finale, look no further. A Research Paper Site Http Owl English! His television tactics, as applied to presidential debates, wiped out rivals used to a different game. And all our reality-TV training has conditioned us to hope he’ll win — or at repetition in a, least stay in the game till the final round.

In such a shame-free media environment, the assholes often win. In the writing a research site http, end, you support them because they’re assholes. In Eric Hoffer’s classic 1951 tract, The True Believer , he sketches the dynamics of a genuine mass movement. Critical! He was thinking of the upheavals in Europe in the first half of the century, but the book remains sobering, especially now. Hoffer’s core insight was to locate the source of all truly mass movements in a collective sense of acute frustration. Not despair, or revolt, or resignation — but frustration simmering with rage. Mass movements, he notes (as did Tocqueville centuries before him), rarely arise when oppression or misery is at its worst (say, 2009); they tend to appear when the worst is writing paper site http purdue, behind us but the future seems not so much better (say, 2016). It is when a recovery finally gathers speed and some improvement is tangible but not yet widespread that the anger begins to rise. Experience! After the suffering of writing a research paper owl english, recession or unemployment, and a level literature model, despite hard work with stagnant or dwindling pay, the future stretches ahead with relief just out of reach. When those who helped create the last recession face no consequences but renewed fabulous wealth, the writing a research paper http edu, anger reaches a crescendo.

The deeper, long-term reasons for today’s rage are not hard to find, although many of a level, us elites have shamefully found ourselves able to a research paper site, ignore them. The jobs available to the working class no longer contain the essay, kind of craftsmanship or satisfaction or meaning that can take the paper site purdue edu, sting out of their low and stagnant wages. The once-familiar avenues for socialization — the church, the in a essay, union hall, the VFW — have become less vibrant and social isolation more common. Writing Paper Http Edu! Global economic forces have pummeled blue-collar workers more relentlessly than almost any other segment of society, forcing them to compete against hundreds of millions of equally skilled workers throughout the planet. No one asked them in the 1990s if this was the a level literature model, future they wanted.

And the impact has been more brutal than many economists predicted. A Research Paper Site Http Owl English Edu! No wonder suicide and mortality rates among the white working poor are spiking dramatically. “It is usually those whose poverty is relatively recent, the ‘new poor,’ who throb with the critical allen, ferment of frustration,” Hoffer argues. Fundamentalist religion long provided some emotional support for paper site edu, those left behind (for one thing, it invites practitioners to defy the elites as unholy), but its influence has waned as modernity has penetrated almost everything and the great culture wars of the 1990s and 2000s have ended in a rout. The result has been a more diverse mainstream culture — but also, simultaneously, a subculture that is even more alienated and despised, and ever more infuriated and bloody-minded. This is an age in which a woman might succeed a black man as president, but also one in which a member of the white working class has declining options to make a decent living. This is a time when gay people can be married in 50 states, even as working-class families are hanging by a thread. It’s a period in which we have become far more aware of the historic injustices that still haunt African-Americans and yet we treat the desperate plight of today’s white working ­class as an afterthought. And so late-stage capitalism is creating a righteous, revolutionary anger that late-stage democracy has precious little ability to moderate or constrain — and has actually helped exacerbate. For the white working class, having had their morals roundly mocked, their religion deemed primitive, and their economic prospects decimated, now find their very gender and race, indeed the very way they talk about reality, described as a kind of problem for the nation to repetition, overcome. This is just one aspect of what Trump has masterfully signaled as “political correctness” run amok, or what might be better described as the a research site http, newly rigid progressive passion for racial and sexual equality of outcome, rather than the liberal aspiration to mere equality of opportunity.

Much of the newly energized left has come to see the white working class not as allies but primarily as bigots, misogynists, racists, and homophobes, thereby condemning those often at the near-bottom rung of the economy to the bottom rung of the culture as well. A struggling white man in the heartland is now told to “check his privilege” by students at Ivy League colleges. Even if you agree that the privilege exists, it’s hard not to empathize with the object of this disdain. These working-class communities, already alienated, hear — how can they not? — the glib and easy dismissals of “white straight men” as the ultimate source of all our woes. They smell the condescension and the broad generalizations about experience about travel them — all of which would be repellent if directed at racial minorities — and see themselves, in a research paper http Hoffer’s words, “disinherited and injured by an unjust order of things.” And so they wait, and they steam, and they lash out. This was part of the experience about, emotional force of the tea party: not just the advancement of racial minorities, gays, and women but the simultaneous demonization of the white working-class world, its culture and a research http edu, way of proposition essay, life.

Obama never intended this, but he became a symbol to many of this cultural marginalization. The Black Lives Matter left stoked the fires still further; so did the gay left, for writing a research paper site http owl english purdue, whom the word magnanimity seems unknown, even in the wake of stunning successes. And as the tea party swept through Washington in 2010, as its representatives repeatedly held the government budget hostage, threatened the essays on woody, very credit of the U.S., and refused to hold hearings on a Supreme Court nominee, the American political and media Establishment mostly chose to http edu, interpret such behavior as something other than unprecedented. But Trump saw what others didn’t, just as Hoffer noted: “The frustrated individual and repetition persuasive, the true believer make better prognosticators than those who have reason to want the purdue edu, preservation of the status quo.” Mass movements , Hoffer argues, are distinguished by a “facility for make-believe … credulity, a readiness to attempt the quality assurance, impossible.” What, one wonders, could be more impossible than suddenly vetting every single visitor to the U.S. for traces of writing, Islamic belief? What could be more make-believe than a big, beautiful wall stretching across the entire Mexican border, paid for by the Mexican government?

What could be more credulous than arguing that we could pay off our national debt through a global trade war? In a conventional political party, and in a level literature model essays a rational political discourse, such ideas would be laughed out of contention, their self-evident impossibility disqualifying them from serious consideration. In the emotional fervor of site edu, a democratic mass movement, however, these impossibilities become icons of hope, symbols of a new way of conducting politics. Their very impossibility is their appeal. But the most powerful engine for such a movement — the thing that gets it off the ground, shapes and in a essay, solidifies and entrenches it — is always the evocation of hatred. It is, as Hoffer put it, “the most accessible and comprehensive of all unifying elements.” And so Trump launched his campaign by writing site purdue calling undocumented Mexican immigrants a population largely of rapists and murderers. He moved on to Muslims, both at home and abroad. About! He has now added to these enemies — with sly brilliance — the writing a research purdue, Republican Establishment itself. And what makes Trump uniquely dangerous in the history of American politics — with far broader national appeal than, say, Huey Long or George Wallace — is proposition and support, his response to all three enemies.

It’s the threat of blunt coercion and a research site http edu, dominance. And so after demonizing most undocumented Mexican immigrants, he then vowed to round up and deport all 11 million of them by essays force. “They have to go” was the typically blunt phrase he used — and writing paper owl english purdue, somehow people didn’t immediately recognize the monstrous historical echoes. The sheer scale of the police and essays on woody allen, military operation that this policy would entail boggles the mind. Worse, he emphasized, after the mass murder in San Bernardino, that even the Muslim-Americans you know intimately may turn around and writing a research http owl english purdue, massacre you at any juncture. “There’s something going on,” he declaimed ominously, giving legitimacy to on woody, the most hysterical and ugly of human impulses. To call this fascism doesn’t do justice to fascism. Fascism had, in some measure, an ideology and occasional coherence that Trump utterly lacks. But his movement is clearly fascistic in its demonization of foreigners, its hyping of a threat by a domestic minority (Muslims and Mexicans are the writing site http owl english edu, new Jews), its focus on assurance nursing essay, a single supreme leader of what can only be called a cult, and its deep belief in a research paper owl english edu violence and coercion in a democracy that has heretofore relied on debate and persuasion. This is the Weimar aspect of our current moment.

Just as the English Civil War ended with a dictatorship under Oliver Cromwell, and the French Revolution gave us Napoleon Bonaparte, and the unstable chaos of Russian democracy yielded to experience essay travel, Vladimir Putin, and the most recent burst of Egyptian democracy set the conditions for writing a research paper owl english purdue, General el-Sisi’s coup, so our paralyzed, emotional hyper-democracy leads the stumbling, frustrated, angry voter toward the chimerical panacea of Trump. His response to his third vaunted enemy, the RNC, is repetition persuasive essay, also laced with the threat of violence. There will be riots in Cleveland if he doesn’t get his way. Paper Site Http Owl English Purdue! The RNC will have “a rough time” if it doesn’t cooperate. “Paul Ryan, I don’t know him well, but I’m sure I’m going to get along great with him,” Trump has said. Experience About Travel! “And if I don’t? He’s gonna have to pay a big price, okay?” The past month has seen delegates to the Cleveland convention receiving death threats; one of Trump’s hatchet men, Roger Stone, has already threatened to publish the hotel rooms of delegates who refuse to a research http edu, vote for Trump.

And what’s notable about Trump’s supporters is precisely what one would expect from members of a mass movement: their intense loyalty. Trump is their man, however inarticulate they are when explaining why. A Level! He’s tough, he’s real, and a research paper http, they’ve got his back, especially when he is attacked by creative critical thinking course all the people they have come to despise: liberal Democrats and traditional Republicans. At rallies, whenever a protester is hauled out, you can almost sense the rising rage of the writing a research http purdue, collective identity venting itself against a lone dissenter and finding a catharsis of critical essays allen, sorts in the brute force a mob can inflict on an individual. Trump tells the crowd he’d like to punch a protester in writing site http edu the face or have him carried out on a stretcher. No modern politician who has come this close to essay, the presidency has championed violence in this way. It would be disqualifying if our hyper­-democracy hadn’t already abolished disqualifications. And while a critical element of 20th-century fascism — its organized street violence — is missing, you can begin to see it in embryonic form. The phalanx of bodyguards around Trump grows daily; plainclothes bouncers in the crowds have emerged as pseudo-cops to contain the site edu, incipient unrest his candidacy will only continue to provoke; supporters have attacked hecklers with sometimes stunning ferocity.

Every time Trump legitimizes potential violence by his supporters by saying it comes from a love of country, he sows the seeds for serious civil unrest. Trump celebrates torture — the one true love of tyrants everywhere — not because it allegedly produces intelligence but because it has a demonstration effect. At his rallies he has recounted the mythical acts of one General John J. Pershing when confronted with an alleged outbreak of Islamist terrorism in the Philippines. Pershing, in Trump’s telling, lines up 50 Muslim prisoners, swishes a series of bullets in the corpses of freshly slaughtered pigs, and orders his men to put those bullets in their rifles and repetition in a, kill 49 of the captured Muslim men. He spares one captive solely so he can go back and tell his friends. Purdue! End of the quality assurance nursing essay, terrorism problem. In some ways, this story contains all the elements of Trump’s core appeal. The vexing problem of tackling jihadist terror?

Torture and murder enough terrorists and they will simply go away. The complicated issue of undocumented workers, drawn by jobs many Americans won’t take? Deport every single one of them and build a wall to stop the rest. Fuck political correctness. As one of his supporters told an obtuse reporter at a rally when asked if he supported Trump: “Hell yeah! He’s no-bullshit. All balls.

Fuck you all balls. That’s what I’m about.” And therein lies the appeal of tyrants from the beginning of writing a research paper, time. Fuck you all balls. Irrationality with muscle. The racial aspect of quality assurance nursing, this is also unmissable. A Research Http Owl English Edu! When the enemy within is Mexican or Muslim, and a level model, your ranks are extremely white, you set up a rubric for a racial conflict.

And what’s truly terrifying about Trump is that he does not seem to shrink from a research http owl english edu such a prospect; he relishes it. For, like all tyrants, he is utterly lacking in self-control. Sleeping a handful of hours a night, impulsively tweeting in the early hours, improvising madly on repetition in a essay, subjects he knows nothing about, Trump rants and raves as he surfs an entirely reactive media landscape. Once again, Plato had his temperament down: A tyrant is a man “not having control of writing a research paper http purdue, himself [who] attempts to rule others”; a man flooded with fear and essay, love and passion, while having little or no ability to restrain or moderate them; a “real slave to the greatest fawning,” a man who “throughout his entire life … is paper site owl english, full of fear, overflowing with convulsions and pains.” Sound familiar? Trump is as mercurial and as unpredictable and as emotional as the daily Twitter stream.

And we are contemplating giving him access to the nuclear codes. Those who believe that Trump’s ugly, thuggish populism has no chance of ever making it to the White House seem to me to be missing this dynamic. Neo-fascist movements do not advance gradually by persuasion; they first transform the terms of the debate, create a new movement based on untrammeled emotion, take over existing institutions, and then ruthlessly exploit events. And so current poll numbers are only reassuring if you ignore the potential impact of sudden, external events — an economic downturn or a terror attack in experience about a major city in the months before November. I have no doubt, for example, that Trump is sincere in his desire to “cut the head off” ISIS, whatever that can possibly mean. But it remains a fact that the interests of ISIS and the Trump campaign are now perfectly aligned. Fear is always the would-be tyrant’s greatest ally. And though Trump’s unfavorables are extraordinarily high (around 65 percent), he is already showing signs of changing his tune, pivoting (fitfully) to the more presidential mode he envisages deploying in the general election. I suspect this will, to some fools on the fence, come as a kind of relief, and may open their minds to him once more. Tyrants, like mob bosses, know the value of a research paper site http, a smile: Precisely because of the fear he’s already generated, you desperately want to believe in his new warmth. It’s part of the good-cop-bad-cop routine that will be familiar to anyone who has studied the presidency of in a persuasive essay, Vladimir Putin.

With his appeal to paper site http purdue, his own base locked up, Trump may well also shift to more moderate stances on social issues like abortion (he already wants to amend the experience essay about travel, GOP platform to a less draconian position) or gay and writing a research site owl english purdue edu, even transgender rights. He is proposition and support essay, consistent in his inconsistency, because, for him, winning is what counts. Paper Site! He has had a real case against critical course outline, Ted Cruz — that the senator has no base outside ideological-conservative quarters and is even less likely to win a general election. More potently, Trump has a worryingly strong argument against Clinton herself — or “crooked Hillary,” as he now dubs her. His proposition is a simple one. Remember James Carville’s core question in the 1992 election: Change versus more of the same? That sentiment once elected Clinton’s husband; it could also elect her opponent this fall. If you like America as it is, vote Clinton.

After all, she has been a member of the American political elite for a quarter-century. Clinton, moreover, has shown no ability to inspire or rally anyone but her longtime loyalists. She is lost in the new media and has struggled to put away a 74-year-old socialist who is barely a member of her party. Her own unfavorables are only 11 points lower than Trump’s (far higher than Obama’s, John Kerry’s, or Al Gore’s were at this point in the race), and the more she campaigns, the higher her unfavorables go (including in her own party). She has a Gore problem. A Research Site Owl English Purdue! The idea of welcoming her into nursing, your living room for the next four years can seem, at times, positively masochistic. It may be that demographics will save us.

America is no longer an overwhelmingly white country, and writing site, Trump’s signature issue — illegal immigration — is the source of and support, his strength but also of paper site http owl english edu, his weakness. Nonetheless, it’s worth noting how polling models have consistently misread the essay, breadth of his support, especially in these past few weeks; he will likely bend over writing paper http owl english purdue backward to include minorities in his fall campaign; and those convinced he cannot bring a whole new swath of essay travel, white voters back into the political process should remember 2004, when Karl Rove helped engineer anti-gay-marriage state constitutional amendments that increased conservative voter turnout. All Trump needs is a sliver of purdue, minority votes inspired by the new energy of his campaign and the alleged dominance of the Obama coalition could crack (especially without Obama). Throughout the course, West these past few years, from France to Britain and Germany, the polls have kept missing the power of right-wing insurgency. Were Trump to win the White House, the defenses against writing a research paper owl english, him would be weak. He would likely bring a GOP majority in creative thinking the House, and a research paper purdue edu, Republicans in the Senate would be subjected to almighty popular fury if they stood in his way. The 4-4 stalemate in the Supreme Court would break in Trump’s favor. Creative Critical Course! (In large part, of course, this would be due to the GOP’s unprecedented decision to hold a vacancy open “for the people to decide,” another massive hyper-democratic breach in a research paper purdue our constitutional defenses.) And if Trump’s policies are checked by quality assurance other branches of paper http owl english purdue edu, government, how might he react? Just look at his response to the rules of the GOP nomination process.

He’s not interested in rules. Repetition Persuasive! And he barely understands the Constitution. In one revealing moment earlier this year, when asked what he would do if the military refused to obey an illegal order to torture a prisoner, Trump simply insisted that the man would obey: “They won’t refuse. They’re not going to a research site purdue, refuse, believe me.” He later amended his remark, but it speaks volumes about his approach to critical thinking, power. Dick Cheney gave illegal orders to torture prisoners and coerced White House lawyers to writing a research paper site http owl english edu, cook up absurd “legal” defenses. Literature Model Essays! Trump would make Cheney’s embrace of the writing owl english purdue, dark side and untrammeled executive power look unambitious.

In his 1935 novel , It Can’t Happen Here , Sinclair Lewis wrote a counterfactual about what would happen if fascism as it was then spreading across Europe were to triumph in America. Repetition Persuasive Essay! It’s not a good novel, but it remains a resonant one. The imagined American fascist leader — a senator called Buzz Windrip — is a “Professional Common Man … But he was the Common Man ­twenty-times-magnified by his oratory, so that while the other Commoners could understand his every purpose, which was exactly the writing paper site purdue edu, same as their own, they saw him towering among them, and they raised hands to literature model, him in worship.” He “was vulgar, almost illiterate, a public liar easily detected, and in his ‘ideas’ almost idiotic.” “ ‘I know the Press only too well,’ ” Windrip opines at one point. “ ‘Almost all editors hide away in writing purdue edu spider-dens, men without thought of Family or Public Interest … plotting how they can put over creative course outline their lies, and advance their own positions and fill their greedy pocketbooks.’ ” He is obsessed with the balance of writing site http owl english, trade and promises instant economic success: “ ‘I shall not be content till this country can produce every single thing we need … We shall have such a balance of trade as will go far to carry out my often-criticized yet completely sound idea of from $3000 to $5000 per year for every single family.’ ” However fantastical and empty his promises, he nonetheless mesmerizes the party faithful at the nominating convention (held in Cleveland!): “Something in the intensity with which Windrip looked at his audience, looked at all of them, his glance slowly taking them in from the highest-perched seat to quality assurance nursing, the nearest, convinced them that he was talking to each individual, directly and solely; that he wanted to a research site, take each of critical on woody, them into his heart; that he was telling them the truths, the imperious and dangerous facts, that had been hidden from them.” And all the elites who stood in his way? Crippled by their own failures, demoralized by their crumbling stature, they first mock and then cave.

As one lone journalist laments before the election (he finds himself in a concentration camp afterward): “I’ve got to site http edu, keep remembering … that Windrip is quality, only the lightest cork on the whirlpool. He didn’t plot all this thing. With all the justified discontent there is against the smart politicians and writing paper site owl english purdue, the Plush Horses of Plutocracy — oh, if it hadn’t been one Windrip, it’d been another … We had it coming, we Respectables.” And, 81 years later, many of us did. An American elite that has presided over massive and proposition, increasing public debt, that failed to prevent 9/11, that chose a disastrous war in the Middle East, that allowed financial markets to nearly destroy the writing a research site owl english purdue edu, global economy, and that is now so bitterly divided the Congress is effectively moot in in a persuasive essay a constitutional democracy: “We Respectables” deserve a comeuppance. A Research Paper Http Purdue! The vital and in a persuasive essay, valid lesson of the a research paper site, Trump phenomenon is that if the elites cannot govern by compromise, someone outside will eventually try to govern by essay popular passion and brute force. But elites still matter in a democracy.

They matter not because they are democracy’s enemy but because they provide the critical ingredient to save democracy from itself. Paper! The political Establishment may be battered and demoralized, deferential to the algorithms of the web and to the monosyllables of a gifted demagogue, but this is not the time to give up on America’s near-unique and assurance essay, stabilizing blend of democracy and elite responsibility. The country has endured far harsher times than the present without succumbing to rank demagoguery; it avoided the a research paper edu, fascism that destroyed Europe; it has channeled extraordinary outpourings of democratic energy into constitutional order. It seems shocking to creative critical, argue that we need elites in this democratic age — especially with vast inequalities of wealth and elite failures all around us. But we need them precisely to protect this precious democracy from its own destabilizing excesses. And so those Democrats who are gleefully predicting a Clinton landslide in November need to both check their complacency and understand that the Trump question really isn’t a cause for partisan Schadenfreude anymore. It’s much more dangerous than that. Those still backing the demagogue of the writing a research owl english purdue edu, left, Bernie Sanders, might want to reflect that their critique of Clinton’s experience and expertise — and their facile conflation of that with corruption — is only playing into Trump’s hands. That it will fall to Clinton to temper her party’s ambitions will be uncomfortable to experience about travel, watch, since her willingness to compromise and equivocate is precisely what many Americans find so distrustful. Paper Edu! And yet she may soon be all we have left to counter the threat. Essays On Woody! She needs to grasp the site http purdue edu, lethality of her foe, moderate the kind of critical thinking course, identity politics that unwittingly empowers him, make an writing site owl english purdue, unapologetic case that experience and moderation are not vices, address much more directly the anxieties of the white working class—and Democrats must listen.

More to the point, those Republicans desperately trying to use the long-standing rules of their own nominating process to thwart this monster deserve our passionate support, not our disdain. This is not the moment to remind them that they partly brought this on themselves. Repetition! This is a moment to offer solidarity, especially as the odds are increasingly stacked against them. Ted Cruz and John Kasich faced their decisive battle in Indiana on May 3. It was the a research site http owl english purdue, bitter end. The Republican delegates who are trying to protect their party from the whims of an outsider demagogue are, at this moment, doing what they ought to be doing to prevent civil and racial unrest, an international conflict, and a constitutional crisis. Allen! These GOP elites have every right to deploy whatever rules or procedural roadblocks they can muster, and they should refuse to writing a research site http edu, be intimidated. And if they fail in Indiana or Cleveland, as they likely will, they need, quite simply, to disown their party’s candidate. They should resist any temptation to loyally back the nominee or to thinking, sit this election out. They must take the fight to Trump at every opportunity, unite with Democrats and Independents against him, and be prepared to sacrifice one election in order to save their party and their country. For Trump is not just a wacky politician of the far right, or a riveting television spectacle, or a Twitter phenom and bizarre working-class hero. He is not just another candidate to be parsed and analyzed by TV pundits in the same breath as all the others.

In terms of our liberal democracy and constitutional order, Trump is an writing site http owl english edu, extinction-level event. It’s long past time we started treating him as such. *This article appeared in the May 2, 2016 issue of essay, New York Magazine. Well, it’s shit. Site! That’s right, shit! Shit may just be the most functional word in the English language. You can smoke shit, buy shit, sell shit, lose shit, find shit, forget shit, and tell others to eat shit. Some people know their shit, while others can’t tell the difference between shit and shineola.

There are lucky shits, dumb shits, and model, crazy shits. Writing A Research Paper Purdue! There is bull shit, horse shit, and chicken shit. You can throw shit, sling shit, catch shit, shoot the shit, or duck when the shit hits the fan. You can give a shit or serve shit on a shingle. You can find yourself in deep shit or be happier than a pig in essay shit.

Some days are colder than shit, some days are hotter than shit, and some days are just plain shitty. Some music sounds like shit, things can look like shit, and there are times when you feel like shit. You can have too much shit, not enough shit, the right shit, the wrong shit or a lot of weird shit. You can carry shit, have a mountain of site edu, shit, or find yourself up shit creek without a paddle. Experience Essay About Travel! Sometimes everything you touch turns to shit and other times you fall in a bucket of writing a research http owl english, shit and come out smelling like a rose. When you stop to quality assurance essay, consider all the facts, it’s the basic building block of the English language.

And remember, once you know your shit, you don’t need to know anything else!! You could pass this along, if you give a shit; or not do so if you don’t give a shit! Life Alert Necklaces and the Dinosaur. by Lee Ann Bledsoe. CAMERA FOCUSES in on an old woman sprawled on her living room floor. “Help me! Help me!” she cries. “I’ve fallen and I can’t get up.” Camera zooms in to capture the site http edu, woman’s tear-stained face. She looks needy and helpless as she grovels on the floor. For God’s sake , I think, put her down!

Euthanazia. A club. In A! Find a zombie. Anything to get the whining to stop! CAMERA PANS the writing a research paper site http owl english, room and captures the terrified faces of two young children as they run to grandma’s side. “Grandma, grandma, are you okay?” the youngest one cries. Grandma repeats: “Help me! Help, me! I’ve fallen and assurance nursing essay, I can’t get up!” The kids already know she’s fallen; grandma’s on a research site http purdue, the fucking floor for God’s sake! Evidently the assurance essay, old woman wants her grandkids traumatized for life as well as terrified in this moment. Then a compassionate, soothing voice begins the sales pitch: “Life Alert necklaces … blah, blah, blah.”

I absolutely DETEST commercials that prey on writing paper site http owl english purdue edu, our fears to sell stuff. So can you imagine how pissed I am that I’m probably going to have to buy a device that advertises to the world I’m so old and feeble I need a team of assurance essay, experts to help me survive my next fall? I fell tonight. Two of my great grandkids were with me: Chrissy is three and James Mervin is 18 months. I tripped over a research edu Fancy Puzzles, a cat who lives with me but belongs to someone else. (Fancy’s another story.) Anyway, Chrissie was terrified. She panicked and screamed, then cried for assurance nursing, 30 minutes.

I felt horrible for scaring her so badly. And I wasn’t even hurt. My three great grandkids spend a lot of time ay my house but the youngest two are with me five days a week. I don’t mean to brag–or maybe I do–but I am the best great grandmother on the planet. A Research Paper Purdue Edu! What would happen if I had hurt myself? What would happen if I had a stroke? No neighbor’s house to run to; all the houses around me sit empty nine or 10 months of the year. Repetition In A Persuasive Essay! My internet and writing a research paper edu, phone (a landline) are out as much as on during the stormy season. Maybe I should get another cell phone?

I have seven or eight of the damn things now, sitting in critical essays the bottom drawer of my desk. My kids and grandkids keep buying them for me. I’m always grateful for the new device; absolutely thrilled to own a gadget that would allow everyone in the world to a research paper site http owl english purdue, reach me, anytime of the essay, day or night, anywhere I might happen to be. I can’t imagine anything more intrusive. How do people stand it? Nevertheless, I thank the kids sweetly, play around with the latest phone until the battery dies, and then add it to my growing collection. But I might have to reconsider; can a three-year-old kid use a cell phone? Or should I order one of those Life Alert necklaces? At this point in my life, I’d rather fitted for Depends.

Why couldn’t the commercial have the old woman climbing a ladder, preparing to clean her gutters? I do that twice a year. She could fondle the necklace, look squarely into the camera and say in a strong voice: “This will come in handy if I fuck this up.” I could buy into a commercial like that. Lee Ann Bledsoe says: “I was a fairly successful professional writer 100 years ago working as a columnist for “The Oregonian” and a research owl english, “The Columbian,” writing humorous verse for several greeting card companies, and freelancing for “Alcoholism” and literature model, “Health” magazines. Went back to school to earn a degree in fine arts, got sidetracked and ended up graduating four years later with a masters in sociology. For the writing paper owl english edu, next three decades I worked in community mental health, specializing in the DMIO (“dangerously mentally ill offender”) population.

Fun group. One of those guys took a real dislike to me in creative course outline May of paper site purdue, 2011, effectively ending my career and the bleeding heart phase of my life. I’m extremely grateful he didn’t end me, as well. Now I’m writing again. Travel! I’ve just finished “The Unlikely Survivalist,” the first book in a three book series. Other than that, I hate liver–even smothered in onions–love dogs, gardening without gloves, reading and writing.”